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Ceephaalom

metricc Maanuaal
For the
t J. K.
K Ecoonomiddes
Orthhodonntic Coollectioon

Shamsi Daneshvari M.S.


M
Chief Orthodontic Project Assistant
C

Dr. Heather
H Edgarr
Princippal Investigattor

Dr. Edward
E Harriss
Co-Princcipal Investiggator

Dr. Philip Kroth


Co-Princcipal Investiggator

With contributions frrom:


Coreyy Ragsdale B.A A.
Research Assistannt

Anna Rautman B.S S.


Research Assistannt

httpp://hsc.unm
m.edu/proggrams/ocfs//
Juuly 13, 2010

Thiis work is licennsed under a Crreative Commoons Attributionn-NonCommerrcial-NoDerivs 3.0


Unpported Licensee.
Table of Contents
References.....................................................................................................................................................1
Landmark (Point) Definitions.......................................................................................................................2
Variables as Defined by Other Analyses and Atlases...................................................................................4
Measurements.............................................................................................................................................22
Planes........................................................................................................................................................112

References
Note: Atlases differ from analyses. Atlases are books for which each measurement is given with a
description and a drawing. In comparison, analyses are journal publications which may or
may not contain drawings for each measurement.

Downs Analysis
Downs WB (1948). Variations in Facial Relationships: Their Significance in Treatment and Prognosis. American
Journal of Orthodontics, 34:812-840.

Frontal Analysis
Grummons DC, Kappeneye van de Coppelo MA (1987). A Frontal Asymmetrical Analysis. The Journal of Clinical
Orthodontics, 21: 448-465.
Grummons DC, Ricketts RM (2004). Frontal Cephalometrics: Practical Application. World Journal of Orthodontics,
5: 99-119.
Epker BN, Fish LC(1986). Dentofacial Deformities: Integrated Orthodontic and Surgical Corrections Volume I.
Saint Louis: C. V. Mosby Co.

Jarabak-Bjork Analysis
Jarabak JR, Fizzell JA (1972). Technique and treatment with light-wire edgewise appliances. Saint Louis: C. V.
Mosby Co.

London Atlas
Bhatia SN, Leighton BC (1993). A Manual of Facial Growth: A Computer Analysis of Longitudinal Cephalometric
Growth Data. Oxford: Oxford university Press.

McNamara Analysis
McNamara JA Jr, Brundon WL (2001). Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Ann Arbor: Needham Press.

Ricketts Analysis
Ricketts RM, Roth RH, Chaconas SJ, Schnlhof RJ, Engel A (1982). Orthodontic Diagnosis and Planning, Volumes I
and II. Denver: Rocky Mountain Orthodontics.

Michigan / Riolo Atlas


Riolo ML, Moyers RE, McNamara JA, Hunter WS (1974). An Atlas of Craniofacial Growth: Cephalometric
Standards from the University School Growth Study, The University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: The University
of Michigan.

Holdaway Soft Tissue Analysis


Holdaway RA (1983). A Soft Tissue Cephalometric Analysis and its Use in Orthodontic Planning, Part I. American
Journal of Orthodontics, 84: 1-28.
Holdaway RA (1984). A Soft Tissue Cephalometric Analysis and its Use in Orthodontic Planning, Part II. American
Journal of Orthodontics, 85: 279-293.

Steiner Analysis
Steiner CC (1953). Cephalometrics for You and Me. American Journal of Orthodontics, 39: 729-755.

Tweed Analysis
Tweed CH (1954). The Frankfort Mandibular Incisal Angle (FMIA) in Orthodontic Diagnosis, Treatment Planning,
and Prognosis. The Angle Orthodontics, 24: 121-169.

July13,20101

Landmark (Point) Definitions

Variable Abbreviation Variable Name Definition

1L, LIE Lower Central Incisor The occlusal tip of the lower central insicor
1U, UIE Upper Central Incisor The occlusal tip of the upper central incisor
A point, A A point The deepest point of the curve of the maxilla
between the anterior nasal spine and the dental
alveolus
A point, A Soft tissue A point The soft tissue point that is horizontally projected,
parallel to Frankfort Horizontal, from the deepest
point of the curve of the maxilla between the
anterior nasal spine and the dental alveolus
ANS Anterior Nasal Spine tip of the anterior nasal spine
Ar Articulare the point of intersection between the posterior
border of the mandibular condyle and the lower
border of the cranial base
B point, B B point the deepest point on the bony curvature between
the crest of the alveolus and pogonion
CC Center of Cranium cephalometric landmark formed by the
intersection of the two lines BA-NA and PT-GN
Cd Condyle the most superior point on the condyles of the
mandible
CF Center of Face, Polar Center a center on the Frankfort horizontal plane at a
perpendicular dropped at the anterior border of
pterygoid plates near the union with the body of
the sphenoid
Gl Glabella the height of curvature of the bone overlying the
frontal sinus
Gl Soft tissue Glabella the most prominent or anterior point in the
midsagittal plane of the forehead at the level of the
superior orbital ridges
Gn Gnathion The most posterior-inferior point on the outline of
the mandible, lies on the contour of the chin at the
point of intersection of the facial axis
Gn, constructed Gnathion, constructed Lies at the intersection of the mandibular plane
(Go-Me)and the facial plane ( Na-Pog)
Go Gonion the midpoint at the angle of the mandible
Go, constructed Gonion, constructed the intersection of the mandibular plane with a
plane through Articulare, Posterior and along the
portion of the mandibular ramus inferior to it
L6 Lower first molar a point on the occlusal plane perpendicular to the
distal surface of the crown of the lower first molar
Li Labrale Inferius the median point on the lower margin of the lower
membranous lip
LIA Lower central incisor root apex the root tip of the mandibular central incisor
Lnt Lower nasal tangent the tip of the nose
Ls Labrale Superius a point indicating the mucocutaneous border of the
upper lip, usually the most anterior point of the
upper lip
Me Menton the most inferior point on the symphyseal outline

July13,20102

Variable Abbreviation Variable Name Definition

Me Soft tissue Menton the most inferior point on the soft-tissue chin
Na, N Nasion the most anterior point on the frontonasal suture
Na, N Soft tissue Nasion the deepest point on the concavity overlying the
area of the frontonasal suture
Pg Pogonion the most anterior point on the mandibular
symphysis
Pg Soft tissue Pogonion the most prominent or anterior point on the soft-
tissue chin in the midsagittal plane
Pm Protruberance a point selected where the curveature of the anterior
menti/supragonion border of the symphysis changes from concave to
convex
PNS Posterior nasal spine the tip of the posterior nasal spine
Po Porion The most superior point on the outline of the
external auditory meatus
Pt Pterygoid the posterior-superior border of the ptrygo-
maxillary fissures
Sd Supradentale the most anterior inferior point on the maxilla at its
labial contact with the maxillary central incisor
Se Sella Turcica the center of sella turcica
Sls Superior Labial Sulcus the point of greatest concavity in the midline of the
upper lip between Sn and Ls
Sn Subnasale a point located at the junction between lower border
of the nose and beginning of the upper lip at the
midsagittal plane
Sts Stomion Superious the lowermost point on the vermilion of the upper
lip
Sti Stomion Inferious the uppermost point on the vermilion of the lower
lip
U6 Upper first molar a point on the occlusal plane perpendicular to the
distal surface of the crown of the upper first molar
UIA Upper central incisor root apex the root tip of the maxillary central incisor
Xi Xi Point a point located at the geographic center of the
ramus, location of XI is keyed geometrically to PR-
OR and a perpendicular through PT

