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Fluid dynamics - viscosity and turbulent flow

Fluid statics

What is a fluid? Density ! Pressure! Fluid pressure and depth Pascal’s principle •Buoyancy Archimedes’ principle

Fluid dynamics! Reynolds number Equation of continuity! Bernoulli’s principle Viscosity and turbulent flow Poiseuille’s equation

Lecture 6 Dr Julia Bryant

web notes:

Fluidslect6.pdf

viscosity.pdf

http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/teach_res/jp/fluids/wfluids.htm

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Why do some liquids splash more? 2
Why do some liquids
splash more?
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Why do cars need different oils in hot and cold countries?

Why do engines run more freely as it heats up?

Have you noticed that skin lotions are easier to pour in summer than winter?

Why is honey sticky?

When real fluids flow they have a certain internal friction called viscosity. It exists in both liquids and gases and is essentially a frictional force between different layers of fluid as they move past one another.

In liquids the viscosity is due to the cohesive forces between the molecules whilst in gases the viscosity is due to collisions between the molecules.

“VISCOSITY IS DIFFERENT TO DENSITY”

A useful model

plate!

Z Assumptions L! X A viscous fluid" stationary wall"
Z
Assumptions
L!
X
A viscous fluid"
stationary wall"

A useful model

plate moves with speed v!

A useful model plate moves with speed v ! Z L! X Viscous fluid will flow"
Z L! X Viscous fluid will flow" Q: Direction? Q: Highest speeds? Q: Lowest speeds? stationary
Z
L!
X
Viscous fluid will flow"
Q: Direction?
Q: Highest speeds?
Q: Lowest speeds?
stationary wall"
A useful model: plate moves with speed v! Newtonian fluids water, most gases v x =
A useful model:
plate moves with speed v!
Newtonian fluids
water, most gases
v
x = v!
high speed"
Z
linear
velocity
L!
v x !
X
gradient"
d
low speed"
v
x = 0"
stationary wall"

A useful model:

plate exerts force F!

A useful model: plate exerts force F ! Newtonian fluids over area A" shear " velocity
Newtonian fluids over area A" shear " velocity is proportional to stress" gradient" (F/A) = η
Newtonian fluids
over area A"
shear "
velocity
is proportional to
stress"
gradient"
(F/A) = η (v / L)
stationary wall"

(F/A) = η (v / L)

η =

(F / A)(L / v)

coefficient of viscosity η (Greek letter eta).

The greater the coefficient of viscosity η, the

greater the force required to move the plate at

a velocity v.

This relationship does not hold for all fluids.

Viscous fluids that obey this equation are

called Newtonian fluids and η = constant

When η does depend upon the velocity of flow the fluids are called non-Newtonian or rheological fluids.

Blood is an example of a non-newtonian mixture because it contains corpuscles and other suspended particles. The corpuscles can deform and become preferentially oriented so that the viscosity decreases to maintain the flow rate.

Corn flour and water mixture is another non-Newtonian fluid. Certain soils (more clay content) are non-Newtonian when moist to wet.

When η does depend upon the velocity of flow the fluids are called non-Newtonian or rheological

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Viscosity

SI unit is (N.m -2 )(m).(m -1 .s) Pa.s

A common unit is the poise P (1 Pa.s = 10 P)

Fluid

η (mPa.s)

water (0 °C)

1.8

water (20 °C)

1.0

water (100 °C)

0.3

Glycerine (20 °C)

1490

white blood (37 °C)

~4

blood plasma (37 °)

~1.5

engine oil (AE10)

~ 200

air

0.018

Beer

1.32 - 2.20 (av. 1.57)

η =

(F / A)(L / v)

DEMO
DEMO

Viscosity is very temperature dependent.

Viscosity of a liquid decreases with increasing

temperature.

Viscosity of a gas increases with increasing

temperature.

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Why can't you simply remove dust just by

blowing across a surface?

Why does dust cling to a fast rotating fan?

How can a leaf stay on a car moving at high

speed?

Boundary layer

When a fluid moves over a surface, there is a thin layer of the

fluid near the surface which is nearly at rest. This thin layer is called the boundary layer.

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Flow through a pipe"

The rate of flow through a pipe is described by

Poiseuilleʼs law."

The derivation of this law is beyond this course

but we will discuss the motivation for the form

of the law."

