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Caribbean Studies
Internal Assessment

Research Statement: An investigation into the impact of unemployment on the residents of

Central Road, Central Village.

Candidate name: Toni-Ann Barrett

Centre: Ardenne High School
Centre No: 100005
Candidate No.: 1000050032
Territory: Jamaica


Firstly, I would like to thank God for blessing me with the strength and competence to

conduct this research. I would also like to express thanks to my teacher Mr.Malcolm who have

guided me along in completing this study and have helped me to understand the different aspects.

Id also like to express thanks to my parents who have encouraged me throughout and provided

the necessary resources to complete this project. Special thanks to my brother Zamar Barrett,

who assisted me in issuing questionnaires, and to all those who participated in the study. I would

not have been able to do it without you.


Table of Contents

Acknowledgement 2

Introduction 4
Literature Review 6
Data Collection Sources 9
Presentation of Data 11
Analysis of Data 17
Discussion of Findings 20
Conclusion 22
Limitations of the Research 23
Recommendations 24

References 25
Appendix A 26
Appendix B 27


Unemployment has been a very serious, ever-present issue within the Caribbean society;

Caribbean youth unemployment levels are reported to be among the highest in the world.

Unemployment evidently has diverse effects on the lives of individuals, which include negative

social and psychological effects and low spending power of unemployed persons. In Jamaica, the

unemployment rate stands at 13.5%. With this many people being unemployed, the country has

seen slow economic growth and development, and a high crime rate, as individuals may turn to

illegal activities to make ends meet. The researcher has chosen to research the impact of

unemployment on the residents of Central Road, Central Village. It has been noted that there is a

large percentage of unemployed persons in the Central Road area, especially from the youth

cohort. Central Road is an inner city district and has a population of around 500, with a majority

of these residents being at the age of work. However, there is a noticeable pattern of

unemployment among Central Road residents, in terms of possible causes and the negative

effects it has on residents, this research will further investigate these issues. The research

problem aims to use a sample of the Jamaican population to highlight the issue of unemployment

in the Caribbean and to meet the following objectives:

1). To identify the reasons residents of Central Road, Central Village are unemployed

2). To examine what age group is most affected by unemployment

3). To explain the effects that unemployment has on the socio-economic aspects of the lives of

residents in Central Road, Central Village

By doing this research, the researcher will satisfy the requirements of the CAPE

Caribbean Studies Syllabus and the Internal Assessment. The researcher will also develop and

use critical reading/writing skills and data collection and analysis skills to draw conclusions from

the study. The issue of unemployment in the Caribbean will also be further understood by the

researcher and add to the knowledge base of other individuals regarding the topic. Data collected

may be added to the database of the Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN), and can be used by

the government to develop further programmes and initiatives to curb the issue of unemployment

within the country.

Definition of key terms:

- Unemployment: the condition of being unemployed (Collins Students Dictionary for the

Caribbean, 2006)
- Socio-economic: Of or involving economic and social factors (Collins Students

Dictionary for the Caribbean, 2006)

- Labour force: the total number of people who are eligible to work (including employed

and unemployed people) (of a country, the world, etc) (Collins Students Dictionary for

the Caribbean, 2006)

- Underemployed: not fully or adequately employed (Collins Students Dictionary for the

Caribbean, 2006)
- Frictional unemployment: those people who are in the process of moving from one job to

another and who therefore appear in the unemployment statistics collected at any given

time. (Collins Students Dictionary for the Caribbean, 2006)

Literature Review

Unemployment and underemployment are very big issues globally, but are especially so in
the Caribbean, as the Caribbean poses the highest youth unemployment rates in the world. In
Jamaica, almost two-thirds of underemployed persons fall in the 25 to 44 age range, and almost
another 40% is unemployed (Forbes 2015). An article posted in The Gleaner by Makyn, (2016)
states that Jamaica's unemployment rate is at 13.5 % with youth unemployment above 30

According to Pantin (1996), many factors contribute to these high levels of unemployment

within the Caribbean society. Some of which are the issues of: Wealth/Income/Social Class, in

that some people cannot afford job training to begin with, the factor of educational status,

disabled persons not being able to access jobs and job training programmes, as well as the failure

of the economy to provide sufficient jobs especially in preferred areas. Pantin also states that

certain people are more at risk for unemployment, these individuals are predominantly male, 15-

19/21, come from dysfunctional family and community backgrounds, and have only some

secondary education (incomplete) or little formal education and ascribe to subcultures marked by

substance abuse and criminal activity. Many of these factors have been observed among Central

Road residents, and so, it is practical to further research these causes within the district and the

occurrence of such.