July13,20103

Variables as Defined by Other Analyses and Atlases


Name Point Description Reference
Angle of Angle of formed by the intersection of a line from Downs 1948
Convexity convexity nasion to point A with a line from point A
to pogonion
Anterior Downs Anterior Downs the midpoint of the line connecting Riolo et al.
Point Point-ADP landmarks LIE and UIE 1974
Anterior Nasal Anterior Nasal the tip of the anterior nasal spine Bhatia and
Spine Spine-ANS Leighton 1993
Anterior Nasal The tip of the bony anterior nasal spine at McNamara
Spine-ANS the inferior margin of the piriform apeture 2001
ANS tip of the anterior nasal spine Rickets et al.
1982
ANS Maxilla tip of the anterior nasal spine just below Rickets et al.
the nasal cavity and above the hard palate 1982
Anterior Nasal the tip of the median, sharp bony process Riolo et al.
Spine-ANS of the maxilla at the lower margin of the 1974
anterior nasal opening
Anterior Ramus Anterior Ramus the point of intersection anterior ramus Bhatia and
Point 1-ARM1 vertically, with an extension posteriorly of Leighton 1993
the occlusal plane
Anterior Border this is defined as the intersection of the Riolo et al.
of the Ramus-AB FOP with the anterior border of the ramus 1974
Anterior Ramus Anterior Ramus a point approximately (?) centimere above Bhatia and
(2) Point 2-ARM2 ARM1 along the anterior border of ARM1 Leighton 1993
and ARM2
Articulare Articulare-ART the point of intersection between the Bhatia and
posterior border of the mandibular condyle Leighton 1993
and the lower border of the cranial base
Articulare, the point of intersection of the inferior Riolo et al.
Anterior-AA surface of the cranial base and the 1974
averaged anterior surfaces of the
mandibular condyles
Articulare-AR the point of intersection of the inferior Riolo et al.
cranial base surface and the averaged 1974
posterior surfaces of the mandibular
condyles

July13,20104

Name Point Description Reference


Basion Basion-BA the lowest point on the anterior border of Bhatia and
the foramen magnum Leighton 1993
Basion-Ba The most anterior-inferior point on the McNamara
margin of the foramen magnum 2001
BA Basion most inferiro posteriro point of the Rickets et al.
occipital bone at the anterior margin of the 1982
occipital foramen
Basion-BA the most inferior, posterior point on the Riolo et al.
posterior margin of the foramen magnum 1974
Bolton Plane Bolton plane represented by a line from nasion to Bolton Downs 1948
point
Bolton Point Bolton Point-BO the highest point in the notch behind the Bhatia and
occipital condyle Leighton 1993
Bolton Point the highest point of concavity behind the Downs 1948
occipital condyles
Center of CC point a line connecting Pt point with Rickets et al.
Cranium cephalometric gnathion, crossing the 1972
basion-nasion plane. CC truly is located
perpendicular to basion-nasion from
pterygoid point, but for practical purposes
it can be used as the point of intersection
of the facial axis with basion-nasion
because this varies around a true right
angle
CC Point center of cranium, cephalometric landmark Rickets et al.
formed by the intersection of the two lines 1982
BA-NA and PT-GN
Chin Tangent Chin Tangent the most anterior-superior point on the Bhatia and
Point-CT soft-tissue chin, where the concavity of the Leighton 1993
soft-tissue changes in convexity
Condylion Condylion-CD the most superior point on the condyles of Bhatia and
the mandible Leighton 1993
Condylion-Co The most posterior-superior point on the McNamara
head of the manibular condyle 2001
Condylion-CO the most posterior superior point on the Riolo et al.
curvature of the average of the right and 1974
left outlines of the condylar head,
determined as the point of tangency to a
perpendicular construction line to the
anterior and posterior borders of the
condylar head

July13,20105

Name Point Description Reference


DC Point DC Point cephalometric landmark representing the Rickets et al.
center of the neck of the condyle on the 1982
Basion Nasion line
DT Chin DT Chin the point on the anterior curve of the soft Rickets et al.
tssue chin 1982
Embrasure EM Embrasure a point where the upper and lower lips Rickets et al.
meet 1982
Facial Angle Facial angle the inside inferior angle formed by the Downs 1948
intersection of the Frankfort horizontal and
facial plane
Facial Axis Facial axis by connection of Pt point with Rickets et al.
cepholometric gnathion, this line forms 1972
almost exactly the central axis of the face
Facial Plane Facial plane a line from nasion to pogonion Downs 1948
Frontal Occlusal Frontal occlusal bisection of right and left first molar Rickets et al.
Plane plane occlusal relation 1972
Functional Functional the posterior location of the functional Riolo et al.
Occlusal Plane Occlusal Plane occlusal plane and consequently its value 1974
Point-FPP is related to the presence or absence of TP,
(1) if TP is present and the individual is <9
yrs old FPP takes the same value as TP, (2)
in all other cases FPP takes on the value of
UDT
Glabella Glabella-GLB the most prominent point on the outline of Bhatia and
the frontal bone, in the supraorbital and Leighton 1993
frontal sinus region
Glabella-G the most prominent anterior point in the Jacobson and
midsagittal plane of the forehead Jacobson 2006/
Holdaway Soft
Tissue
Glabella-GB the height of curvature of the bone Riolo et al.
overlying the frontal sinus 1974
Glabella (Soft Soft Tissue the most prominent or anterior point in the Bhatia and
Tissue) Glabella-SGLB midsagittal plane of the forehead at the Leighton 1993
level of the superior orbital ridges
Gnathion Gnathion-GN the most antero-inferior point on the Bhatia and
mandibular symphysis Leighton 1993
Gnathion a point on the chin deterined by bisecting Downs 1948
the angle formed by the facial and
mandibular planes

July13,20106

Name Point Description Reference


Gnathion - Gnathion-Gn The most posterior-inferior point on the McNamara
continued outline of the mandible, lies on the contour 2001
of the chin at the point of intersection of
the facial axis (PTM-constructed Gn)
Gnathion-Gn, Lies at the intersection of the mandibular McNamara
constructed plane (Go-Me)and the facial plane ( Na- 2001
Pog)
GN Gnathion cephalometric landmark formed by the Rickets et al.
intersection of the tangent to the most 1982
inferior point on the inferior border of the
symphysis and the most inferior point of
the gonial region, and the line connecting
NA and PO
Gnathion-GN the most anterior-inferior point on the Riolo et al.
contour of the bony chin symphysis, 1974
determined by bisecting the angle formed
by the madibular plane and line through
Pogonion and Nasion
Gnathion (Soft Soft Tissue the midpoint between soft-tissue pogonion Bhatia and
Tissue) Gnathion-GN' and soft-tissue menton Leighton 1993
Gonion Gonion-GO the midpoint at the angle of the mandible Bhatia and
Leighton 1993
GO Gonion intersection of the line connecting the most Rickets et al.
distal aspect of the condyle to the distal 1982
border of the ramus, and the line at the
base of the mandible
Gonial the intersection of the mandibular plane Riolo et al.
Intersection-GOI with a plane through Articulare, Posterior 1974
and along the portion of the mandibular
ramus inferior to it
Gonion-GO the midpoint of the angle of the mandible, Riolo et al.
found by bisecting the angle formed by the 1974
mandibular plane and a plane through
Articulare, Posterior and along the portion
of the mandibular ramus inferior to it
Inferior Labial Inferior Labial the point of greatest concavity in the Jacobson and
Sulcus Sulcus-Lls midline of the lower lip between between Jacobson 2006/
Li and soft tissue pogonion, also known as Holdaway Soft
Labiomental Sulcus Si Tissue
Infradentale Infradentale-ID the most antero-superior point on the labial Bhatia and
crest of the mandibular alveolar process Leighton 1993

July13,20107

Name Point Description Reference


Infradentale - Infradentale-ID the anterior superior point on the mandible Riolo et al.
continued at its labial contact with the mandibular 1974
central incisor
Laberale Inferius Laberale Inferius- the most prominent point on the on the Bhatia and
LI vermillion border of the lower lip in the Leighton 1993
midsagittal plane
Labrale Inferius- the median point on the lower margin of Jacobson and
Li the lower membranous lip Jacobson 2006/
Holdaway Soft
Tissue
Laberale Superius Laberale a point located at the maximum convexity Bhatia and
Superius-LS of the vermillion border most prominent in Leighton 1993
the midsagittal plane
Labrale Superius- a point indicating the mucocutaneous Jacobson and
Ls border of the upper lip, usually the most Jacobson 2006/
anterior point of the upper lip Holdaway Soft
Tissue
LM1 LM1 the most antero-superior point on the Bhatia and
mesial border of the crown of the lower Leighton 1993
first molar
Lower Canine 3R-3L incisal tip of lower canines, respectively Rickets et al.
Apex 1972
Lower Incisor Lower Incisor the root apex of the most prominent lower Bhatia and
Apex Apex-LIA incisor crown Leighton 1993
Lower Incisor the root tip of the mandibular central Riolo et al.
Apex-LIA incisor 1974
Lower Incisor B1 Incisor incisal tip of the lower incisor Rickets et al.
Cusp Tip 1982
B1 Point a point selected at the interdental papilla of Rickets et al.
the lower incisors at the junction of the 1982
crowns and gingiva
Lower Incisor Lower Incisor the tip of the most prominent lower incisor Bhatia and
Edge Edge-LIE crown Leighton 1993
Lower Incisor the incisal tip of the mandibular central Riolo et al.
Incisal Edge-LIE incisor 1974
Lower Incisor Lower Incisor the lingual contact of alveolar bone with Riolo et al.
Lingual Bony Lingual Bony the mandibular central incisor 1974
Contact Contact Point-
LIB

