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# http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/teach_res/jp/fluids/wfluids.htm

### 1

Why do some liquids
splash more?
2

Z
Assumptions
L!
X
A viscous ﬂuid"
stationary wall"

# plate moves with speed v!

Z
L!
X
Viscous ﬂuid will ﬂow"
Q: Direction?
Q: Highest speeds?
Q: Lowest speeds?
stationary wall"
A useful model:
plate moves with speed v!
Newtonian fluids
water, most gases
v
x = v!
high speed"
Z
linear
velocity
L!
v x !
X
d
low speed"
v
x = 0"
stationary wall"

# plate exerts force F!

Newtonian fluids
over area A"
shear "
velocity
is proportional to
stress"
(F/A) = η (v / L)
stationary wall"

DEMO

13

# of the law."

What happens to the velocity proﬁle when a "
Newtonian ﬂuid ﬂows through a pipe?"
Parabolic "
velocity"
proﬁle"
DEMO

# Cohesive forces between molecules ⇒ layers of ﬂuid slide past each other generating frictional forces ⇒ energy dissipated (like rubbing hands together) "

### 15

What causes a fluid to flow through a pipe?
A useful model: Poiseuilleʼs Law: "
laminar ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid through a pipe "
parabolic
velocity proﬁle"
η!
2R!
p 1"
p 2"
Q = dV/dt!
L!
volume ﬂow rate!

Volume Flow rate

η!
Δp
"
Q = dV/dt!
L!

# The pattern of flow is no longer smooth and stable but becomes irregular and chaotic. A complex flow pattern changes continuously with time. The velocity of the particles at each given point varies chaotically with time.

Eddies absorb a great deal of energy due their rotational
kinetic energy. "
23
Turbulence dissipates energy.

30

# R e= 3x10 -5

31

## (R e< 2000)"

### Flow of a viscous newtonain fluid through a pipe Velocity Profile

Cohesive f orces
bet ween m olecules ⇒
layers of f luid slide past
each other generating
f rictional f orces ⇒
energy dissipated (like
rubbing hands together)
Parabolic velocit y
prof ile