These views are also corroborated by In's and Out's of Youth Unemployment (2010), which

also presents additional causes of unemployment. Some of which are geographical

unemployment, frictional unemployment, underground economy i.e., there are unofficial jobs for

people to take (some of which may be illegal) and hysteresis. As defined by Investopedia, Online


...hysteresis arises when a single disturbance affects the course of the economy. An example

of hysteresis in economics is the delayed effects of unemployment. As unemployment

increases, more people adjust to a lower standard of living. As they become accustomed to

the lower standard of living, people may not be as determined to achieve the previously

desired higher living standard. In addition, as more people become unemployed, it becomes

more socially acceptable to be or remain unemployed. After the labor market returns to

normal, some unemployed people may be disinterested in returning to the work force

. Unemployment has various social and economic effects on the lives of individuals. It may

be difficult for unemployed persons to supply their basic needs and for household maintenance.

Those with family responsibilities cannot take care of their families as well as they should and

are unable to send their children to school. To further complicate the situation, the longer the

individual is out of a job the more difficult it becomes to find one. Employers find employment

gaps as a negative aspect. Unemployed persons usually have to depend on others for some

amount of money for their daily living, or money from the government, such as P.A.T.H.E in

Jamaica. This money, however, may only be a little from what friends and family can afford to

spare, and may not adequately suffice.

According to Shamir (1986), being unemployed also has mental effects on individuals, such

as the development of mental health issues like depression, hopelessness, inadequateness and

low self-esteem. This agrees with another study by McKee-Ryan, Song, Wanberg, & Kinicki

(2005) which found that compared to stably employed workers, those who have lost their jobs

have significantly poorer mental health, lower life satisfaction, less marital or family satisfaction,

and poorer subjective physical health. Quarrels and arguments at home may also arise through

feelings of frustration and restlessness. Skilled individuals may eventually lose their

skills/training due to inadequate usage.

A study done by Dooley& Prause (2004) showed that unemployment is associated with

decreased self-esteem, increased alcohol use, and elevated rates of depression.There is a stigma

associated with being unemployed, many may look on unemployed persons as worthless lazy

etc, this added discrimination makes it harder for unemployed persons, and also affects


Therefore, one will seek to ascertain the causes of unemployment and the effects of

unemployment among respondents of my area of study, as well as the age group most affected.

Questions will be developed to see if the findings of this research agree with or presents a

conflict with existing literature, and may provide additional information to develop theories

associated with unemployment. This study should provide a narrower scope on how this

phenomenon affects this small group of people, which may not have been adequately researched

and/or represented in previous studies.

Data Collection Sources

The researcher, in conducting an investigation into the impact of unemployment on the

residents of Central Road, Central Village chose to use both quantitative (interview) and

qualitative (questionnaire) methods of research as primary sources to collect data. Secondary

sources such as online articles and journals were used in the literature review, to develop a

background from which questions may be based in order to complete the study. Information

gathered from the secondary sources allowed the researcher to better be able to understand the

issues being researched, and help with the analysis of the research findings.

Primary sources are first-hand information on an issue, and is closest to the issue being

studied. One of the sources used is a questionnaire. A questionnaire is a method of enquiry in

which a collection of both open-ended and close-ended questions are handed out to respondents,

in order to get feedback based on specific objectives. A questionnaire was chosen as it is

practical, cost-effective and not very time consuming. The results of the questionnaire can also

be easily quantified, and can be analysed more scientifically and objectively.

A sample population of 50 individuals was used to represent unemployed residents, 26

males and 24 females. The questionnaires were issued and collected on February 20, 2016.

Several persons were used to ensure reliability in data collection; reliability is concerned with

issues of stability and consistency in research findings. Participants were selected using random

sampling, whereby the researcher selects a representative sample of a population, in which every

member of the unemployed population in the area has the same chance of being selected. As

such, the researcher feels that the findings are likely to be a true reflection of the issue being

researched, and allows for the researcher to generalize findings. Some drawbacks to using this

method are there is no way to tell how truthful a respondent is being, respondents also may not

have been able to completely express their thoughts and perceptions given the specific questions.