July13,20108

Name Point Description Reference


Lower Incisor BR Incisor root tip of the lower incisor Rickets et al.
Root Tip 1982
Lower Lip Lower Lip the most superior point located on the Bhatia and
Stomion-LLS lower lip Leighton 1993
LL Lower Lip most anterior point on the lower lip Rickets et al.
1982
Lower Molar 6R-6L buccal surfaces of lower molar, Rickets et al.
Buccal Surface respectively, in frontal 1972
Lower Molar B6 lower molar, most distal surface Rickets et al.
Cusp Tip 1972
B6 Lower Molar a point on the occlusal plane perpendicular Rickets et al.
to the distal surface of the crown of the 1982
lower first molar
Lower Molar Lower Molar the posterior cemento-enamel junction of Riolo et al.
Distal CEJ Distal CEJ-LDJ the mandibular first molar 1974
Lower Molar Lower Molar the posterior contact point of the Riolo et al.
Distal Contact Distal Contact mandibular first molar 1974
Point-LDC
Lower Molar Lower Molar the posterior cusp tip of the mandibular Riolo et al.
Distal Cusp Tip Distal Cusp Tip- first molar 1974
LDT
Lower Molar Lower Molar the anterior cemento-enamel junction of Riolo et al.
Mesial CEJ Mesial CEJ-LMJ the mandibular first molar 1974
Lower Molar Lower Molar the mesial contact of the mandibular first Riolo et al.
Mesial Contact Mesial Contact- molar relative to the FOP 1974
LMC
Lower Molar Lower Molar the anterior cusp tip of the mandibular first Riolo et al.
Mesial Cusp Tip Mesial Cusp Tip- molar 1974
LMT
Mandibular Plane Mandibular plane a line at the lower border of the Downs 1948
mandibular tangent to the gonion angle
and the profile image of the symphysis
Menton Menton-Me the lowest point on the lower border of the Bhatia and
mandibular symphysis Leighton 1993
Menton-Me The most inferior point of the mandibular McNamara
symphysis 2001

July13,20109

Name Point Description Reference


Menton - ME Menton point of the inferior border of the Rickets et al.
continued symphysis directly inferior to mental 1982
protruberance and inferior to the center of
trigonium mentali
Menton-ME the most inferior point on the symphyseal Riolo et al.
outline 1974
Menton (Soft Soft Tissue the most inferior point on the soft-tissue Bhatia and
Tissue) Menton-ME' chin Leighton 1993
Soft Tissue lowest point on the contour of the soft Jacobson and
Menton-Me' tissue chin, found by dropping a Jacobson 2006/
perpendicular from horizontal plane Holdaway Soft
through skeletal menton Tissue
Nasion Nasion-N the most anterior point on the frontonasal Bhatia and
suture Leighton 1993
Nasion-N the most anterior point of the nasofrontal Burstone et al.
suture in the midsaggital plane 1978
Nasion the suture between the frontal and nasal Downs 1948
bones
Nasion-Na The intersection of the internasal and McNamara
frontonasal sutures 2001
NA Nasion a point at the anterior limit of the Rickets et al.
nasofrontal suture 1982
Nasion-N the junction of the frontonasal suture at the Riolo et al.
most posterior point on the curve at the 1974
bridge of the nose
Nasion (Soft Projected Soft a point constructed from its use as a soft- Bhatia and
Tissue) Tissue Nasion- tissue reference point Leighton 1993
PSN
Soft Tissue the deepest point on the concavity Bhatia and
Nasion-SFN overlying the area of the frontonasal suture Leighton 1993
Soft Tissue the point of greatest concavity in the Jacobson and
Nasion-N' midline between the forehead and the nose Jacobson 2006/
Holdaway Soft
Tissue
OC1 OC1 the midpoint in the occlusal space between Bhatia and
the upper and lower canines and the first Leighton 1993
premolars to provide an anterior point on
the functional occlusal plane

July13,201010

Name Point Description Reference


OC2 OC2 the midpoint on the occlusal space distal to Bhatia and
the upper and lower first molarsto provide Leighton 1993
a posterior point for the functional occlusal
plane
Occlusal Plane Occlusal plane a line bisecting the occlusion of the first Downs 1948
molars and central incisors
True occlusal occlusal plane of buccal teeth, not overbite Rickets et al.
plane bisection 1972
Orbitale Orbitale-ORB the most inferior point on the lower border Bhatia and
of the bony orbit Leighton 1993
Orbitale the lowest point on the left infraorbital Downs 1948
margin
Orbitale-Or Lowermost point on the inferior orbital McNamara
margin 2001
OR Orbitale a point located at the lowest point on the Rickets et al.
external border of the orbital cavity 1982
Orbitale-OR the lowest point of the average of the right Riolo et al.
and left borders of the bony orbit 1974
Pogonion Pogonion-PG the most anterior point on the mandibular Bhatia and
symphysis Leighton 1993
Pogonion the most anterior point on the mandible in Downs 1948
the midline
Pogonion-Pog Most anterior point of the bony chin. McNamara
Formed at the point of contact of the facial 2001
plane with the chin contour
PO Pogonion most anterior point on the mid-sagittal Rickets et al.
symphysis 1982
Pogonion-PG the most anterior point on the contour of Riolo et al.
the bony chin, determined by tangent 1974
through Nasion
Pogonion (Soft Soft Tissue the most prominent or anterior point on the Bhatia and
Tissue) Pogonion-PG' soft-tissue chin in the midsagittal plane Leighton 1993
Soft Tissue the most prominent or anterior point on the Jacobson and
Pogonion-Pog' chin in the midsagittal plane Jacobson 2006/
Holdaway Soft
Tissue

July13,201011

Name Point Description Reference


Polar Center CF-Polar center a center on the Frankfort horizontal plane Rickets et al.
at a perpendicular dropped at the anterior 1972
border of pterygoid plates near the union
with the body of the sphenoid
CF Point center of face, cephalometric landmark Rickets et al.
formed by the intersection of the line 1982
connecting PR and OR and a perpendicular
through PT
Porion Porion-PO the most superior point on the radiolucence Bhatia and
external and internal auditory meati, Leighton 1993
located posteriorly to the mandibular
condyle and posterior clivus
Porion the highest point on the superior surface of Downs 1948
the soft tissue of the external auditory
meati
Porion-PO The most superior point on the outline of McNamara
the external auditory meatus 2001
PR Porion a point located at the most superior point Rickets et al.
of the external auditory meatus 1982
Porion-PO the midpoint of the line connecting the Riolo et al.
most superior point of the radiopacity 1974
generated by each of the 2 ear rods of the
cephalostat
Post Laberale Post Laberale the point on the vermilion border midway Bhatia and
Superius Superius-PLS between lower lip stomion and laberale Leighton 1993
inferius
Post Pronasale Post Pronasale- a point located at the end of the nasal tip Bhatia and
POPRN convexity Leighton 1993
Posterior Downs Posterior Downs the midpoint of the line connecting Riolo et al.
Point Point-PDP landmarks LMT and UMT 1974
Posterior Nasal Posterior Nasal the tip of the posterior nasal spine Bhatia and
Spine Spine-PNS Leighton 1993
PNS tip of the posterior nasal spine Rickets et al.
1982
Posterior Nasal the most posterior point at the sagittal Riolo et al.
Spine-PNS plane on the bony hard palate 1974
Posterior Ramus Posterior Ramus a point on the posterior border of the Bhatia and
Point 1-PRM1 ramus at its junction with the condyle Leighton 1993

