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Sandvik

Conveyor Components
5/2000

SELECTION OF CONVEYOR PULLEY


CAPACITY- AND POWER CALCULATIONS Specify:

1 Selecting the conveyor pulleys is started by specifying the belt tensions of


the conveyor. Belt tensions come from the capacity calculations of the
Wrap angle a
Belt width B
conveyor. Calculations can be made according to SFS-ISO5048. Specify Method of belt strain
Belt tensions F
the belt tensions F and wrap angle a for each pulley. Capacity and
Pulley diameters
power calculations also give the correct belt width B. Generally the belt
specifies the minimum diameter of the pulley. Select the diameter. Use following pages as help:
Belt tensions and friction/
We will help you with the calculations if needed.
Pulley diameter
Optimization examples
of the pulley size
Make the capacity- and power
calculations Use as help the pages
Decide
Estimate tentatively Belt tensions and friction/Pulley diameter
wrap angle a Optimization examples of the pulley size wrap angle a
friction coefficient m Pulley laggings friction coefficient m
Calculate tentative belt tensions Optimize the belt tensions of the pulley Calculate the final results of belt
tensions

F1
R = F1 + F2 =e
F2

R = 2 F3

R = G tan ( / 2) R =G R = G tan ( / 2) R = F2 tan ( / 2)

SPECIFY THE RESULTANT LOAD OF THE PULLEY

2 The resultant load R is specified on the basis of the belt tensions. Specify
own resultant load R for each pulley with the help of belt tensions and
Calculate:
Resultant R
general calculation methods.
The obtained resultant load R has to be corrected in the following cases:
SCREW TAKE-UP: When there is a screw take-up on the conveyor,
the resultant load R of tail pulley has to be
multiplied by the safety factor 1.5.

R = 1.5 x R(of the belt tensions)


SMALL WRAP ANGLE a: If the calculated resultant load R of tail pulley
exceeds 50 kN and the wrap angle a is less than
75 degrees, extra tension is placed on the pulley
shell. ROXON's technical service helps you to
select the correct pulley.

Select the pulley according to the corrected resultant load.


We reserve the right for modifications without prior notice.
Sandvik
Conveyor Components
5/2000

SELECTION OF THE PULLEY TYPE AND SEALING

3
Use the pages:
The ROXON pulley range is very versatile. Selection of our standard pulleys
Standard pulleys
contain the most general constructional alternatives among our customers.
Pulley bearing and
They have been optimized to the functional constructions on the sealing methods
economical, strength and technical basis. We design and tailor make
pulleys also exclusively acc. to your special needs. Select the pulley type.
Note that the loadability of each pulley types is different on the same shaft
diameters.
Bearing house sealings of our standard pulleys are designed to give long
operational lifetime when running the conveyor in normal environments.
However, sometimes it is advantageous to select some other sealing method
from our wide selection. Check the suitability of the standard sealing.

SELECTION OF THE PULLEY SIZE (SHAFT DIAMETERS)

4 The max. load RT for each pulley type and size is given on the data pages
relating to of our standard pulleys. Select the pulley size (shaft diameter)
Use the pages:

suitable for your belt width so that the calculated resultant load R is smaller DL, BL, DK, ...
than the allowed load RT of the pulley.

CHECK THE BEARING LIFE AND ROTATION SPEED

5 Check the bearing life for the selected pulley according to the Bearing life
and need for a balancing -page. If the bearing life is below the resultant
Use the page:
Bearing life and need
load R, select the next pulley size with a larger shaft diameter. Check the for a balancing
bearing life and need for a balancing.

OTHER PULLEY SIZES

6 When the load exceeds the loading range of the standard pulley selection,
the pulleys must be tailor made.

SELECTION EXAMPLE OF THE DRIVE PULLEY: SELECTION EXAMPLE OF THE TAIL PULLEY:
Select the drive pulley according to the following initial Select the tail pulley according to the following initial
information: information:
Calculated resultant R = 18 kN Calculated resultant R = 8 kN
Wrap angle a = 180 Wrap angle a = 180
Belt speed v = 1.8 m/s Belt speed v = 1.2 m/s
Belt width B = 1200 mm Belt width B = 1200 mm
Pulley diameter D = 500 mm Pulley diameter D = 400 mm
Expected bearing life 50 000 h Expected bearing life 50 000 h
Belt tensioning Screw take-up
In the example resultant load need not be corrected due to the In the example resultant load need not to be corrected due to
wrap angle (a) and screw take-up. Select the pulley the wrap angle (a). Due to screw take-up, selection of the
according to resultant R = 18 kN. pulley according to resultant R = 1.5 x 8 = 12 kN.