The researcher followed ethical guidelines in issuing questionnaires such as honestly

stating the purpose of the research, anonymity and confidentiality. These were stated on the

question paper, and respondents were instructed to read this statement before responding, in

order to make an informed consent.


Interviews were also conducted. An interview is a conversational exchange between the

researcher and selected person(s), it is a qualitative method of research. An interview was chosen

as it is useful to obtain detailed views and perceptions on the specific issue and ambiguity can

also be easily cleared up. The persons interviewed were not among the sample population, but

politicians within the community. A total of 4 interviews were conducted in order to establish a

pattern in responses and to reason the responses without generalizing.

Both the questionnaire and interview asked specific questions targeting the research

objectives. Answers given should allow the researcher to determine the causes of unemployment

among Central Road residents and the effects unemployment has on the lives of residents, and to

relate the findings to previous studies. Residents were also prompted to suggest ways in which

the problem of unemployment could be lessened. The data will be presented and analyzed using

graphic and tabular methods..

Presentation of Data

Figure 1: Gender of respondents


Table 1: Age group of respondents

Age group No. of individuals

19-25 23
26-35 14
36-45 6
46-60 7

Figure 2: Pie chart showing respondents who have a completed secondary level education

Secondary education completed

No; 28%

Yes; 72%

Yes No

Figure 3: Pie chart showing number of individuals who have attained training/ education above

the secondary level


Education/Training above secondary level

Yes No



Figure 4: Bar graph showing the length of time in which respondents have been unemployed

No. of years unemployed




No. of individuals 15 26


5 7 5 6
2 4
<1 year 1-3 years 4-5years 6-7 years 8-9 years >10 years

No. of years

No. of years unemployed

Figure 5: Pie chart showing various reason for unemployment


Reasons for Unemployment

Termination from workplace; 10%
No interest in finding a job; 7%

Other; 53%

Underqualified; 27%

Disabled; 3%

Termination from workplace No interest in finding a job Underqualified

Disabled Other

Table 2: Number of persons seeking employment

Persons seeking employment

Yes No
36 14

Figure 6: Pie chart showing how unemployed persons fund their expenses

How Individuals Fund their expenses

Other; 10%
Savings; 23%

Money from family/friends; 40%

Remittances; 27%

Savings Remittances
Money from family/friends Loans

Figure 7: Picture showing whether individuals face difficulties due to their unemployment or not

40 out of 50 individuals indicated that they are facing difficulties due to their state of

unemployment, the other 10 are not facing difficulties due to their unemployment.

Figure 8: Checklist showing how being unemployed affects individuals

Difficulty funding basic needs (73%)

Depending on others for money (69%)

Feelings of depression/hopelessness/low self-esteem (34%)

Quarrels and arguments at home (26%)

Separation from loved ones/ breakdown of relationships (30%)

Loss of skill (29%)

Difficulty attaining a new job (41%)

Discrimination (37%)

Many of the respondents selected more than one of the effects of unemployment on their lives

Figure 9: Individuals suggestion on what can be done to lessen unemployment

100% of individuals felt that more

could be done by the government and other entities to provide more jobs.

Figure 9: Dialogue boxes showing responses from various interviews on ways in which
unemployment can be curbed within the community

What do you think can be done to curb

this pattern of unemployment among
Central Road residents?

Get them empowered, get them trained, create opportunities for them to
be employed, in whatever area or field. Once they are trained, they are
able to go and seek jobs. I am not saying that all will get, but once they
are trained they have a skill, they have education so they are able to go
and seek jobs. I think that is the main thing, to be educated and trained so
they are able to go out and get gainful employment.

I think they need to get themselves qualified, so that they can get
employed in various fields to make their lives better. There is Wysinco
nearby and Lasco, big establishments, and Ashtrom across the street,
and the youths are not qualified enough to get employment in these

Basically, what we need to do most of all is get the residents into some
form of training to have them be more competitive in the job market,
because many of them are really just underqualified. It would be nice if
more job opportunities could be created for unskilled persons. But as it
is, we just really need to get them trained.