July13,201012

Name Point Description Reference


Posterior Ramus - Posterior Ramus the most prominent postero-superior point Bhatia and
continued Point 2-PRM2 at the angle of the mandible on the Leighton 1993
posterior ramus behind gonion
Posterior Border this is defined as the intersection of the Riolo et al.
of the Ramus-PB FOP with the posterior border of the 1974
mandibular
Prepronasale Prepronasale- a point located at the pre-convexity of the Bhatia and
PPRN nose tip and tangent to the nasal bridge Leighton 1993
Pronasale Pronasale-PRN the most prominent or anterior point of the Bhatia and
nose tip Leighton 1993
Pronasale-Pn the most prominent or anterior point of the Jacobson and
nose Jacobson 2006/
Holdaway Soft
Tissue
EN Nose a point on the anterior curve of the soft Rickets et al.
tissue nose 1982
Prosthion Prosthion-PR the crest of the upper labial alveolar Bhatia and
process Leighton 1993
Protuberance PM- located at the end of heavy cortex on Rickets et al.
Menti Protruberance symphysis, it is a probable reversal line, 1972
menti/supragonio serves as an anterior point for mandibular
n growth are calculations
PM a point selected where the curveature of Rickets et al.
the anterior border of the symphysis 1982
changes from concave to convex
Pterygoid Fissure Pterygoid A bilateral inverted terdrop-shaped McNamara
Fissure-Ptm radiolucency, whose anterior border 2001
repreents the posterior surfaces of the
tuberocities of the maxilla. The landmark
is taken on the posterior-superior point on
the contour of the pterygomaxillary fissure
Pterygoid Point Pterygoid Point- a point described by Ricketts, which is on Bhatia and
PT the posterior-superior border of the ptrygo- Leighton 1993
maxillary fissures
Pt-Pterygoid a point in the lateral film at the lower edge Rickets et al.
point of the foramen rotundum used as a center 1972
for growth reference. Used to find a central
reference on the basion-nasion plane.
PT Point intersection of the inferior border of the Rickets et al.
foramen rotundum with the posterior wall 1982
of the pterygomaxillary fissure

July13,201013

Name Point Description Reference


Pterygomaxillary Pterygomaxillare- the inferior point at the junction of the Bhatia and
Fissure Inferior PTM anterior and posterior borders of the Leighton 1993
pterygo-maxillary fissure
Pterygo- Pterygo- the most inferior point on the average of Riolo et al.
Maxillary Fissure Maxillary Fissure, the right and left outlines of the pterygo- 1974
Inferior Inferior-PTM maxillary fissure
Pterygomaxillary Pterygomaxillare the most superior point on the on the Bhatia and
Fissure Superior Superior-PTMS pterygomaxillary fissure Leighton 1993
Pterygo- the most superior point on the average of Riolo et al.
Maxillary Fissure, the right and left outlines of the pterygo- 1974
Superior-PTMS maxillary fissure
Sella Turcica Sella-S the center of sella turcica Bhatia and
Leighton 1993
The center of located by inspection of the profile image Downs 1948
sella turcica of the fossa
Sella Turcica-S the center of the pituitary fossa of the Riolo et al.
sphenoidal plane with the averaged greater 1974
sphenoid wing
Stomion Inferius Stomion the uppermost point on the vermilion of Jacobson and
Inferious-Sti the lower lip Jacobson 2006/
Holdaway Soft
Tissue
Stomion Superius Stomion the lowermost point on the vermilion of Jacobson and
Superius-Sts the upper lip Jacobson 2006/
Holdaway Soft
Tissue
Subnasale Subnasale-SN a point located at the junction between Bhatia and
lower border of the nose and beginning of Leighton 1993
the upper lip at the midsagittal plane
Subnasale-Sn the point at which the columella merges Jacobson and
with the upper lip in the midsagittal plane Jacobson 2006/
Holdaway Soft
Tissue
Subspinale A Point-A the deepest point on the concave outline of Bhatia and
the upper labial alveolar process extending Leighton 1993
from from the anterior nasal spine to
prosthion
Point A- the deepest midline point on the premaxilla Downs 1948
subspinale between the anterior nasal spine and
prosthion

July13,201014

Name Point Description Reference


Subspinale - Point A The deepest point in the curved bony McNamara
continued outline from the base to the alveolar 2001
process of the maxilla. Usually found
adjacent to the maxillary incisor root apex
A-Point the deepest point of the curve of the Rickets et al.
maxilla between the anterior nasal spine 1982
and the dental alveolus
A Point-A the most posterior point on the curve of the Riolo et al.
maxilla between the anterior nasal spine 1974
and supradentale
Subspinale (Soft Soft Tissue A the deepest point on the upper lip Bhatia and
Tissue) Point-A' determined by an imaginary line joining Leighton 1993
subnasale with the laberale superius
Superior Labial Superior Labial the point of greatest concavity in the Jacobson and
Sulcus Sulcus-Sls midline of the upper lip between Sn and Ls Jacobson 2006/
Holdaway Soft
Tissue
Supradentale Supradentale-SD the most anterior inferior point on the Riolo et al.
maxilla at its labial contact with the 1974
maxillary central incisor
B Point-B the deepest point on the bony curvature Bhatia and
between the crest of the alveolus and Leighton 1993
pogonion
Point B- the deepest midline point on the mandible Downs 1948
supramentale between infradentale and pogonion
B Point-B the point most posterior to a line from Riolo et al.
Infradentale to Pogonion on the anterior 1974
surface of the symphyseal outline of the
mandible, lies within the apical third of the
incisor roots
Supramentali Soft Tissue B the point at the deepest concavity between Bhatia and
(Soft Tissue) Point-B' laberale inferius and soft tissue pogonion Leighton 1993
UM1 UM1 the most antero-inferior point on the Bhatia and
mesial border of the crown of the upper Leighton 1993
first molar
UM2 UM2 the most postero-inferior point on the Bhatia and
distal border of the crown of the upper first Leighton 1993
molar
Upper Incisor Upper Incisor the root apex of the most prominent upper Bhatia and
Apex Apex-UIA incisor crown Leighton 1993

July13,201015

Name Point Description Reference


Upper Incisor Upper Incisor the root tip of the maxillary central incisor Riolo et al.
Apex - continued Apex-UIA 1974
Upper Incisor A1 Point a point selected at the interdental papilla of Rickets et al.
CEJ the upper incisors at the junction of the 1982
crowns and gingiva
Upper Incisor A1 Incisor incisal tip of the upper incisor Rickets et al.
Cusp Tip 1982
Upper Incisor Upper Incisor the tip of the most prominent upper incisor Bhatia and
Edge Edge-UIE crown Leighton 1993
Upper Incisor the incisal tip of the maxillary central Riolo et al.
Incisal Edge-UIE incisor 1974
Upper Incisor Upper Incisor the lingual contact of alveolar bone with Riolo et al.
Lingual Bony Lingual Bony the maxillary central incisor 1974
Contact Contact Point-
UIB
Upper Incisor AR Incisor root tip of the upper incisor Rickets et al.
Root Tip 1982
Upper Lip Upper Lip the most inferior point located on the upper Bhatia and
Stomion-ULS lip Leighton 1993
UL Upper Lip most anterior point on the upper lip Rickets et al.
1982
Upper Molar A6 upper molar , most distal surface Rickets et al.
Cusp Tip 1972
A6 Upper Molar a point on the occlusal plane perpendicular Rickets et al.
to the distal surface of the crown of the 1982
upper first molar
Upper Molar Upper Molar the posterior cemento-enamel junction of Riolo et al.
Distal CEJ Distal CEJ-UDJ the maxillary first molar 1974
Upper Molar Upper Molar the posterior contact of the maxillary first Riolo et al.
Distal Contact Distal Contact molar 1974
Point-UDC
Upper Molar Upper Molar the posterior cusp tip of the maxillary first Riolo et al.
Distal Cusp Tip Distal Cusp Tip- molar 1974
UDT
Upper Molar Upper Molar the anterior cemento-enamel junction of Riolo et al.
Mesial CEJ Mesial CEJ-UMJ the maxillary first molar 1974
Upper Molar Upper Molar the mesial contact of the maxillary first Riolo et al.
Mesial Contact Mesial Contact- molar relative to the FOP 1974
UMC

July13,201016

Name Point Description Reference


Upper Molar Upper Molar the anterior cusp tip of the maxillary first Riolo et al.
Mesial Cusp Tip Mesial Cusp Tip- molar 1974
UMT
XI Point Xi point the geographic center of ramus, selected by Rickets et al.
geometric bisecting of the height and 1972
width of the ramus
XI Point a point located at the geographic center of Rickets et al.
the ramus, location of XI is keyed 1982
geometrically to PR-OR and a
perpendicular through PT
Y Axis Y axis a line from sella turcica to gnathion Downs 1948