Pulley type selected is from the DK -serie. Pulley type selected is from the BK -serie.
From the data sheet of DK-, BK-pulley, from the table- From the data sheet of DK-, BK-pulley, from the table-
Loadability of the pulley RT , the following pulley is selected: Loadability of the pulley RT , the following pulley is selected:
DK60 - 500X - 1400 BK50 - 400T - 1400
Base: R < RT (18 kN < 21 kN) Base: R < RT (12 kN < 13 kN)

On the basis of pulley diameter D , belt speed v and expected On the basis of pulley diameter D , belt speed v and expected
life from the page heated Bearing life and need for a life from the page heated Bearing life and need for a
balancing gives for the DK60 -pulley: balancing gives for the BK50 -pulley:
RL = 71 kN RL = 50 kN
Because R < RL (21 kN < 71 kN), selected pulley is accepted. Because R < RL (12 kN < 50 kN), selected pulley is accepted.

ORDERING EXAMPLE: ORDERING EXAMPLE:


DK60 - 500X - 1400, for the gear Kumera RF125 BK50 - 400T - 1400

We reserve the right for modifications without prior notice.


Sandvik
Conveyor Components
5/2000

BELT TENSIONS AND FRICTION


PULLEY DIAMETER
BELT TENSIONS AND FRICTION
The friction coefficient of the drive pulley surface is of decisive Using good, friction increasing lagging also has an important effect
importance for the power transmission between the conveyor drive on the pulley size. Study carefully the lagging alternatives on the
and the belt. The friction coefficient is influenced not only by the Pulley laggings -page.
environmental and operational conditions but also essentially the used
PA = power transmitted
lagging material on the pulley.
with the pulley
The power and periphery force transferred with the pulley is Fu = required periphery force
calculated with the following formulas: v = conveyor speed
F1 = belt tension on the
PA = Fu v Fu = F1 F2 incoming side
F2 = belt tension on the
outgoing side
The friction coefficient is of importance to the ratio between the belt
e = radix 2.718 of the
tensions: natural logarithm
F1 1 1 m = coefficient of friction
= e F2 Fu
= Fu m m= on the pulley
F2 e 1 e 1
a = wrap angle of the belt
Coefficient m is called factor of power transmission. The table below on the pulley (rad)
shows the factor value with some m and a values. R = resultant load

Wrap FAC TOR OF P OWE R TR AN S MIS S ION m


an g le F rictio n co efficien t o f th e d riv e p u lley
a 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60
170 2.895 1.784 1.234 0.909 0.697 0.548 0.439 0.357 0.293 0.243 0.203
180 2.709 1.661 1.144 0.838 0.638 0.499 0.398 0.321 0.262 0.216 0.179
190 2.543 1.552 1.063 0.775 0.587 0.456 0.361 0.290 0.235 0.192 0.158
200 2.394 1.453 0.990 0.718 0.541 0.418 0.329 0.262 0.212 0.172 0.140
210 2.259 1.364 0.925 0.667 0.499 0.384 0.300 0.238 0.190 0.154 0.125
220 2.136 1.284 0.866 0.621 0.462 0.353 0.274 0.216 0.172 0.138 0.111
230 2.024 1.211 0.812 0.579 0.428 0.325 0.251 0.197 0.155 0.124 0.099
240 1.922 1.144 0.763 0.541 0.398 0.300 0.230 0.179 0.140 0.111 0.088
250 1.828 1.082 0.718 0.506 0.370 0.277 0.212 0.163 0.127 0.100 0.079
360 1.144 0.638 0.398 0.262 0.179 0.125 0.088 0.063 0.045 0.033 0.024
370 1.102 0.612 0.379 0.248 0.168 0.116 0.082 0.058 0.041 0.030 0.021
380 1.063 0.587 0.361 0.235 0.158 0.109 0.076 0.053 0.038 0.027 0.019
390 1.025 0.563 0.345 0.223 0.149 0.102 0.070 0.049 0.034 0.024 0.017
400 0.990 0.541 0.329 0.212 0.140 0.095 0.065 0.045 0.031 0.022 0.015
410 0.957 0.519 0.314 0.201 0.132 0.089 0.061 0.042 0.029 0.020 0.014
430 0.894 0.480 0.287 0.181 0.118 0.078 0.052 0.035 0.024 0.016 0.011
450 0.838 0.445 0.262 0.163 0.105 0.068 0.045 0.030 0.020 0.013 0.009
a ~ 120 ... 180 a ~ 210 ... 250 a ~ 360 ... 400 a ~ 410 ... 450