Analysis of Data

In exploring the age groups of unemployed persons in the area, it was noted that 46% of

respondents were between the 19-25 age group, 28% in the 26-35 age group, and 12% and 14%

in the 36-45 and 46-60 age group respectively follow this. This shows that unemployment is a

more prominent issue among the youth cohort in the community. Most of these individuals have

been unemployed since completing secondary education and have not matriculated to a higher

level of education or training. This agrees with those interviewed, who stated an average of most

unemployed persons ranging from ages 18-30. 72% of respondents have completed a secondary

level education, and 58% of that amount have moved on to higher education or training. An

anomaly was observed as not all those who claimed to have completed higher studies/training

were able to indicate what qualifications they have. Only 71% that have higher qualifications

indicated such. This question may not have been answered due to misinterpretation or

unwillingness to respond.

52% have been unemployed for a period of 1-3 years, a majority of these individuals fall

between the 19-25 age group and have not been employed since completing their secondary

education. 10% have been unemployed for a period of 4-6 years, some of these individuals also

have not been employed since leaving school, and few have been previously employed but have

lost their jobs. 12% of respondents have been unemployed for over 10 years, these individuals

were among the oldest set of individuals, and have been unemployed since the closing down of a

major factory many years ago. These individuals have no other training outside of the work they

did in the factory and so, have been unable to find work elsewhere. 10% of respondents are

unemployed because of termination from workplace, these individuals may have subsequently

become uninterested in finding a job or may have difficulty finding work due to a poor

employment record or lack of skills in other areas. 6.7% selected no interest in finding a job as

their reason for being unemployed, these individuals are either seeking to pursue further

schooling or job training, or are content with their current lifestyle. 26.7% of respondents are

unemployed due to being underqualified. These individuals have not left secondary school with

necessary requirements and have no other training to be competitive in the job market. Another

anomaly was observed here as 42% have completed secondary education only, but only 26.7%

indicated being underqualified as their reason for being unemployed. These individuals possibly

believe that this may be adequate for the jobs they are seeking, which is not always so. They see

themselves as being adequately qualified. A trend was also observed here as the majority of those

who have not completed a secondary education are those who selected underqualified as their

reason for unemployment.

Only 3.3%, which is one person indicated that they are unemployed due to a disability.

This disability may create problems in them commuting or may just prevent them from being

efficient in the workplace, and so they remain unemployed. 53.3% indicated other, and listed no

jobs available or cant get no work as their reason. It is true that opportunities for employment

are limited in Jamaica, however, these respondents may remain blind to the idea that they are

unable to get sought after jobs simply because they are underqualified. The responses given by

the politicians in the interviews all agree that the major cause of unemployment among residents

is lack of training and being otherwise underqualified.

70% of respondents have been actively seeking employment. From this, it can be seen

that individuals want to work, but cannot due to certain circumstances, as one politician

expressed they want to work but they dont have the necessary training to take on certain jobs.

The 30% that have not been seeking employment have varying reasons including responsibilities

at home, wanting to go back to school and the realization that it will be difficult to get work

because they are unemployed, among others.

Being unemployed, individuals are in most cases not sourcing an income of their own.

23.3% of respondents source money through savings which they may have had from being

previously employed or otherwise accumulated. 26.7% get money through remittances, 40% of

individuals get money from family and friends and 10% fund their expenses via other means.

None of the respondents take loans, as they may be aware that they have no promised income to

repay their debt and so avoid taking loans. 16.7% expressed that they are not facing difficulties

due to their state of unemployment. These individuals who claim to not be facing any difficulties

may be ignorant to how their dependence on others may affect the other persons involved, and

so, remain content with their current state. Some of them may also be exposed only to a certain

standard of living, and so, accept their poor economic status as normal. Another anomaly was

observed here as these same individuals, indicated several issues being faced in a following

question. Many of those who state they are facing difficulties explained that its due to the fact

that they have to be dependent on others. Others said that they find it difficult because they cant

find money for the things they need. They also indicated the similar and additional difficulties

from the list provided.

A popular suggestion among residents for a way in which government and employers

could lessen unemployment is that government should build more factories to create more jobs.

They are of the belief that not enough jobs are available for people with their level of

qualification, and as such, creating more jobs that dont require a skill should solve the problem.

Politicians believe that jobs are available but the residents in Central Village are simply

underqualified to get them and training them would give them a better opportunity.

