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The group that presented the topic did an amazing job reporting all the chapters of
their presentation. With them explaining the topics, it is easier for us students to understand
the principles and concept of the topic, which is the Geometric Alignment and Design.
Geometric design for transportation facilities includes the design of geometric cross
sections, horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, intersections, and various design details.
These basic components are common to all linear facilities, such as roadways, railways,
and airport runways and taxiways. Although the details of design standards vary with the
method and the class of facility, most of the issues involved in geometric design are similar
for all modes. In all cases, the objectives of geometric design are to maximize the comfort,
safety, and economy of facilities, while minimizing their environmental impacts.


As stated in their research, geometric design focuses to the comfort, safety and
economy of facilities, to provide efficiency in traffic operation, to provide maximum safety at
reasonable cost and minimize the environmental. There are factors that can affect
geometric design for example: design speed, topography, traffic environmental factors,
economical factors, vehicles properties, humans. All of these factors can affect the design
for our roadways, which is why it is important to determine the standard references for all
factor that can affect geometric design. Geometric design of transportation facilities
includes specification of cross sections, vertical alignments, horizontal alignments, and
various design details. Standard cross sections for tangent horizontal alignment specified
by most design organizations. Vertical alignment consists of vertical tangents and parabolic
vertical curves. The effects of vehicle power/weight ratios on speeds on various positions
determine maximum positions for vertical tangents. Both the length and sharpness of the
position are important. In the case of highways, mainly for aesthetic reasons. Coordination
of horizontal and vertical alignment is important for reasons of appearance, economics, and
safety. Rules are set so that the coordination in vertical and horizontal intersection is safe
and efficient.

Neglecting the standard measurements for alignment.

Types of vehicles are not accounted within the traffic stream
Overtaking zone must be placed when overtaking sight distance is not provided.


To follow the standard measurements to provide efficient and safe roadways.

To determine the types of vehicles that passes in a road to have the correct
power/weight ratios on speeds.
Overtaking zones must be provided for overtaking operation with wide roads.


Department Of Public Works And Highways (DPWH)

Department Of Transportation (DOT)
Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB)
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA)
Department of environment and natural resources (DENR)

Courses of consideration

Improper measurements in alignment

Power/weight speed ratios is not acquainted.
The minimum distance for the overtake zone was not given to a roadway.

Alternative courses of action

Geometric design must be analyze properly.

The power/weight speed ratios must be studied carefully to know the
volume of vehicles using the road.
OSD must be provided throughout the length of the highway.
Action plan

Days Event Conductor

Seminar or refresher DPWH

1-3months course for traffic DOTr
analysis for highway
civil engineers
Seminar for geometric MMDA
2-3weeks alignment and LTO
intersections for LTFRB
highway engineers


Proper alignment design is critical in the effort to balance the requirements and safety of
the road user with the value of conserving the integrity of the environment. The designer
must use engineering judgment applied to a variety of factors to develop effective and
efficient geometry in three dimensions. Horizontal alignment, combined with vertical
alignment, serves as the major guiding component related with the design of all types of
public streets and highways. Engineering experience plays a major role in selecting
horizontal geometry that meets desired design standards. There are varieties of factors that
are important in the selection of a horizontal curve or series of curves.


The basic features of a highway are the carriageway itself, expressed in terms of the
number of lanes used, the central reservation or median strip and the shoulders (including
verges). Depending on the level of the highway relative to the surrounding terrain, side
slopes may also be a design issue. Geometric roadway design can be broken into three
main parts: alignment, profile, and cross-section. Combined, they provide a three-
dimensional layout for a roadway. The alignment is the route of the road, defined as a
series of horizontal tangents and curves. The profile is the vertical aspect of the road,
including crest and sag curves, and the straight grade lines connecting them. The cross
section shows the position and number of vehicle and bicycle lanes and sidewalks, along
with their cross slope or banking. Cross sections also show drainage features, pavement
structure and other items outside the category of geometric design.

1338 Arlegui St., Quiapo, Manila



CE 400 CE41FA1




Vencer, Karl Daniel C.






February 1, 2017