July13,201017

Variables Reference Summary

McNamara

Soft Tissue
Jarabak

Ricketts
London
Frontal

Steiner
Downs

Tweed
Riolo
LOINC Code
1L-APg X X X X
U6_PtV X
Molar rel X
1L-NB X X X
Overjet X X
IMPA (1L-GoMe) X X X
IMPA (1L-GoMe)
(constructed) X
1L-NB X X X
1U-NA X X
1U-ANSPNS X
1U-SeNa X X X
IMPA (1L-GoGn) X
1U-1L X X X X X
Cd-Gn X X X
Cd-ANS X
Cd-A X X
UIE-A FH X
Go-Gn-A X
NaPg-FH X X X X
NAP X X X X
ANSPNS-GoMe X
ANSPNS-GoMe
(constructed) X
SeNa-GoMe X
SeNa-GoMe
(constructed) X

July13,201018

McNamara

SoftTissue
Jarabak

Ricketts
London
Frontal

Steiner
Downs

Tweed
Riolo
LOINC Code
1U-St
Pg-Pg' X X
Ls-Sd X X
Pg'Ls-Sls X
A-A' X X
Lnt-Sn-Ls X X
Na'-Pg'-Ls X
N-FH X
BaNa-CC X X
BaNa-CC
(constructed) X
FH-SeGn X X
FH-SeGn
(constructed) X
SeNa-SeGn X X
Se-Go X X X X
Ar-Go X X
Ar-Go
(constructed) X
ANS-Me X X X
Ar-Go-Me X
Ar-Go-Me
(constructed) X X
FMA X
FMA (constructed) X X X
CF-Go X
SeNa-NaPg X X
SNB X X X X
SNA X X X X
ANB X X X X

July13,201019

McNamara

SoftTissue
Jarabak

Ricketts
London
Frontal

Steiner
Downs

Tweed
Riolo
LOINC Code
Face Low/All X
Face Incisor-
Chin/Low X
Face Mid /Low X X
Face Incisor-
Chin/All X
Face Mid/All X
Face Incisor-
Chin/Mid X
Face Upper/All X
Face All X
Face Low Incisor-
Chin X
Face Low X
Face Mid X
Face Upper X
Gl-Sn X X
Li-Pg'
Sti-Me' X
Ls-Pg'
Na-Me X X
Sn-Pg' X
Sn-Li X
St-Sn X X
ANS-Pg
Adenoid X
Tonsil X
AO-BO X X

July13,201020

McNamara

SoftTissue
Jarabak

Ricketts
London
Frontal

Steiner
Downs

Tweed
Riolo
LOINC Code
Co-Xi-Pm X
ANS-Xi-Pm X
SeNa-ANSPNS X X
ANSPNS-GoMe X
ANSPNS-GoMe
(constructed) X
Li-Me' X
Point A-McNamara
90 X
Sn-Me' X
Se-Ar X X
CC-Na X
Go-Me X X
SeNa-ANSPNS X X
Overbite X X
Cd-Go X X
Sn-Ls X
Sn-Li

July13,201021

Measurements
Lower Incisor to A point-Pogonion LOINC 1L-APg
Length Distance from the incisal edge of the mandibular central incisor
perpendicular to the A-Pogonion line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 261 LIE/A-PG Lower incisal edge from A-PG line
McNamara Anterior-posterior position Facial surface of the lower incisor to the A-Pog line
of the lower incisor
Ricketts 10 Mandibular Incisor The distance from the tip of the lower incisor to the
Protrusion line defining the jaws, the "A-PO" plane
Riolo 115 LIE/A-PG

July13,201022

Upper Molar Position LOINC U6_PtV


length The distance from the distal crown contact of the maxillary first molar
measured back to Pterygoid-Vertical (line from Pterygoid, perpendicular to
the Frankfort horizontal)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Ricketts 9 Upper Molar Position The distance from the pterygoid vertical (the back of
maxilla) to the distal of the first upper molar

July13,201023

Molar Relationship LOINC Molar rel


length The distance from between the distal crown convexities of the upper and
lower permanent first molars, measured along the occlusal plane

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Ricketts 1 Molar Relation The distance between the distal surfaces of the lower
and upper molars measured along the occlusal plane

July13,201024

Lower incisal edge perpendicular to Nasion-B point LOINC 1L-NB


length The distance from the incisal edge of the mandibular central incisor to the
Nasion-B point line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 258 LIE/N-B Lower incisal edge from the N-B plane
Riolo 108 LIE/N-B
Steiner Mandibnular incisor The distance from the Nasion-Point B line to the tip
Position, 1 to NB of the lower central incisor

July13,201025

Overjet LOINC Overjet


length The distance between the incisal edges of the upper and lower central
incisors measured along the occlusal plane

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 263 UIE-LIE ON OC1-OC2 Overjet
Ricketts 3 Incisor Overjet The distance between the incisal tips of the upper and
lower incors measured along the occlusal plane

July13,201026

IMPA, using Menton LOINC IMPA (1L-


GoMe)
degrees The posterior- superior angle between the long axis of the mandibular
central incisor and the mandibular plane (Gonion to Menton)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Downs 1 to mandibular plane The angle from the manibular plane (gonion-menton)
and the axis of the lower central incisor
London 254 ME-GO/LIE-LIA Lower Incisal Inclination to Mandibular Plane
Tweed IMPA The axial inclination of the mandibular incisor in
relation to the mandibular plane

July13,201027

IMPA, using constructed Menton LOINC IMPA (1L-


GoMe), constructed
degrees The posterior- superior angle between the long axis of the mandibular
central incisor and the mandibular plane (Constructed Gonion to Menton)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Riolo 71 GOI-ME/LIE-LIA

July13,201028

Lower Incisor to Nasion-B Point LOINC 1L-NB


degrees The inferior angle formed by the long axis of the mandibular central incisor
and the Nasion-B point line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 259 LIE-LIA/N-B Lower incisal inclination to N-B Plane
Riolo 73 B-N/LIA-LIE
Steiner Mandibular incisor The angle formed by the long axis of the lower
Position, 1 to NB central incisor and the Nasion-Point B line

July13,201029

Upper Incisor to Nasion-A Point LOINC 1U-NA


degrees The superior angle formed by the long axis of the maxillary central incisor
and the Nasion-Subspinale (A point) line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 245 UIE-UIA/N-A Upper Incisal to N-A Plane Angle
Riolo 60 UIA-UIE/N-A

July13,201030

Upper Incisor to Nasal Line LOINC 1U-ANS


PNS
degrees The inferior angle formed between the long axis of the maxillary central
incisor and the Nasal line (Anterior Nasal Spine to Posterior Nasal Spine)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 241 ANS-PNS/UIE-UIA Upper Incisal inclination to Maxillary Plane

July13,201031

Upper One to S-N LOINC 1U-SeNa


degrees The posterior-inferior angle formed by the long axis of the maxillary central
incisor and the Sella-Nasion line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Jarabak U1 to SN The angle formed by the axis of the upper central
incisor and the Sella-Nasion line
London 239 S-N/UIE-UIA Upper incisal inclination to S-N Plane
Riolo 53 UIE-UIA/S-N

July13,201032

IMPA, using Gnathion LOINC IMPA (1L-


GoGn)
degrees The posterior-superior angle between the long axis of the mandibular
central incisor and the mandibular plane (Gonion to Gnathion)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Riolo 69 GO-GN/LIE-LIA

July13,201033

Inter Incisal Angle LOINC U1-L1


degrees The intercisal angle, which is the posterior angle formed at the intersection
of the long axes of the maxillary and mandibular central incisors.

