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Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

BENDING

MOMENTS

AND

STRESS-

POINT

Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

MOMENTS

We have seen that Forces tend to accelerate bodies in a straight line. If we consider the

rotation of a body we find that

MOMENTS tend to produce ANGULAR ACCELERATIONS.

For example: If we apply a force to the end of a spanner to tighten a nut then we are

applying a turning moment to the nut. Probably you will recognise this turning

moment as an applied TORQUE.

Mathematically we define a the turning moment produced by a force at any point as

Moment force distance

The units of a moment are Nm. Clockwise moments are held to be positive or negative

depending on the convention used.

The moment applied to the nut and bolt is a Torque which twists the bolt and is given by

Torque

T F d

We shall consider the stresses produced by the application of a torque (TORSION) at a later

date.

The shaft of the spanner also experiences turning moments. For instance at the section X

X there is a different type of moment which tends to bend the shaft and this is called a

BENDING MOMENT. At the section X-X this moment is given by

Bending Moment

M F x

Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

Equilibrium

For the complete equilibrium of a body

a) The net force at all points in a body is zero.

b) The net moment at all points in a body is zero.

Consider the part of the beam between the force

F and the section X-X as a free body. For this

body to be in equilibrium there must be a moment

at X-X to react to the applied Bending Moment.

This is supplied by the tractions generated by the

stresses in the shaft. On the top surface there will

be a net tensile force and on the bottom surface

there will be a net compressive force. This

system provides the necessary moment to react

to the Bending Moment at that point. Note that

the bending moment will vary with distance along

the shaft of the spanner.

In the next section we shall see how the value of these stresses depends on the Bending

Moment.

BENDING STRESSES

Consider an element of a beam which has a vanishingly small length, dx, so that the Bending

Moment, M, on the element can be considered to be constant over the length of the element.

Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

Before the application of the moment the line NA which runs through the centroid of the

section of the beam and the line CD, a distance y above NA, have the same length.

After straining the part of the beam above NA increases in length with a resulting tensile

stress and the part of the beam below NA decreases in length and bears a compressive

stress. The line NA which is not strained is called the NEUTRAL AXIS. In particular the line

CD increases to length C'D'.

butCD NA Rand CDR y

The strain in C’D’ is given by

CDCD

CD

 R  y    R R  y R y E E R y

R

E R

y

From the above we can see that since E and R will be constants for a particular point on a

beam then the stress is proportional to the distance y from the neutral axis. The maximum

stresses will then be on the top and bottom surfaces.

Unfortunately R is difficult to predict or measure and this equation is not very useful. We

need to link the stresses to the applied moment.

Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

The figure shows a section through a beam subjected to a moment M

Consider a small strip element of area dA a distance y from the Neutral Axis. This element is

thin enough for the stress to be considered constant over the width of the element.

The force on the element is given by dA and the moment of this force about the

Neutral Axis is given by

dM y dA

so

but

E

R

y

dM

E 2

R

y

dA

The total moment M will be equal to the sum of the moments generated by all the strip

elements across the section, i.e. the integral of the elements.

We define

E

R

M

y

2

y

2 dA

dA

I

I is the SECOND MOMENT OF AREA with units of m 4 .

 Hence M  E I R or  M E y  I  R

Most usefully we have

M y

I

Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

The quantities y and I are sometimes combined into the parameter Z (= I/y) called the

SECTION MODULUS so that

M

Z

Second Moment of Area of Common Sections

Rectangular Sections

dA B dy

I

I

I

I

y

H

2

H

2

2

dA

2

y B dy

B

y

3

3

H

2

H

2

B H

3

12

For section comprised of rectangular blocks we can use the above to calculate the Second

Moment of Area.

For the section on the right

I

B H

3

12

b h

3

12

Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

Circular Sections.

I 
y
2
dA
dA  r d dr
y  r sin
I r
2
sin
2
r d dr
R
2
I
r
3
dr
sin
2
d
0
0
R
4
2
1
cos 2

I
d
4
2
0
R
4
sin2
2
I
8
2
0

I

4 R

4

4

64 D

For a circular tube we can simply subtract the contribution of the hole.

I

D

4 4

d

D

4

d

4

64 64

64

An example:

A beam with the section shown below is subjected to a moment of 30 kNm. Calculate the

greatest stress in the beam. All dimensions are in mm.

 B H 3 b h 3  12 12 0.17 m  0.21 m  3 12 6.32  10  5 m 4 M y I 30  10 3 Nm 

I

I

I

0.14

0.18

m

3

m

12

y 0.105m

0.105 m

6.32

10

49.9

MNm

2

5

m

4

Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

EXERCISES

1. Calculate the Second Moment of Area of the sections shown below. All dimensions are

in mm. Assume that the moment is applied in the vertical plane.

(1.63 x 10 -4 m 4 , 7.17 x 10 -5 m 4 , 8.82 x 10 -5 m 4 )

 2. Calculate the Second Moment of Area of a solid circular rod with a diameter of a) 50 mm. b) (i) Calculate the dimensions of a hollow rod with a wall thickness of 10 mm and with the same mass per unit length as the rod in part (a). (ii) Calculate the Second Moment of Area of the hollow rod. c) If the rods in (a) and (b) are subjected to the same Bending Moment calculate the

ratio of the maximum stresses in the rods.

3. The figure shows three beam sections which have the same cross-sectional area.

Calculate the Section Modulus for each section and find determine the greatest stress in

each section if they are subjected to a bending moment of 200 kNm

Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

4. A box section beam with the section shown is subjected to a moment of 10 kNm.

Calculate the greatest stress in the beam.

5. A beam has the cross-section shown below

a) Calculate the Second Moment of Area of the beam about the horizontal axis through

the centroid of the section.

b) If the greatest moment in the beam is 50 kNm calculate the greatest bending stress in

the beam.

c) If the yield stress of the steel is 250 MNm -2 calculate the safety factor against yielding

in the beam.

Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

Centre of Advanced Design Engineering ENG4082 Mathematics and Mechanics

 6. A hollow pipe has an external diameter of 150 mm and an internal diameter of a) 120 mm. Calculate the Second Moment of Area of the pipe section. b) If the greatest stress that the pipe can withstand is 250 MNm -2 calculate the greatest

bending moment that the pipe can bear.

7. Two beams are of the same material and the same mass per unit length.

One beam has a circular cross-section and the other has a square cross-section

Compare the Section Moduli of the two beams.

8. The cantilever shown below has a tubular cross-section and bears a concentrated load W

at the free end. If the maximum allowable stress in the cantilever is 250 MNm -2 calculate

the greatest possible value of W.

(14.5 kN)

9. The cantilever below has a hollow circular cross-section. The cantilever has an outside

diameter of 75 mm, a length of 300 mm and carries a vertical load of 10 kN at its free

end.

If the maximum allowable stress in the cantilever is 150 MNm -2 , calculate the largest

permissible internal diameter of the cantilever.