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Transport System in Animals Class Cephalopoda, Phylum

Functions of the Circulatory System Annelida and Phylum


Chordata
Transport
o Closed circulatory
o Nutrients
system
o Respiratory gases o Advantages: rapid flow,
o Hormones directed to specific
o Enzymes tissues, blood cells and
Immunity large molecules and
o Antibodies vessels, can support
Homeostasis higher levels of
o Blood pH metabolic activity
Transport in Multicellular organisms General Pslan
Phylum Porifera (sponges) Heart
o No distinct circulatory o Atrium
system o Ventricle
Phylum Cnidaria & Blood Vessels
Platyhelminthes o Arteries, arterioles
o Single opening o Capillaries, capillary
(incomplete digestive beds
system) o Veins, venules
o Central gastrovascular Blood
activity (digestion and
Vertebrates
distribution)
o Materials undergo Fish
diffusion o Single circulation
Phylum Echinodermata o 2 chambered heart
o Closed system African Lungsfish
o Water vascular system o 3 chambered heart
pumps water to canals, o Left Atrium: O2 rich
also for locomotion, blood
waste transport, and o Right Atrium: O2 poor
respiration blood
Phylum Arthropoda and o Partially divided
Mollusca ventricle
o Open circulatory Amphibians
system o True double circulation
o Diffusion from sinuses o Pulmocutaneous and
to organs (loss of systemic circulation
pressure in sinuses) partyl separated
o Hemolymph o 3 chambered heart
o Insects: very good o LA, RA, 1 ventricle
respiratory system
o Advantage: faster
distribution of 02 rich
blood
o Disadvantage: mixing
of O2 rich and poor
blood occur
Reptiles
o 3 chambered heart
o 1 ventricle, LA, RA
Birds, Mammals, Crocodilians
o 4 chambered heart
o 2 ventricles, 2 atria
o full separation of
pulmonary and
systemic circuit
o no mixing of O2 rich
and poor blood
o gas exchange Path
maximized
Example: Brain to Foot
o circuits operate at
different pressures Brain
o endothermic: requires
high O2 and nutrients Superior Vena Cava
o more vessels = greater
resistance = higher
pressure RA
o right: pulmonary
o left: systemic Triscupid Valve

