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I.

Experiment: 3

II. Title of the Experiment: Three- Component Systems

III. Objectives of the Experiment

To be able to
To be able to graph a ternary phase diagram of the system.
To be able to determine where the solution will have two or one phase using the phase diagram.

IV. Brief Discussion about the Experimental Procedure

At the start of the experiment, certain preparations were done to aid in the calculations and the discussion of the results.
Through weighing a certain volume of each reagent, the density of toluene, acetic acid, and water were calculated at the
temperature where the experiment was held. The density of the reagents where obtained to calculate the mass and the amount of
moles of each mixture after the experiment. The amount of moles of the reagents are essential in the later part of the experiment
in order to graph the phase diagram.

Different solutions are then prepared in the experiment which was placed in a test tube. In the first part of the
experiment, various solutions of varying ratios of toluene and acetic acid are done and was titrated with water. The expected end
point is when a faint turbidity appears in the solution inside the test tube. The faint turbidity displayed by the solutions shows that
the solutions are now having two phases instead of one. The amount of water which caused the solutions to have two phases were
then recorded. The same procedure was done in the second part of the experiment as various solutions of acetic acid and water
with varying ratios are titrated with toluene. Still, the amount of toluene needed to change the phase of the solution into was
recorded.

The mass of each reagent used were then calculated through their density and volume. These mass are then converted
into amount of moles and the mole fraction were calculated. The mole fractions were then used to graph the phase diagram.
Certain cases were recorded where there is no need to add the third reagent because the initial solution is already having two
phases. Also, some cases occurred where no amount of third reagent could change the number of phases of the solution.

V. Outline of the Procedure, schematic diagrams of set-up

Determination of density of each sample (water, toluene and acetic acid)

Pipette 20 mL of Determine the


Measure the weight Calculate the weight
water, toluene and density of the
of sample conical of the sample by
acetic acid sample samples with weight
flask in an analytical difference
in a pre-weighed difference and 20
balance
conical flask mL volume

Measure 9 mL Record the


Use nine clean, dry toluene and 1 mL volume of
100 ml conical acetic acid into Titrate each using water used
flasks and label flask 1, 8 mL water until faint
each toluene and 2 mL turbidity
acetic acid etc. appears.
Measure 9 mL
of water and 1
Wash cleanly and mL acetic acid Titrate each Record the volume
compress the into flask 1, carefully with of toluene used
labelled conical 8mL of water toluene until faint turbidity
flasks and 2 mL of appears.
acetic acid into
flask 2 and etc.

VI. Tabulated Results

Mass of 20 mL toluene (A): Density of toluene (A):


Mass of 20 mL acetic acid (B): Density of acetic acid (B):
Mass of 20 mL water (C): Density of water (C):

Volume (mL) Mass (g) Mole


Toluene (A) Acetic Acid (B) Water ( C ) Toluene (A) Acetic Acid (B) Water ( C ) Toluene (A) Acetic Acid (B
1a 9 1 0 7.617 1.0338 0 0.083 0.0172
2a 8 2 0.1 6.771 2.0680 0.097 0.0736 0.0345
3a 7 3 0.2 5.924 3.1010 0.195 0.064 0.0520
4a 6 4 0.3 5.0781 4.1351 0.2918685 0.0552 0.0689
5a 5 5 0.55 4.23175 5.1688 0.5350923 0.0460 0.0861
6a 4 6 0.65 3.3854 6.2026 0.6323818 0.0368 0.1034
7a 3 7 1.1 2.53905 7.2364 1.0701845 0.0276 0.1206
8a 2 8 1.25 1.6927 8.2701 1.2161188 0.0184 0.1378
9a 1 9 3.5 0.84635 9.3039 3.4051325 0.0092 0.1551

1b 0.3 1 9 0.253905 1.0338 8.756055 0.0028 0.0172


2b 0.4 2 8 0.33854 2.0675 7.78316 0.0037 0.0345
3b 0.2 3 7 0.16927 3.1013 6.810265 0.0018 0.0517
4b 0.2 4 6 0.16927 4.1351 5.83737 0.0018 0.06892
5b 0.5 5 5 0.423175 5.1688 4.864475 0.0046 0.0861
6b 0.7 6 4 0.592445 6.2026 3.89158 0.0064 0.1034
7b 0.7 7 3 0.592445 7.2364 2.918685 0.0064 0.1206
8b 2 8 2 1.6927 8.2701 1.94579 0.0184 0.1378
9b 0 9 1 0 9.3039 0.972895 0 0.1551

VII. Calculations
From Trial 1

Sample density for water

mass liq .mass beaker with liq .mass beaker

mass liq .110.811893.8848

mass liq .16.927

mass liq
density
volume liq
16.927 g

20 ml

density0.84635 gml

Sample mass & mol. of toluene

At 9 ml toluene & 1 ml acetic acid

0.84635 g
mass toluene9 ml
1ml

mass toluene7.61715 g .

1mol
mol toluene7.61715 g
92 g

mol toluene0.0827 mol

Mol. fraction for toluene

Let x(a) = mol. of toluene

x(b) = mol. of acetic acid

x(c) = mol. of water

x(aa) = mol. fraction of toluene

xa
x aa
x ax bx c

0.082795109
x aa
0.0827951090.0172294170

x aa0.827748079

VII. Discussion of Results

After the experiment, the densities of each reagent were calculated. The density calculated for water is 0.9729 g/mL.
The densities of each acetic acid and toluene are 1.0338 and 0.8464 g/mL respectively. Using these densities, masses and the
amount of moles needed to create a two-phase solution are calculated. With this amount of moles, the mole fractions for each trial
were calculated. These mole fractions are graph into a ternary phase diagram as shown below.

As seen, the line of best fit for the phase diagram was emphasized. The regions where a solution would have a single or
two phase could be identified.

Sources of error in this experiment could be blamed at human error. This experiment surely needs a lot of accuracy in
each measurement. Slight mishaps in the calculated density could put off the mole fractions away from the right value. In the
titrations, the experimenters are dealing with small amount of liquids. Some of the titrated liquid only used up less than one mL
which a small deviation could deviate the graph from its accurate form.

X. Personal Insights

This experiment made the experimenters to remember the importance of patience in every activity. Even to the
weighing of the reagents up to the titration, the patience of the experimenters was put to test in order for them to obtain an
accurate value. While weighing the reagents, the experimenters took a while to record the mass as the analytical balance takes
time to stabilize. In the titration, the experimenters should be patient in every drop of liquid coming from the burette as a single
mishap could deviate the data from the correct one. It could be observable that patience is very essential in this experiment. No
part of the experiment should be done in haste. The experimenters could use this learning in everyday life. From the busy streets
to the long queue, they should be patient in our surrounding. The experimenters should not act hastily so that they can overtake
others but take their time efficiently to produce significant results. Likewise, in their studies, the experimenters should have
patience to learn and not give up easily.