PULLEY DIAMETER
Always check the minimum diameter of the pulley according to the Better friction and more power for transmission can not be achieved
belt type because the overlay of the different manufacturers varies by enlarging the pulley diameter. Only if the preliminary selection has
and needs a different minimum diameter. Standards (SFS, ISO 3684- been too small a pulley diameter for the stiff belt, can enlarging the
76) specifies the min. diameters of the pulleys for each type of belt pulley diameter increase the friction between drive pulley and belt.
according to the operating data. The table enclosed shows the min.
diameters of the most common EP -type belts. Besides the enclosed
examples of EP-belt with polyesther fabric there are also vinyl-nylon
and steel wire belt as well as patterned- and ribbed belts which all
need checking according to the brochures of the belt manufacturers.

R e c o mme n d e d min imu m d ia me te r o f th e p u lle y A = drive pulleys or other pulleys with heavy
P e rc e n ta g e (% ) o f b e lt te n s io n d u rin g c o n v e y o r belt tensions
ru n fro m ma x imu m a llo we d te n s io n
F ra me ty p e o f th e
( 60 ) - 100 % ( 30 ) - 60 % 30 % B = freely rotating tail pulleys
E P -fa b ric b e lt
L o c a tio n o f L o c a tio n o f L o c a tio n o f C = freely rotating tail pulleys with wrap angle
th e p u lle y th e p u lle y th e p u lle y less than 30 degrees
A B C A B C A B C
160/2 250 200 160 200 160 125 160 160 125
200/2 250 200 160 200 160 125 160 160 125
BELT CODE: EP 800 / 5
250/2 315/3 320 250 200 250 200 160 200 200 160
Fabric type (EP = polyesther)
315/2 400/3 500/3 400 320 250 320 250 200 250 250 200
400/2 630/4 500/4 630/3 500 400 320 400 320 250 320 320 250 Tensile strength at break of the belt N/mm2
630/5 800/4 1000/3 630 500 400 500 400 320 400 400 320 Number of plies
800/5 1250/4 1000/4 800 630 500 630 500 400 500 500 400
1000/5 1600/4 1600/5 1000 800 630 800 630 500 630 630 500
We reserve the right for modifications without prior notice.
Sandvik
Conveyor Components
5/2000