RV

Semilunar valve

Pulmonary Artery

Lungs

Pulmonary Vein

LA
Mitral Valve Training HR = 75%MR
Pulse
LV Stretching of arteries as an
effect of heartbeat
Aortic semilunar valve Pressure waves moving the
artery walls when blood
moves into the aorta
Aorta broncocephalic Usually accurate measure of
artery heart rate
Normal: 60-100bpm
Feet inferior Common pulse points
vena cava o Temporal, carotid,
brachial, radial
Blood Vessels
Artery and arteriole
o Connective tissue,
Human Circulation
smooth muscle
Cardiac Cycle Vein and venule
complete sequence of Physical Principles governing Blood
pumping and filling
Blood flow velocity
Blood Pressure o Aorta 30 cm/s
systole and diastole o Capillaries 0.026 cm/s
Electrical Activity of the Heat Law of continuity volume of
flow per second must be
syncytial muscle tissue
consistent throughout the
pacemaker: sinoatrial node entire pipe
atrioventricular node and Total cross-sectional areas of
bundle the capillaries determine rate
L&R bundle branches Blood flow slows down in
Purkinje fibers capillary beds
Cardiac Output Osmotic Pressure amount of
Total volume of blood pressure required to prevent
pumped by the left atrium diffusion of water
per minute Blood Pressure
Heart Rate: bpm Force exerted by blood on
Stroke Volume: mL walls of vessels
Cardiac Output (Q) = HR x SV Determined by cardiac
output and peripheral
Adult = 70 bpm x 75mL =
resistance by arterioles
5.25 L/min
Systolic/diatolic
Maximum HR = 200-age
Factors: HR, SV, Resistance of
Vessels, Viscosity
Cardiovascular Diseases >50% of
all deaths
Heart attack death of
cardiac tissue due to
coronary blockage
Stroke death of nervous
tissue in brain due to
coronary blockage
Atherosclerosis arterial
plaques deposit
Arteriosclesrosis plaque
hardening by calcium
deposits
Hypertension bp is high
Hypercholesterol low and
high density lipids
Lymphatic System
Functions
o Returns excess body
fluid to blood
o Transports fats from
intestines to blood
o Defense
Lymph nodes scattered
Immune System: the bodys o Skin: surface, dead
defenders cells, living cells
Germ Theory of Disease o Tears (lysozyme)
o Cilia, mucus
Infectious diseases are
o Saliva
caused by germs
o Oil, sweat, acidity
Contradicts miasma (band
o Gastric juice, intestinal
wind) and contagion theory
flora (bacteria)
Supported by:
o Acidity
o Francesco Redi
Internal Defenses
(Biogenesis and
o Antimicrobial proteins
maggots)
Complement
o Anton van
Leeuwenhoek system lysis of
(Microscope) invading cells,
o Agostino Bassi triggers
inflammation
(Silkworm)
Interferons
o Ignaz Semmelweis
activate
(Childbirth)
macrophages
o John Snow (cholera)
(eat pathogens),
o Louis Pasteur
prevent cell-to-
(biogenesis and swan- cell spread of
neck flasks) viruses
o Robert Koch Defensins
(postulates)
secreted by
Isolate blood
macrophages to
from unhealthy damage
let germs grow pathogens
inject in healthy o Leukocytes
if healthy turns Neutrophil 70%
sick, isolate again Circulating
Pathogens = Germs phagocytic
Bacteria WBC
Protozoans Engulfs and
Fungi dies
Monocyte 5%
Virus
Macrophag
Viroid (nucleic acid only)
e
Prion (protein only)
phagocytic
Innate (Nonspecific Immunity) WBC that
Rapid responses to a broad patrols
range of microbes tissue fluids
External Defenses: Dendritic
Cell
phagocytic tissue repair and phagocytic
WBC fixed activity
in tissues Fever above 42 degrees C
*Coelomocytes and can cause brain damage or
hemocytes death
phagocytes in Acquired Immunity
invertebrates
Eosinophil Lymphocytes
targets o B cells
internal Mature in Bone
parasites marrow
Basophil o T cells
Circulating Mature in Thymus
WBC Helper and
releasing cytotoxic
histamine o Antigen receptors
Allergies Specificity
Mast Cells adaptive immune
Fixed WBC responses
combat specific
releasing
antigens
histamine
Diversity
during
inflammato lymphocytes
ry response have many kinds
o Natural Killer Cells of antigen
receptors
Kills infected and
o Activated by
cancerous cells
chemokines
causing apoptosis
o Self/nonself recognition
Inflammatory Responses T cell receptors
Chemicals involved: recognize MHC
Histamines markers and
Prostaglandins antigens
o Memory
Chemokines
Capacity to
Pyrogens
remember an
Fever antigen (via
Temporary rise in core body memory cells)
temperature above normal Antibody mediated immune
37 degrees Celsius as a response
response to infection o Immune response in
Regulated by hypothalamus which antibodies are
Enhances immune defenses produced in response
by speeding up metabolism, to an antigen
Cell-mediated immune Memory cells initiate a faster,
response more efficient response upon
o Immune response in reinfection
which cytotoxic T cells Active Immunity
and NK cells destroy o Own system develops
cancerous cells antibodies
o Develops naturally in
response to an
infection
o Develops following
immunization
o Long-lasting protection
but may take a long
time
Passive Immunity
o Antibodies are passed
from mother to fetus
via placenta
o Via breast milk
(colostrum)
o Injection (artificial)
o Immediate, short term
Blood Groups and Transfusions
Class I MHC molecules Antigens on RBCs will
o Most nucleated cells determine a persons blood
o Infected/cancerous type : A, B, AB, O
cells display parts of Problems with transfusions
foreign antigens on and transplants
surfaces Another RBC antigen: Rh
o Recognized by factor (Rh+ or Rh-)
cytotoxic T cells Universal Donor: O
Class II MHC molecules Universal Recipient: AB
o Dendritic, Immune Disorder
macrophages, b cells
display phagocytized Acne
antigen fragments on o Bacteria feed on oil and
surfaces multiply in blocked hair
o Recognized by helper T follicles
cells o Bacterial secretions
T cells have receptors for leak into tissues,
self-molecules are destroyed attracting neutrophils
-> self-tolerance that initiate
inflammation
Immunity
o White blood cells o Acquired or secondary
accumulate in pustules AIDS-HIV attacks
Allergies helper T cells
o Hypersensitive
responses to antigens
called allergens
Autoimmune diseases
o Immune system loses
tolerance for self and
turns against certain
molecules of the body
o T cells vs T cells
Immunodeficient diseases
o Inborn or priary