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Downs 1 to 1 A measure of the degree of procumbency of the
incisor teeth; Lines are drawn representing the lower
and upper incisors, with a measure of the inside angle
taken
London 262 UIE-UIA/LIE-LIA Inter-incisal angle
Ricketts 6 Interincisal Angle The angle formed by the long axes of the central
incisors
Riolo 61 LIA-LIE/UIA-UIE
Steiner Interincisal Angle, 1 to 1 The interior angle formed by the axes of the
mandibular and maxillary central incisors

July13,201034

Condylion to Gnathion LOINC Cd-Gn


length The straight line distance between Condylion and Gnathion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 45 CD-GN Total mandibular length from Condylion
McNamara Mandibular length Distance from Condylion to Gnathion
Riolo 79 CO-GN

July13,201035

Condylion to Anterior Nasal Spine LOINC Cd-ANS


length The straight line distance between Condylion and Anterior Nasal Spine

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 229 CD-ANS Maxillary length

July13,201036

Maxillary Length LOINC Cd-A


length The distance between Condylion and A point

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 153 CD-A Condylion-A point
McNamara Midfacial Length The distance from condylion to Point A

July13,201037

Infradentale to Point A LOINC UIE-A FH


length The distance of the incisal edge of the maxillary central incisor relative to
the A line (Line through A point and perpendicular to the Frankfort
horizontal plane)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


McNamara Maxillary incisor to Point The linear distance measured between point A and
A the edge of the maxillary central incisor,
perpendicular to the Frankfort Horizontal Plane

July13,201038

Facial Taper LOINC Go-Gn-A


degrees The superior-posterior angle formed by the Nasion-Pogonion line and the
mandibular line (Gonion to constructed Gnathion)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Ricketts 18 Facial Taper The mandibular plane measured to the facial plane

July13,201039

Facial Angle LOINC NaPg-FH


degrees The posterior-inferior angle at the intersection of the Nasion-Pogonion line
and the Frankfort Horizontal plane

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Downs Facial Angle Expression of the degree of recession or protrusion of
the chin, the inferior inside angle between frankfort
horizontal and the facial plane (nasion to pogonion)
London 304 PO-ORB/N-PG Frankfort/Nasion-PG planes angle
Riolo 21 PG-N/P-OR
Soft Tissue A FH Na-Pg Soft-tissue facial angle, The intersection of the
Frankfort Horizontal plane with a line extending
from Nasion to Pogonion

July13,201040

Angle of Convexity LOINC NAP


Degrees The superior angle between the line Nasion-Subspinale (A point) and the
line A point-Pogonion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Downs Angle of Convexity A measure of the protrusion of the maxillary part of
the face to the total profile; The angle formed by two
lines, one starting at nasion and the other from
pogonion, meeting at A
London 222 N-A-PG Convexity at A point (Angular)
Riolo 52 N-A-PG
Soft Tissue E A-Na-Pg Skeletal profile convexity, Measurement from Point
A to the hard tissue Na-Pg or facial plane

July13,201041

Maxillary Mandibular Planes Angle LOINC ANSPNS-


GoMe
degrees The angle formed by the Palatal line (ANS-PNS) and the mandibular line
(Gonion-Menton)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 348 ANS-PNS/ME-GO Maxillary/Mandibular Planes Angle

July13,201042

Maxillary Mandibular Planes Angle, constructed Menton LOINC ANS-PNS-


GoMe (constructed)
degrees The angle formed by the Palatal line (ANS-PNS) and the mandibular line
(Constructed Gonion-Menton)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Riolo 44 ANS-PNS/ME-GOI

July13,201043

Sella Nasion to Mandibular Line LOINC SeNa-GoMe


degrees The anterior angle formed by the Sella-Nasion line and the Mandibular line
(Gonion-Menton)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 324 N-S/ME-GO Nasion-Sella/Mandibular Planes Angle

July13,201044

Sella Nasion to Mandibular Line, constructed Menton LOINC SeNa-GoMe


(constructed)
degrees The anterior angle formed by the Sella-Nasion line and the Mandibular line
(Constructed Gonion-Menton)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Riolo 13 N-S/ME-GOI

July13,201045

Upper One to Stomion LOINC 1U-St


length The vertical distance from the tip of the maxillary central incisor to Lip
Embrasure (the contact point between upper and lower lips, using superior
Stomion), measured perpendicular to the palatal plane

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description

July13,201046

Chin Thickness LOINC Pg-Pg'


length The distance from hard tissue Pogonion to soft tissue Pogonion, measured
parallel with Frankfort Horizontal plane.

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 381 PG-PG' Soft tissue chin thickness
Soft Tissue K Pg-Pg' Soft-tissue chin thickness, The horizontal distance
between the hard tissue and soft tissue Pogonion

July13,201047

Upper Lip Thickness LOINC Ls-Sd


length The distance from Labrale Superius back to the maxillary central incisor
(supradentale) measured parallel with Frankfort Horizontal Plane.

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 377 PR'-LS Upper lip thickness at Vermillion border
Soft Tissue G Ls-Sd Upper lip strain measurement, measured at the
vermillion border

July13,201048

Subnasal Sulcus LOINC Pg'Ls-Sls


length Distance from the H-Line (line from Soft Tissue Pogonion to Labrale
Superius) to the Superior Labial Sulcus (subnasale)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Soft Tissue D Sn'-H line Measurement of soft tissue subnasale to H line , Line
from Soft Tissue Pogonion to Labrale Superius

July13,201049

Soft Tissue Thickness at A Point LOINC A-A'


length Distance from hard tissue A point to soft tissue A point

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 376 A-A' Upper lip thickness at base
Soft Tissue F A-A Basic upper lip thickness, Measured near the base of
the alveolar process, about 3 mm below Point A

July13,201050

Naso-Labial Angle LOINC Lnt-Sn-Ls


degrees The anterior angle between the base of the nose, Subnasale and Labrale
superius line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 386 CM-SN-LS Nasiolabial angle
McNamara Nasiolabial Angle, The angle formed by the line tangfent to the base of
LNT/SN/L the nose and a line tangent to the upper lip

July13,201051

Holdaway Angle LOINC Na'-Pg'-Ls


degrees The superior-posterior angle between the H line (the most anterior superior
point of the soft tissue chin and Labrale superius) and the soft tissue Nasion
to soft tissue Pogonion line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Soft Tissue H H line-NaPg H angle, Angular measurement of the H line to the
soft tissue Nasion-Pogonion line or soft tissue facial
plane

July13,201052

Nasion to Frankfort Horizontal LOINC N-FH


length A line from Nasion to Frankfort horizontal Plane

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


McNamara NA-perp A vertical line drawn perpendicular to Frankfort
Horizontal through Nasion

July13,201053

Facial Axis LOINC BaNa-CC


degrees The inferior angle between the Basion-Nasion line and CC (Pterygoid-
Gnathion line)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 282 N-BA/PT-GN Nasion-Basion/Facial Axis Angle
McNamara Facial axis A line constructed from the posterosuperior aspect of
the pterygomaxillary fissure to anatomic Gnathion
and a line perpendicular to the cranial base (a line
joining basion and nasion)

July13,201054

Facial Axis, constructed Gnathion LOINC BaNa-CC


(constructed)
degrees The inferior angle between the Basion-Nasion line and CC (Pterygoid-
Contructed Gnathion line)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Ricketts 17a Facial Axis The angle between the facial axis(using constructed
Gnathion) and Basion-Nasion

July13,201055

Y axis to Frankfort Horizontal LOINC FH-SeGn


degrees The anterior-inferior angle between the Frankfort Horizontal line and the
Sella-Gnathion line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 228 S-GN/PO-ORB X-Y Axis angle (Facial Angle)
Riolo 28 OR-PO/GN-S

July13,201056

Y axis to Frankfort Horizontal, constructed Gnathion LOINC FH-SeGn


(constructed)
degrees The anterior-inferior angle between the Frankfort Horizontal line and the
Sella-Constructed Gnathion line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Downs Y Axis The angular realtionship between a line from Sella
turcica to constructed gnathion, the Y axis, and the
Frankfort plane

July13,201057

Y axis to Sella Nasion LOINC SeNa-SeGn


degrees The anterior-inferior angle formed by the intersection of the Sella-Nasion
line and the Sella-Gnathion line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 275 N-S/S-GN Nasion-Sella/Y axis Angle
Riolo 15 N-S-GN

July13,201058

Posterior Facial Height LOINC Se-Go


length Distance from Sella to Gonion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Jarabak PFH, S-Go The distance from Sella to Gonion (constructed)
London 187 S-GO Posterior total face height
Riolo 173 S-GO
Tweed Posterior Facial Height The ramus height from articulare to the mandibular
plane tangent to the posterior border of the ramus

July13,201059

Ramus Height LOINC Ar-Go


length Distance from Articulare to Gonion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 72 ART-GO Ramus Height
Riolo 88 AR-GO

July13,201060

Ramus Height, constructed Gonion LOINC Ar-Go,


constructed
length Distance from Articulare to constructed Gonion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Jarabak Ramus height, Ar-Go The distance from Articulare to Gonion (constructed)

July13,201061

Anterior Nasal Spine to Menton LOINC ANS-Me


length Distance from menton projected perpendicular to the Anterior Nasal Spine

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 176 ME-ANS Anterior lower face height
Riolo 158 ME-ANS
Tweed Anterior Facial Height The vertical distance between the palatal plane and
menton

July13,201062

Gonial Angle LOINC Ar-Go-Me


degrees The angle formed by Articulare, Gonion and Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 78 ART-GO-ME Mandibular Angle