What happens to the velocity profile when a " Newtonian fluid flows through a pipe?" Flow
What happens to the velocity profile when a "
Newtonian fluid flows through a pipe?"
Flow rate ∝ radius R
Parabolic "
velocity"
profile"
DEMO
DEMO

Adhesive forces between fluid and surface " fluid stationary at surface"

Cohesive forces between molecules layers of fluid slide past each other generating frictional forces energy dissipated (like rubbing hands together) "

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What causes a fluid to flow through a pipe? A useful model: Poiseuilleʼs Law: " laminar
What causes a fluid to flow through a pipe?
A useful model: Poiseuilleʼs Law: "
laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid through a pipe "
parabolic
velocity profile"
η!
2R!
p 1"
p 2"
Q = dV/dt!
L!
volume flow rate!

Δp = p 1 - p 2"

Assumptions

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We can guess that:

the bigger the pressure difference, the

higher the flow

flow rate ∝ Δp

the longer the pipe, the greater the

friction

flow rate 1/L

the more viscous the liquid, the lower

the flow

flow rate 1/η

Volume Flow rate
Volume Flow rate

dt!

A useful model: Poiseuilleʼs Law:"

Q = dV = Δp π R 4"

8 η L!

2 R !
 
 

2R!

2 R !
 
η! Δp " Q = dV/dt! L!
η!
Δp
"
Q = dV/dt!
L!

p 1 > p 2 pressure drop along pipe "

energy dissipated (thermal) by friction

between streamlines moving past each other"

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Poiseuilleʼs Law is only applicable to "

laminar flow (not turbulent flow) in "

Newtonian fluids (viscosity is

independent of the speed v, and the

force is proportional to the speed.)."

d t ! Volume Flow rate Q = d V = Δ p π R 8

dt!

Volume Flow rate

Q = dV =

Δp π R 4"

8 η L!

High viscosity low flow rate"

Δp/L is the pressure gradient: the bigger the

pressure difference, the faster the flow"

The radius of the pipe makes a large

difference to the flow rate."

Applications of Poiseuille ʼ s law: " Irrigation pipes: Since Q ∝ Δ p/L, it is

Applications of Poiseuilleʼs law:"

Irrigation pipes: Since Q ∝ Δp/L, it is uneconomical to spray irrigation too far from the river (similar for air conditioning, ducting, piping)."

Respiratory system:

The resistance to flow is

determined primarily by the narrow tubes leading to the

Applications of Poiseuille ʼ s law: " Irrigation pipes: Since Q ∝ Δ p/L, it is

alveoli. Any general constriction of the pipes, as occurs in bronchospasm for instance, increases the resistance to flow and makes breathing much more difficult.

Asthma. !

Circulatory system: Any constriction of the blood vessels - like cholesterol build-up on the walls of the arteries - increases the resistance and the heart has to work harder to produce the same flow rate."

The heart is so responsive to the changing needs of our body that cardiac output can

The heart is so responsive to the

changing needs of our body that cardiac

output can vary from as little as 5 to a

maximum of 35 litres of blood per

minute, a sevenfold change, over a very

short interval.

Q = dV =

Δp π R 4"

 

dt!

8 η

L!

What happens to the flow as viscosity changes?"

Turbulence

Until now we have discussed laminar flow. When the motion becomes too violent, eddies and vortices occur. We call this turbulent motion.

The pattern of flow is no longer smooth and stable but becomes irregular and chaotic. A complex flow pattern changes continuously with time. The velocity of the particles at each given point varies chaotically with time.

Eddies absorb a great deal of energy due their rotational kinetic energy. " 23 Turbulence dissipates
Eddies absorb a great deal of energy due their rotational
kinetic energy. "
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Turbulence dissipates energy.
Turbulence •   A transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow occurs very suddenly as the

Turbulence

A transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow occurs very suddenly as the flow rate increases. Fast flow increases the chance of turbulence.

Turbulence . •   When the flow becomes turbulent there is a decrease in the volume
Turbulence . •   When the flow becomes turbulent there is a decrease in the volume

Turbulence

.

When the flow becomes turbulent there is a decrease in the volume flow rate.

When a fluid flows around an object the shape of the object is a very important parameter in determining the type of flow.

Thicker liquids like honey (or Kahlua in milk) do not get turbulent as easily as thin ones like water (or whiskey) .

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Turbulence •   Turbulent flow occurs when there are abrupt changes in boundary surfaces. The flow

Turbulence

Turbulent flow occurs when there are abrupt changes in boundary surfaces. The flow of blood through a normal artery is laminar. However, when irregularities occur the flow becomes turbulent. The noise generated by the turbulent flow can be heard with a stethoscope.