OPTIMIZATION EXAMPLES OF THE PULLEY SIZE


The coefficient of friction and wrap angle of the drive pulley have an The enclosed study covers only the main components of transmission;
essential influence on the component selection of a belt conveyor. comparison of the pulleys and belt. Considerable savings will also be
The pulley laggings which increase the friction will decrease tensions reached with other conveyor components and frame structures by
considerably. reducing the belt tensions.
Example conveyor: Among other things by limiting the belt sag the belt stress will increase
a little in example 3.
Belt width B 1200 mm
Conveyor length 70 m
Capacity 450 t/h
Belt speed 1.0 m/s The prices below described ratio of financing
Conveyed material ore costs between different kinds of conveyor solutions.
Conveyor type ascending conveyor
Take-up method gravity take-up
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION WRAP ANGLE
In the following examples the effect of the coefficient of friction on In the following examples the effect of the wrap angle on the belt
the belt tensions and selection of the main components has been tensions and selection of the main components has been compared.
compared. Used wrap angle a = 180. Used friction cofficient m = 0.3.
Example 1 m = 0.1 Example 1 a = 180
Required Fu = 31 kN Required Fu = 31 kN
Belt width B = 1200 mm Belt width B = 1200 mm
Wrap angle a = 180 Friction cofficient m = 0.3
F2 = Fu x m = 31 x 2.709 = 84 kN F2 = F u x m = 31 x 0.638 = 20 kN
F1 = Fu + F2 = 31 + 84 = 115 kN F1 = F u + F2 = 31 + 20 = 51 kN
R = F1 + F2 = 115 + 84 = 199 kN R = F1 + F2 = 51 + 20 = 71 kN
F3 = 81 kN R = 2 x F3 = 162 kN F3 = 17 kN R = 2 x F3 = 34 kN
Cost comparison of the components: Cost comparison of the components:
1. Drive pulley: DK140 - 800T - 1400 21 660 mk 1. Drive pulley: DK100 - 500X - 1400 10 875 mk
2. Tail pulley: BK135 - 630T - 1400 16 670 mk 2. Tail pulley: BK80 - 400K - 1400 6 210 mk
3. Belt: EP1000/5 67 500 mk 3. Belt: EP500/4 43 800 mk
Total: 105 830 mk Total: 60 885 mk

Example 2 m = 0.3 Example 2 a = 210


Required Fu = 31 kN Required Fu = 31 kN
Belt width B = 1200 mm Belt width B = 1200 mm
Wrap angle a = 180 Friction cofficient m = 0.3
F2 = Fu x m = 31 x 0.638 = 20 kN F2 = F u x m = 31 x 0.499 = 15 kN
F1 = Fu + F2 = 31 + 22 = 51 kN F1 = F u + F2 = 31 + 15 = 46 kN
R = F1 + F2 = 51 + 20 = 71 kN R = F1 + F2 = 46 + 15 = 61 kN
F3= 17 kN R = 2 x F3 = 34 kN F3 = 13 kN R = 2 x F3 = 26 kN
Cost comparison of the components: Cost comparison of the components:
1. Drive pulley: DK100 - 500X - 1400 10 875 mk 1. Drive pulley: DK90 - 400X - 1400 8 560 mk
2. Tail pulley: BK80 - 400T - 1400 6 220 mk 2. Tail pulley: BK70 - 320T - 1400 5 090 mk
3. Belt: EP500/4 43 800 mk 3. Snub pulley: BK50 - 270K - 1400 4 670 mk
4. Belt: EP500/3 40 300 mk
Total: 60 895 mk Total: 58 620 mk

Example 3 m = 0.6 Example 3 a = 250


Required Fu = 31 kN Required Fu = 31 kN
Belt width B = 1200 mm Belt width B = 1200 mm
Wrap angle a = 180 Friction cofficient m = 0.3
F2 = Fu x m = 31 x 0.179 = 6 kN F2 = F u x m = 31 x 0.370 = 11 kN
F1 = Fu + F2 = 31 + 6 = 37 kN F1 = F u + F2 = 31 + 11 = 42 kN
R = F1 + F2 = 37 + 6 = 43 kN R = F1 + F2 = 42 + 11 = 53 kN
F3 = 3 kN R = 2 x F3 = 6 kN F3 = 9 kN R = 2 x F3 = 18 kN
Cost comparison of the components: Cost comparison of the components:
1. Drive pulley: DK80 - 400Z - 1400 9 610 mk 1. Drive pulley: DK90 - 400X - 1400 8 560 mk
2. Tail pulley: BK40 - 320T - 1400 3 410 mk 2. Tail pulley: BK60 - 320T - 1400 4 540 mk
3. Belt: EP315/3 30 000 mk 3. Snub pulley: BK50 - 270K - 1400 4 670 mk
4. Belt: EP400/3 36 000 mk
Total: 43 020 mk Total: 53 770 mk

We reserve the right for modifications without prior notice.