July13,201063

Gonial Angle, constructed Gonion LOINC Ar-Go-Me


degrees The angle formed by Articulare, constructed Gonion and Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Jarabak Gonial Angle, Ar-Go-Me The angle formed by Articulare, Gonion
(constructed) and menton
Riolo 50 AR-GOI-ME

July13,201064

FMA angle LOINC FMA


degrees The anterior-inferior angle formed by the Frankfort Horizontal line and the
Mandibular line (Gonion-Menton)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 345 PO-ORB/ME-GO

July13,201065

FMA angle, constructed Gonion LOINC FMA


(constructed)
degrees The anterior-inferior angle formed by the Frankfort Horizontal line and the
Mandibular line (Constructed Gonion-Menton)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


McNamara Mandibular Plane Angle The angle between anatomical Frankfort horizontal
plane and the line drawn along the lower border of
the mandible (constructed Gonion and Menton)
Riolo 26 OR-PO/ME-GOI
Tweed FMA The direction of lower facial growth in the horizontal
and vertical dimensions

July13,201066

Posterior Facial Height using CF point LOINC CF-Go


length Distance from the CF point (where the Frankfort Horizontal line crosses the
Pterygoid vertical line) to constructed Gonion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Ricketts 24 Posterior Facial height The distance between constructed gonion and CF
point

July13,201067

Angles Describing Sella-Nasion-Pogonion LOINC SeNa-NaPg


degrees The inferior-posterior angle formed by the Sella-Nasion line and the
Nasion-Pogonion line

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 203 S-N-PG Sella-Nasion-Pogonion Angle
Riolo 5 PG-N-S

July13,201068

Angles Describing Sella-Nasion-Point B LOINC SNB


degrees The inferior-posterior angle defined by Sella, Nasion and Supramentale (B
point)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 202 S-N-B Sella-Nasion-B Point Angle
Riolo 3 B-N-S
Steiner SNB The angle between Sella, Nasion and Point B
Tweed SNB The horizontal relationship of the mandible to the
cranial base

July13,201069

Angles Describing Sella-Nasion-Point A LOINC SNA


degrees The posterior-inferior angle formed by Sella, Nasion, and Subspinale (A
point)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 201 S-N-A Sella-Nasion-A Point Angle
Riolo 2 A-N-S
Steiner SNA The angle between Sella, Nasion and Point A
Tweed SNA The relative horizontal position of the maxilla to the
cranial base

July13,201070

Angles Describing Point A-Nasion-Point B LOINC ANB


degrees Angle defined by Subspinale (A point), Nasion, and Supramentale (B point)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 217 A-N-B A Point- Nasion-B Point Angle
Riolo 4 A-N-B
Steiner ANB The angle between Point A, Nasion and Point B
Tweed ANB The horizontal relationship of the maxilla to the
mandible

July13,201071

Face Low / All Ratio LOINC Face Low/All


ratio The ratio of the distance from Subnasale to soft tissue Menton to the
distance from the most anterior portion of the forehead to soft tissue Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal Face Low/ Face All The ratio of Face low to Face All

July13,201072

Face Incisor to Chin / Low Ratio LOINC Face Incisor-


Chin/Low
ratio The ratio of the distance from the embrasure of the lower central incisor to
the Chin Tangent to the distance from Subnasale to soft tissue Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal Face Lower Incisor/ Face The ratio of the Face Lower Incisor to Face Low
Low

July13,201073

Face Mid / Low Ratio LOINC Face


Mid/Low
ratio The ratio of the distance from soft tissue Glabella to Subnasale to the
distance from Subnasale to soft tissue Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal Face Mid/Face Low The ratio of the Face Middle to the Face Lower
London 367 SGLB-SN/ ME-SN Upper and lower face height ratio

July13,201074

Face Incisor to Chin / All Ratio LOINC Face Incisor-


Chin/All
ratio The ratio of the distance from the embrasure of the lower central incisor to
the Chin Tangent to the distance from the most anterior portion of the
forehead to soft tissue Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal Face Lower Incisor/ Face The ratio of the Face lower Incisor to the Face All
All

July13,201075

Face Mid / All Ratio LOINC Face Mid/All


ratio The ratio of the distance from soft tissue Glabella to Subnasale to the
distance from the most anterior portion of the forehead to soft tissue Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal Face Mid/Face All The ratio of the Face middle to the Face All

July13,201076

Face Incisor to Chin / Mid Ratio LOINC Face Incisor-


Chin/Mid
ratio The ratio of the distance from the embrasure of the lower central incisor to
the Chin Tangent to the distance from soft tissue glabella to subnasale

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal Face Lower Incisor/ Face The ratio of the Face Lower Incisor to Face Middle
Mid

July13,201077

Face Upper/ All Ratio LOINC Face


Upper/All
ratio The ratio of the distance from the most anterior portion of the frontal bone
to soft tissue Glabella to the distance from the most anterior portion of the
forehead to soft tissue Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal Face Upper/Face All The ratio of the Face Upper to the Face All

July13,201078

Face All LOINC Face All


length The distance from the most anterior portion of the forehead to Menton (soft
tissue)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal Face All, HAIRLINE-ME Hairline (the most anterior portion of the forehead)
to Menton

July13,201079

Face Low Incisor to Chin LOINC Face Low


Incisor-Chin
length The distance from the embrasure of the lower central incisor to the Chin
Tangent

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal Face Lower Incisor to Embrasure of the lower incisor to the Chin Tangent
chin, LI-CT

July13,201080

Face Low LOINC Face Low


length The distance from soft tissue Subnasale to soft tissue Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal FACE LOW, SN-ME Subnasale to Menton

July13,201081

Face Mid LOINC Face Mid


length The distance from soft tissue Glabella to Subnasale

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal FACE MID, G-SN Eyebrows (Glabella) to Subnasale

July13,201082

Face Upper LOINC Face Upper


length The distance from the most anterior portion of the forehead to soft tissue
Glabella

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal FACE UP, HAIRLINE-G Hairline (most anterior portion of forehead) to
eyebrows (Glabella)

July13,201083

Glabella to Subnasale LOINC Gl-Sn


length Distance from Soft tissue Glabella to Subnasale (Parallel to Frankfort
Horizontal Plane)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Frontal FACE MID, G-SN Eyebrows (Glabella) to Subnasale
London 362 SGLB-SN Soft tissue Glabella to Subnasale

July13,201084

Lower Lip to Pogonion LOINC Li-Pg


length Distance from Labrale Inferius to Soft tissue Pogonion(Perpendicular to the
Frankfort Horizontal Plane)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description

July13,201085

Stomion to Menton LOINC Sti-Me'


length Distance from the Stomion inferius to the Soft Tissue Menton
(Perpendicular to the Frankfort Horizontal Plane)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 364 LLS-ME' Lower lip length from soft tissue Menton

July13,201086

Upper Lip to Pogonion LOINC Ls-Pg'


length Distance from Labrale superius to soft tissue Pogonion (Perpendicular to the
Frankfort Horizontal Plane)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description

July13,201087

Anterior Facial Height LOINC Na-Me


length Distance between Nasion and Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 178 N-ME Anterior total face height
Riolo 160 ME-N

July13,201088

Subnasale to Pogonion LOINC Sn-Pg'


length The distance from Subnasale to soft tissue Pogonion, projected onto the
Frankfort Horizontal Plane

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 371 Pg-SN Chin (pogonion) to Subnasale

July13,201089

Subnasale to Lower Lip LOINC Sn-Li


length Distance from the Labius inferius to Subnasale projected onto the Frankfort
Horizontal Plane

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 370 LI-SN Lower Vermillion border to Subnasale

July13,201090

Subnasale to Stomion LOINC St-Sn


length Distance from superior Stomion to Subnasale

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 369 LS-SN Upper Vermillion Border to Subnasale
Soft Tissue C \ Superior sulcus depth measured perpendicular to
Frankfort and tangent to the vermillion border to the
upper lip, The distance from soft tissue subnasale to
the vermillion border of the upper lip, reflected on
the Frankfort Horizontal Planeane

July13,201091

Anterior Nasal Spine to Pogonion LOINC ANS-Pg


length Distance from the Anterior Nasal Spine to Pogonion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description

July13,201092

Adenoid Width LOINC Adenoid


length Measured from a point on the posterior outline of the soft palate to the
closest point on the Pharyngeal wall

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


McNamara Upper Pharynx A point on the posterior outline of the soft palate to
the closest point on the posterior pharyngeal wall

July13,201093

Tonsilar Width LOINC Tonsil


length Measured from the intersection of the posterior border on the tongue and the
inferior border of the mandible to the closest point on the posterior
pharyngeal wall