REYNOLDS NUMBER

R e

=

ρ v L / η

ρ

density of fluid

v

average flow velocity over the cross

section of the pipe

L

characteristic dimension

As a rule of thumb, for a flowing fluid

R e < ~ 2000

laminar flow

~ 2000

< R e < ~ 3000

unstable laminar

R e > ~ 2000

to turbulent flow

turbulent flow

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REYNOLDS NUMBER

The Reynolds number is not a precise quantity.

The quantities L and v are only typical values of size and speed. It is often not possible even to say which length you are talking about.

For a body moving through a fluid it might be either length or breadth or thickness - or any other dimension you might think of.

For a fluid flowing through a pipe, it turns out to be the diameter of the pipe.

Sydney Harbour Ferry R = ρ v L / η ρ = 10 kg.m v =

Sydney Harbour Ferry

R e

=

ρ v L / η

ρ = 10 3

kg.m -3

v = 5

m.s -1

L = 10

m

η = 10 -3

Pa.s

R e = (10 3 )(5)(10) / (10 -3 )

R e = 5x10 7

Sydney Harbour Ferry R = ρ v L / η ρ = 10 kg.m v =

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Blood circulation

R e

=

ρ v L / η

ρ = 10 3

kg.m -3

v = 0.2

m.s -1

L = 10

mm for the aorta

η blood ~ η water = 10 -3

Pa.s

R e = (10 3 )(0.2)(0.01) / (10 -3 )

R e = 2000 on the boundary of turbulent flow

Bacterium

R e

=

ρ v L / η

ρ = 10 3

kg.m -3

v = 30x10 -6 m.s -1

L = 1

µm

η = 10 -3

Pa.s

R e = (10 3 )(30x10 -6 )(1x10 -6 ) / (10 -3 )

R e = 3x10 -5

Bacterium R = ρ v L / η ρ = 10 kg.m v = 30x10 m.s
Bacterium R = ρ v L / η ρ = 10 kg.m v = 30x10 m.s
Bacterium R = ρ v L / η ρ = 10 kg.m v = 30x10 m.s
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A large artery in a dog has an inner radius of 4.00×10 -3 m. Blood flows through the artery at the rate of 1.00×10 -6 m 3 .s -1 . The blood has a viscosity of 2.084×10 -3 Pa.s and a density of 1.06×10 3 kg.m -3 .

Calculate:

  • (i) The average blood velocity in the artery. The pressure drop in a 0.100 m segment of the artery.

(ii)

(iii)The Reynolds number for the blood flow.

Briefly discuss each of the following:

(iv) The velocity profile across the artery (diagram may be helpful).

  • (v) The pressure drop along the segment of the artery.

(vi) The significance of the value of the Reynolds number calculated in

part (iii).

2004 Exam question

Solution

  • (i) The average blood velocity in the artery.

Equation of continuity: Q = A v

A = π R 2 = π (4.00×10 -3 ) 2 = 5.03×10 -5 m 2

v = Q / A = 1.00×10 -6

= 1.99×10 -2

m.s -1

/ 5.03×10 -5

m.s -1

radius R = 4.00×10 -3

m

Q = 1.00×10 -6 m 3 .s -1

blood η = 2.084×10 -3

Pa.s

blood ρ = 1.060×10 -3

kg.m -3

(ii) The pressure drop in a 0.100m segment of the artery.

Poiseuille’s Equation Q = ΔP π R 4 / (8 η L)

ΔP = 8 η L Q / (π R 4 )

L = 0.100

m

ΔP = (8)(2.084×10 -3 )(0.1)(1.00×10 -6 ) / {(π)(4.00×10 -3 ) 4 } Pa ΔP = 2.07 Pa

(iii) The Reynolds number for the blood flow.

R e = ρ v L / η

where L = 2 R (diameter of artery)

R e = (1.060×10 3 )(1.99×10 -2 )(2)(4.00×10 -3 ) / (2.084×10 -3 )

Re =

81

use diameter not length

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(iv)

Discuss: The velocity profile across the artery (diagram may be helpful).

Parabolic velocity profile: velocity of blood zero at sides of artery

  • (v) Discuss: The pressure drop along the segment of the artery.

Viscosity internal friction energy dissipated as thermal energy "

pressure drop along artery"

(vi) Discuss: The significance of the value of the Reynolds number "

R e very small laminar flow

(R e < 2000)"

Flow of a viscous newtonain fluid through a pipe Velocity Profile

Cohesive f orces bet ween m olecules ⇒ layers of f luid slide past each other
Cohesive f orces
bet ween m olecules ⇒
layers of f luid slide past
each other generating
f rictional f orces ⇒
energy dissipated (like
rubbing hands together)
Parabolic velocit y
prof ile

Adhesive f orces bet ween f luid and surf ace f luid stationary at surf ace

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