Discussion of Findings

Various literature coincides with the findings of this investigation into the causes and

effects of unemployment on residents in Central Road. The causes of unemployment in Central

Road include under qualification, no interest in finding a job, disability, frictional unemployment

and the idea that there are no jobs available. Underqualified individuals may not have been able

to get trained or pursue further formal education due to not being able to afford it. Which agrees

with the reasons for unemployment put forward by Pantin (1996) which are the issues of

Wealth/Income/Social class; some people cannot afford job training to begin with, disabled

persons not being able to get jobs and job training, as well as the failure of the economy to

provide sufficient jobs especially in preferred areas. Frictional unemployment is also a reason, as

some respondents are unemployed due to being terminated from their workplace and are in

between jobs.

Some respondents are often cyclically employed, as they indicated that they fund their

expenses doing various odd jobs when they are available. The study also found that a few

persons were unemployed due to unofficial jobs in the underground economy, as individuals

mentioned hustling as their way of funding their expenses, which supports Ins and Outs of

Youth Unemployment (2010). Findings of the study did not suggest that the residents of Central

Village are unemployed due to geographical reasons, as Central Village is located near to several

major cities, Spanish Town, Kingston and Portmore, where many business places are located.

Pantin (1996) found that there is a higher risk group of individuals ranging from ages 15-

19/21. The researcher observed that this is somewhat true in Central Road as the highest

percentage of unemployed was from the 19-25 age group, which intersects with the age group

put forward by Pantin. Pantin also stated other characteristics of this high-risk group, such as

coming from dysfunctional family and community backgrounds, having only some secondary

education (incomplete) or little formal education and ascribe to subcultures marked by substance

abuse and criminal activity. These factors are supported by this study as majority of the

respondents do smoke or use some type of drug, only a few have not completed secondary

education, and even less have further education/training. Central Road has been observed as

dysfunctional due to various gang related activities and wars in the district over the years.

.The socio-economic effects of unemployment on Central Road residents include

Difficulty funding basic needs, depending on others for money, feelings of

depression/hopelessness/low self-esteem, quarrels and arguments at home, breakdown of

relationships, loss of skill, difficulty attaining a new job and discrimination. Residents also stated

that they can only sometimes afford necessities and no leisure. This agrees with studies done by

Shamir (1986), McKee-Ryan, Song, Wanberg, & Kinicki (2005) and Dooley& Prause (2004),

which found these same effects of unemployment.

Entities that may be interested in these results include the Government of Jamaica,

Statistical Institute of Jamaica, employment agencies, educational institutions and other

researchers. The findings of this study may contribute to further studies being conducted in the

area by providing statistics to the researcher and develop their understanding of the problem,

whether it be for academic purposes or otherwise. New research may be inspired which might

seek to further understand this phenomenon within the community and take steps to curb



In general it was noted that the majority of unemployed residents of Central Road,

Central Village range between the 19-25 age group. These individuals share common causes of

unemployment such as being underqualified, and not being able to find jobs due to the current

state of the economy, among other reasons which are not so commonly shared among residents

such as disability, no interest in finding a job and cases of frictional unemployment. It was also

noted that unemployment affects the way in which individuals are able to enjoy a certain

standard of living. In that, they have to depend on others for money and are unable to afford

necessities, and at times when they can actually buy what is needed they cannot afford to enjoy

much more than food. They face issues of discrimination, poor mental health and great

difficulties when unexpected expenses arise, and generally feel the government can do more to

provide jobs.

Limitations of the Research

A small sample size was used in investigating the causes and effects of unemployment on

residents of Central Road, Central Village. This may not have been able to adequately gather

information in order to make generalisations about the impact of unemployment in the area.

Also, Central Road being a small district, enough data was not collected to make reasonable

conclusions about the unemployment phenomena in Jamaica, as the dynamics of each

community across the island is different. Data collection methods were effective in gathering

needed quantitative and qualitative data. However, there may be issues with validity as

individuals may not have been honest in answering questions, or may have misunderstood some



Not only does unemployment within a society affect the individuals, but it also affects the

economy of that country. As such, measures should be taken to reduce the incidence of

unemployment, which would improve the quality of life of individuals and by extent the overall

health of the economy. A method which could be used to curb unemployment is engaging youth

in job training programmes, which would create more competent, qualified individuals in the

labour force which can actually contribute to various fields. These programmes should be made

easily accessible to all members of society; this could be achieved through being inexpensive and

being in many locations, for lower travel costs and to further encourage participation.