Sandvik
Conveyor Components
1/98

PULLEY LAGGINGS
Tail pulley on
There is a wide range of different laggings on ROXON clean side of belt
pulleys depending on weather-, process- and operation
environments. When selecting the laggings please note
Tail pulley on
that their purposes on the drive- and tail pulleys are dirty side of belt
different and so lagging should be considerated
separately. In addition to the lagging range, other
Clean side of belt Dirty side of belt Tail pulley on
laggings are also available for special needs.
clean side of belt

Drive pulley: Tail pulley:


The main purpose of the lagging is to increase the On the dirty side of the belt lagging helps the pulley to
friction and so improve the transmission between the remain clean and so to keep the belt centered.
belt and the pulley.
On the clean side of the pulleys smooth lagging is often
Elastic laggings also help to keep the pulley clean and used to maintain cleanness in demanding processes.
so improve the duration of friction.
The cleanness of the tail pulley can be considerably
Grooved lagging makes possible the removal of improved by using separate pulley cleaners.
moisture at the point where the belt comes to the
pulley and thus improves the friction.

Friction coefficient on drive


Operating Price pulley
LAGGING TYPE Type Environments Remarks
target ratio Slightly Wet, dirty
Dry
moist ice
Drive pulley indoor, clean, dry
0 0.4 0.15 <0.1
Steel surface
no separate laggings
T
Tail pulley clean, no sticking
pulley shell
materials
Cross grooved SBR-
rubber 60 ShA Other groove ty-
normal pes also available
hot vulcanized/sand X Drive pulley
environements
4 0.6 0.5 0.2
(example V-type
blasted steel surface grooving).
pulley shell

Smooth SBR-rubber
Drive pulley
40 or 60 ShA
60 ShA
hot vulcanized/sand normal
blasted steel surface
K environments
3 0.5 0.4 0.2
Tail pulley
pulley shell 40 ShA

Friction beam
fixed with the screws
wet, icy, sticking Use of carving
to the shell P Drive pulley
materials
5 0.6 0.5 0.3
belt cleaners not
recommended.

Friction plate
fixed from the front
wet, icy, sticking
edge to the shell R Drive pulley 5 0.6 0.5 0.4 Not for high belt
materials tensions.

Ceramic
elastic epoxy resin wet, powder
containing Al2O3 grain S Drive pulley type, wearing 5 0.7 0.6 0.3
pulley shell
materials

"Cerabber"
to the hot vulcanized
rubber surface is wet, icy, sticking
casted ceramic tiles
Z Drive pulley
materials
8 0.7 0.6 0.5

pulley shell

We reserve the right for modifications without prior notice.


Sandvik
Conveyor Components
12/99

STANDARD PULLEYS
Roxons range of standard construction pulleys are shown in the below. Choose the correct solution in your
case. We also manufacture tailor made pulleys according clients special needs.

CROWNED PULLEYS
Crowning of pulley means that shell diameter in the middle of pulley is larger than on both ends. It is used
widely for improving alignment of belt. Crowning of pulleys for drives with multi pulleys is not recommended in
order to prevent local overloads of the belt. Crowning is not used with steel cord belts either. ROXONS
standard pulleys are always supplied crowned. If a pulley is needed without crowning, it must be mentioned
at the time of ordering.

Pulley type Shaft


Bearing Sealing Construction
d
Drive Tail

- divisible casted
bearing housings.
to DIN standard Polyurethane
DL BL 40...140 - bearing assembly 2-lip seal
with adapter
sleeves

- end plate welded on the shaft on both sides of plate


- larger shaft dimensions with intermediate bushing

- divisible casted
bearing housings.
to DIN standard Polyurethane
DK BK 40...140 - bearing assembly 2-lip seal
with adapter
sleeves - cone bushing locking device between shaft and
end plate
- shaft can be dismantled from shell construction
- loadability higher than DL/BL type pulleys

- bearing housings
made from solid
steel plate Labyrinth and
BED BEE 40...140 - cylinder hole shaft seal
bearing assembled
with locking rings

- end plate welded on the shaft on both sides of plate


- lager shaft dimensions with intermediate bushing

- Detachable solid
steel type bearing Polyurethane
BP 40...80
housing located on 2-lip seal
end plate of pulley

- standing shaft
- shaft and bearing house can be dismantled from
shell construction
- excellent loadability due to location of bearing

We reserve the right for modifications without prior notice.


