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# Transfer of energy in an electrical circuit

## I) The electric current and the Voltages ( Electric potential

difference)
11) The electric current.
An electrical current is defined by the amount of electricity ( Charge ) that
Crosses a section S of an electrical conductor during the time t
Q
I
t
Remarque : the magnitude of an electric current as measured by the quantity of electricity
crossing a specified area of equipotential surface per unit time

I Q t
Ampere (A) Coulomb (C) Second

## 12) the conventional sense .

The sense of an electric current is by convention the sense in which a positive
charge would move. Thus, the current in the external circuit is directed away from the
positive terminal and toward the negative terminal of the battery. Electrons would
actually move through the wires in the opposite sense .

13) measuring I : The apparatus used in measuring the electric current intensity is
called the Ammeter which is connected in series in the electric circuits , The
Ammeter has the symbol A in the electric circuit , The ammeter is not connected
directly to the battery , because this damages it .

## 15) Voltage : (the electrical voltage)

The electrical voltage between two points A and B of a circuit or the
electric potential difference between two points UAB = VA -VB . The voltmeter branches off between
the two points A and B
Transfer of energy in an electrical circuit
And electrical power

## 1 What are the forms of energy produced by

Every conductor ?
The energy forms that occur by each dipole are:
* In the lamp: calorific energy and energy of
* In the engine: calorific energy and mechanical energy;
* In the electrolyser: calorific energy and chemical energy
2. That it is the electrical dipole that provides energy to
Rest of the circuit
The generator that supplies the necessary electrical energy
To operate the electrical circuit elements.
3. What are the following electrical dipoles: the lamp;
The engine and the electrolyser?

## The switch K is on, what happens at the level of each

Dipole?
When the circuit is closed, it is observed:
* The lamp shines and heats.
* The electrolyser is the site of chemical reactions at the level of
Each electrode
* The motor is turning .
The energy forms that occur by each dipole are:
* In the lamp: calorific energy and energy of
* In the engine: calorific energy and mechanical energy;
* In the electrolyser: calorific energy and chemical energy

1. (General Physics) Also called: Joule heating the production of heat as the result of a current flowing through aconductor. See Joule's law

Joule effect
The transformation of electric energy into heat. This occurs whenever an electric current flows
through a conductor. It's caused by the movement of electrons in the electric current which
make the conductor's particles vibrate, thereby increasing its temperature. This effect
increases with the square of the current intensity, the resistance of the conductor, and the
Transfer of energy in an electrical circuit
And electrical power

time for which the current flows. During a short-circuit, the intensity of the current increases
significantly. Since the thermal energy given off depends on the square of this intensity, we
can understand how short-circuits can start fires.