Government should also encourage more labour-intensive production in some industries,

which would employ more human capital than machinery. Agriculture is a major industry in

which much human capital is needed, and should be further developed and encouraged.

The government may not be able to just provide jobs or build more factories which is the

option that seems to be more satisfying to unemployed citizens, so another strategy to curb

unemployment would be to encourage entrepreneurship. With more youths seeking to create

their own businesses they will provide employment for themselves and will also provide jobs for

others. These now employed individuals will now be able to provide income to the government

in the form of taxes, thus further improving the economy. Through this, the government may also

be able to better provide jobs, and to better sustain individuals who remain unemployed. The

growth of the population should also be checked to solve the unemployment problem. Family

planning programmes should be implemented widely and effectively.



Forbes. M., (2015) Caribbean Journal, volume: Caribbean Youth and Unemployment.

Makyn, Ricardo (2016, February 18) Inside the Manifesto: JLP Moots Growth Triangle To

Drive Job Creation. The Gleaner.

McKee-Ryan. F, Song. Z, Wanberg. C, & Kinicki. A (2005) Psychological and Physical Well-

Being During Unemployment: A Meta Analytic Study

Pantin. D, (1996) The Challenge of Youth Unemployment in the Caribbean: the Role of Youth

Employment Training Programmes, volume: 1,

Shamir, B. (1986). Self-Esteem and the Psychological Impact of Unemployment. Social

Psychology Quarterly, 49(1), 6172

In's and Out's of Youth Unemployment [web log comment] retrieved from


Appendix A: Interview Questions

1. Do you think unemployment is a major issue among residents of Central Road, Central

Village? Why?
2. What age group is most affected by unemployment?
3. What would you say are the most common causes of unemployment among Central Road

4. In what ways would you say unemployment affect residents economically?
5. In what ways would you say unemployment affect residents socially?
6. Do you think enough training facilities are in place to provide residents with necessary

skills and competence to find work?

7. What do you think can be done to curb this pattern of unemployment among Central

Road residents?

Appendix B: Questionnaire

This questionnaire is being conducted solely for the purpose of the CAPE Caribbean Studies
Internal Assessment which is a requirement for the completion of the syllabus. The research
statement is An investigation into the impact of unemployment on the residents of Central Road,
Central Village'.
Please place a tick in the appropriate boxes provided. Or state answers to questions on the lines

1). Gender [ ]M [ ]F

2). Age [ ] 19-25 [ ] 26-35 [ ] 36-45 [ ] 46-60

3). Do you have a completed level of secondary education? Yes [ ] No [ ]

4). Have you acquired any form of training or education above the secondary level?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

If yes, please indicate

Associate's Degree [ ]

Bachelor's Degree [ ]

Job Training Programme (eg. H.E.A.R.T TRUST N.T.A) [ ]

Other __________________________________________

5). Do you smoke and/or use any form of drugs? Yes [ ] No [ ]

6), Are you employed? Yes [ ] No [ ]

7). How long have you been unemployed? ___________________________________________


8). What is the reason for your unemployment?

Termination from workplace [ ]

No interest in finding a job [ ]

Underqualified [ ]

Disabled [ ]

Other ___________________________

9). Have you been seeking employment?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

If yes, state places of job application


If no, state reason


10). Have you gotten any feedback from these institutions? Yes [ ] No [ ]

If yes, please state feedback


11). How do you fund your expenses?

Savings [ ] Remittances [ ] Money from family/friends [ ] Loans [ ]

Other ________________________________

12). Would you say you are facing difficulties due to your state of unemployment?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

Explain _____________________________________________________________________


13). How does being unemployed affect you? Select any of the following options that relate to

you (Tick all that apply, may be more than one)

Difficulty funding basic needs [ ]

Depending on others for money [ ]

Feelings of depression/hopelessness/low self-esteem [ ]

Quarrels and arguments at home [ ]

Separation from loved ones/ breakdown of relationships [ ]

Loss of skill [ ]

Difficulty attaining a new job [ ]

Discrimination [ ]

14). Do you think greater efforts could be made on the part of the government and employers to

provide jobs? Yes [ ] No [ ]

Explain ______________________________________________________________________