Sandvik
Conveyor Components
1/2004

BEARING AND SEALING METHODS


STANDARD ALTERNATIVES AND MAIN FEATURES OF THE HOUSINGS

C ast iron housing D IN S teel plate housing B ZC 11


Taper bearing, adapter sleeve C ylindrical bearing hole, press fit
assembly on the shaft on the shaft, locking rings

E asy to replace the beari ng ++ +


D i vi dend ++ -
D i smantli ng of the beari ng ++ +
Space requi rement for the housi ng + ++
Normal mounti ng ++ ++
Reverse mounti ng - ++
Impact strength - ++
S eali ng alternati ves ++ ++
Reli abi li ty of the greasi ng ++ ++

SEALING METHOD ALTERNATIVES


The bearing housings of our pulleys can be sealed with the best sealing methods. Select the correct solution from the table below
for your conveyor if the standard solution is not suitable. Our specialists can help you.

P roperties D esign principle R emarks E nvironmental conditions

Standard alternati ve i n Normal condi ti ons, di rty,


2 -li ps polyurethane seal
D L, D K , B L, B K -pulleys moi st

Normal condi ti ons, also


Roxon LA B LIP Standard alternati ve i n
i n conjuncti on wi th larger
labyri nth shaft seal B E D and B E E -pulleys
parti cles

Labyri nth seal P ossi ble for all pulley types E xcellent, clean, i ndoor use

P ossi ble for all pulleys, need


Taconi te -type for space i ncreases the Very dusty condi ti ons
di stance between beari ngs

Very dusty condi ti ons,


C onti nuous lubri cati on Opti onal extra for all pulleys wi de vari ati ons of outer
temperatures

We reserve the right for modifications without prior notice.


Sandvik
Conveyor Components
5/2000

BEARING LIFE AND NEED FOR A BALANCING

Bearing life of the pulleys with different shaft diameters can By ordering the pulley, please inform the need for a balancing:
be easily checked according to the enclosed diagram when
the belt speed v and pulley diameter D is known.
example: DK140 - 500X - 1400
Demand for the life is assumed to be 25000 h, but with the - static balancing
factor on table 1 also the other life times are easily checked.
As the bearings 222- and 230- series spherical cylinder
bearings of well known manufacturers are used.

STATIC BALANCING DYNAMIC BALANCING


to be made when rotation to be made when rotation
speed is over 100 1/min speed is over 200 1/min

D 1000 D 800 D 630 D 500

Example:
Calculated resultant R: 18 kN
Belt speed: 1.8 m/s
Pulley diameter: 500 mm
D 400
Expected life: 50 000 h

1. Suitable pulley for the construction


and strength is
D 320
Belt speed v (m/s)

DK60 - 500X - 1400

2. From the diagram we see that the


bearing life is RL = 88 kN.

3. Adjust the given bearing life to


correspond with expected life as
requested:
RL = k x RL = 0.81 x 88 kN = 71 kN

4. Because RL > R, bearing of the


pulley will last the required length
of time.

r.p.m of drum (1/min) BED, BEE, BP 40 Table 1


DL, DK, BL, BK 40
Life h k
BED, BEE, BP 50

DL, DK, BL, BK 50 10 000 1.32


BED, BEE, BP 60 16 000 1.15
DL, DK, BL, BK 60
20 000 1.07
BP 70
Loading of drum bearings RL (kN)

BED, BEE, BP 80 25 000 1.00


DL, DK, BL, BK 70
32 000 0.93

DL, DK, BL, BK 80 50 000 0.81


BED, BEE 120 63 000 0.76
BED, BEE 100
DL, DK, BL, BK 90 80 000 0.71
BED, BEE 140
100 000 0.63
DL, DK, BL, BK 100

DL, DK, BL, BK 110

DL, DK, BL, BK 125

DL, DK, BL, BK 115 Larger pulley sizes are


DL, DK, BL, BK 135 dimensioned separately
case by case
DL, DK, BL, BK 140

We reserve the right for modifications without prior notice.