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


McNamara Lower Pharynx Width measured from the intersection of the
posterior border of the tongue and the inferior border
of the mandible to the closest point on the posterior
pharyngeal wall

July13,201094

Wits Analysis LOINC AO-BO


length Distance between A point and B point, each projected to the Functional
Occlusal Plane (line passing through posterior cusp of the maxillary first
molar and a line along the occlusion of the maxillary and mandibular
premolars and a line perpendicular to it through the averaged anterior
contact of the first maxillary premolars with the maxillary canine (cuspid)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 218 A-B ON OC1-OC2 Plane WITS analysis
Tweed AO-BO The horizontal relationship of the maxilla to the
mandible

July13,201095

Mandibular Arc LOINC Co-Xi-Pm


degrees The posterior-superior angle formed by Condylion to Xi (geometric center
of the ramus) to Suprapogonion (Pm-point along curvature of symphysis
which changes form convexity to concavity)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Ricketts 27 Mandibular arc The angle between the corpus and condyle axes

July13,201096

Lower Facial Height Angle LOINC ANS-Xi-Pm


degrees The anterior angle formed by Anterior Nasal Spine (ANS) to Xi (geometric
center of the ramus) to Suprapogonion (Pm- point along curvature of
symphysis which changes form convexity to concavity)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Ricketts 8 Lower face Height The angle from the anterior nasal spine to the center
of the ramus (XI) to PM

July13,201097

Sella Nasion to Palatal Plane LOINC SeNa-


ANSPNS
degrees The angle between the Sella-Nasion line and the Palatal plane (ANS-PNS)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 322 N-S/ANS-PNS Nasion-Sella/Maxillary Planes Angle
Riolo 9 N-S/ANS-PNS

July13,201098

Palatal Plane to Mandibular Plane LOINC ANSPNS-


GoMe
degrees The posterior angle formed by the palatal plane (Anterior nasal spine and
Posterior nasal spine) and the mandibular plane (Gonion to Menton)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 348 ANS-PNS/ME-GO Maxillary/Mandibular Planes Angle

July13,201099

Palatal Plane to Mandibular Plane, constructed Gonion LOINC ANSPNS-


GoMe (constructed)
degrees The posterior angle formed by the palatal plane (Anterior nasal spine and
Posterior nasal spine) and the mandibular plane (constructed Gonion to
Menton)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Riolo 44 ANS-PNS/ME-GOI

July13,2010100

Lower Lip to Menton LOINC Li-Me'


length Distance from Labrale Inferius to Soft tissue Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 365 LI-ME' Lower Vermillion to soft tissue Menton

July13,2010101

Point A to McNamara 90 LOINC Point A-


McNamara 90
length The distance between A point and McNamara 90

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


McNamara Anterior Position of Point The linear distance between nasion-perpendicular (to
A Frankfort Horizontal plane) and Point A

July13,2010102

Subnasale to Menton LOINC Sn-Me'


length The distance from Subnasale to Soft tissue Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 366 SN-ME' Soft tissue lower face height

July13,2010103

Posterior Cranial Base Length LOINC Se-Ar


length Distance from Sella to Articulare

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Jarabak Posterior Cranial Base, S- The distance from Sella to Articulare
Ar
Riolo 174 S-AR

July13,2010104

Anterior Cranial Length LOINC CC-Na


length The distance from the CC point (the point where the Basion-Nasion plane
and the facial axis intersect) to Nasion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Ricketts 23 Cranial Length-Anterior The distance between CC point and Nasion

July13,2010105

Mandibular Body Length LOINC Go-Me


length The distance between Gonion and Menton

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 64 GO-ME Mandibular base length from Gonion
Riolo 94 GO-ME

July13,2010106

Palatal Plane to Sella Nasion LOINC SeNa-


ANSPNS
degrees The angle between the Sella-Nasion line and the Palatal plane (ANS-PNS)

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 322 N-S/ANS-PNS Nasion-Sella/ Maxillary Planes Angle
Riolo 9 N-S/ANS-PNS

July13,2010107

Overbite LOINC Overbite


length The distance between the incisal edges of the upper and lower central
incisors measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 264 UIE-LIE ON N-ME Overbite
Ricketts 4 Incisor Overbite The distance between the tips of the lower and upper
incisors measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane

July13,2010108

Condylion to Gonion LOINC Cd-Go


length The distance between Condylion and Gonion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 69 CD-GO Ramus height
Riolo 81 CO-GO

July13,2010109

Subnasale to Upper Lip LOINC Sn-Ls


length Upper lip length from Subnasale to Labius superius

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 363 ULS-SN Upper lip length from Subnasale

July13,2010110

Subnasale to Lower Lip LOINC Sn-Li


length Distance from the Labius inferius to Subnasale

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description

July13,2010111

Planes Sample layout for each plane with column name.

New Text Description LOINC New Abbv


Type of Economides Description
Measurement

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Downs
Frontal
Jarabak
London
McNamara
Ricketts
Riolo
Soft Tissue
Steiner
Tweed

July13,2010112

Frankfort Horizontal Plane LOINC Po-Or


plane The line between Porion and Orbitale

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Downs FH A horizontal plane running thru the right and left
ceph porion and the left orbitale.
London 37 ORB-PO Orbitale-Porion
McNamara FH A line drawn from anatomic Porion to Orbitale
Ricketts 1 Pr-Or Basic reference, porion and orbital relate to the basic
sense organs, the eyey and the ear. The plane
connectiong these two points forms the basic
horizontal reference line in the the lateral tracing
headfilm known as the Frankfort Horizontal (FH)
plane.
Riolo Ceph Plane PO-OR Porion-orbital
4

July13,2010113

Mandibular line LOINC Go-Gn


plane The line between Gonion and Gnathion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 63 GO-GN Mandibular base length from Gonion
Riolo 93 GO-GN
Steiner Mandibular Plane Between Gonion and Gnathion

July13,2010114

Mandibular line, constructed Gnathion LOINC Go-Gn


plane The line between Gonion and constructed Gnathion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Jarabak Mandibular Body, Go-Gn The distance from Gonion to Gnathion
Ricketts 4 Mandibular plane A tangent line to the inferior border of the mandible

July13,2010115

Mandibular line, constructed Gonion and Gonathion LOINC Go-Gn


plane The line between constructed Gonion and constructed Gnathion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Downs Mandibular plane A line at the lower border of the mandible tangent to
the gonion angle and the profile image of the
symphysis

July13,2010116

Occlusal Plane LOINC Occlusal


Plane
plane The line between the midpoint of the line connecting the lower and upper
incisal edge and the midpoint of the line connecting the anterior cusp tip of
the maxillary and mandibular first molar and the Frankfort Horizontal Plane

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Downs Cant of Occlusal Plane The angle formed by bisecting the first molar cusp
height and incisal overbite and connecting the two
with a straight line and the Frankfort horizontal plane
London Horizontal OC1-OC2 Occlusal plane
plane 7
Ricketts 6 Occlusal plane Line bisecting the overbite of the the molars, and
passing just inferior to Xi point
Riolo Ceph Plane ADP-PDP Anterior downs
7
Tweed Occlusal Plane The relationship of the occlusal plane to the
Frankfort horizontal Plane

July13,2010117

Esthetic Line LOINC Lnt-Pg'


plane The line from the Lower Nasal Tangent to soft tissue Pogonion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Ricketts 7 Esthetic plane A line connecting the tip of the nose and the most
anterior point of the soft tissue chin

July13,2010118

Lower Incisal Axis LOINC 1L-Ai


plane The line on the Lower central incisor from the incision inferius to the apex

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description

July13,2010119

Upper Incisal Axis LOINC 1U-As


plane The line on the Upper central incisor from the Incision superius to the apex
superior

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description

July13,2010120

Nasal Line LOINC ANS-PNS


plane The line between the Anterior and Posterior Nasal Spine

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


London 28 ANS-PNS Maxillary base length
Ricketts 3 Palatal plane Defined by ANS-PNS, it is parallel to the Frankfort
Horizontal Line
Riolo Ceph plane ANS-PNS Palatal plane
5
116 PNS-ANS

July13,2010121

Sella Nasion Line LOINC Se-Na


plane The line between Sella and Nasion

Reference: Variable # Abbreviation Description


Jarabak Anterior Cranial Base The distance from Sella to Nasion
London 5 N-S Anterior Cranial base length
Riolo Ceph plane S-N Sella- Nasion
#2
149 S-N


July13,2010122