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CE 416

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 2:

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

LABORATORY REPORT NO. 1

CONSOLIDATION TEST

Laboratory Date: February 15, 2017

Report Date: February 22, 2017

T.A: Engr. Crisrina Amor M. Rosales

Laboratory Group: Group 8, CE 4201

Laboratory Partners: Alay, Tristan M. 13-48109

Ausa, Pamela Adelee H. 13-47288

Navarra, Rajshida Aira B. 11-68977

Rances, Angela Ysabel P. 13-12828

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ABSTRACT

Consolidation is the process at which volume is decreasing. It refers to the compression

or settlement that soils undergo as a response of placing loads onto the ground. The purpose of

this laboratory exercise is to determine the settlement or the volumetric changes when subjected

to pressure. For this experiment, clay dough was used as a substitute for soil. It was molded into

cube and subjected it into a specific weight (load) for 15 minutes. The cubes side is 33 mm.

After it was subjected into a load of 1129.8 g, half of the cube deformed, making 29 mm as the

shortest side (4 mm settlement). Therefore, the smaller and softer a specimen is and the larger

and longer the subjected loadings and the duration of tests are, respectively, the larger the

settlement that may possibly occur within a specimen. . The 4 mm settlement within 15 minutes

is significant when it comes into real soil layer. The amount of soil volume or settlement that will

occur is often one of the governing design criteria of a project.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Objectives..

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II. Theoretical Background.... 5
III. Materials and Equipment...

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IV. Experimental Procedure.... 6
V. Analysis of Data 6
VI. Discussion of Results.....

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VII. Conclusion and Recommendations... 9
VIII. References... 10

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APPENDICES

Figures

Figure 1: Molded clay cube before the experiment. ...

Figure 2: The cube is subjected into vertical loading during the experiment .. 8

Figure 3: Molded clay cube after the experiment. . .....

Figure 4: Mass used as a vertical pressure into the cube ....8

Table

Table 1: Data Before and After Experiment. . 6

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OBJECTIVES

The objective of the consolidation test is to determine the settlement or the decrease in

volume that a laterally confined specimen undergoes when subjected to vertical pressures. In this

experiment, a cube of clay was used as the specimen over which an object with a specific weight

was placed. Here, the settlement of clay due to primary consolidation during the specified time

was recorded. Measured data for a standard consolidation test can be plotted into a consolidation

curve upon knowing the pressure-void ratio relationships. These data will be useful in

determining the compression index, the recompression index, preconsolidation pressure (or

maximum past pressure) of the specimen, coefficients of consolidation and secondary

compression of the specimen.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

Consolidation of a saturated soil occurs due to expulsion of water under static, sustained

load. The consolidation characteristics of specimens are required to predict the magnitude and

the rate of settlement.

When a soil mass is subjected to a compressive force, its volume decreases. The property

of the soil due to which a decrease in volume occurs under compressive force is known as the

compressibility of soil. The compression of soil can occur due to

Compression of solid particles and water in the voids


Compression and expulsion of air in the voids
Expulsion of water in the voids

Rate of consolidation depends on soils permeability. It can be very slow in fine-grained

soils thus it takes many years to achieve final settlement. From the changes in thickness at the

end of the load stage, the compressibility of the soil can be observed and the parameters i.e.

compression index (Cc) and coefficient of volume compressibility (mv) can be measured.

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MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

Clay dough
Weights
Stop Clock
Ruler

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1. Mold the clay dough into cube.


2. Record the initial height of the side of the cube.
3. Lay the molded cube clay in a flat surface.
4. Put the preferred weight on top of the cube.
5. Let the weight be on top of the cube for 15 minutes.
6. Record the final height of the side that is affected the most.

ANALYSIS OF DATA

BEFORE THE AFTER THE

EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT
@ t=0 @ t=15 min

Sides measurement= 33 mm Sides measurement= 29 mm

Settlement=0 Settlement= 4mm

TABLE 1: Data Before and After Experiment

The molded clay was suffered to the stress caused by the weight. In order to obtain the

settlement cause by the weight in the top of clay in a cube shape, we get the difference from the

original height of the cube to the height where settlement occurs. (Settlement= Initial side

measurement - After consolidation measurement). The settlement we obtained was 4mm.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

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Consolidation settlement is time dependent. It is the result of volume change in saturated

cohesive soil because of expulsion of water that occupies the void spaces. In the experiment

we've done, we used clay as an alternative for a soil. The clay was formed into a cube shape with

specific measurement. After this, we put weights on top of it. The weight was place for 15

minutes. And the settlement cause by the weight was measured after.

FIGURES

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FIGURE 1: Molded clay cube FIGURE 2: The cube is
before the experiment. subjected into vertical
loading during the
experiment

FIGURE 3: Molded clay cube after the experiment.

FIGURE 4: Mass used as a vertical pressure into the cube

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

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From the experiment performed, the group have concluded that the amount of settlement

or decrease in the volume of a specimen (clay for this experiment) depends on the size and

properties of the specimen, the load placed over the specimen and the duration. Since the group

used a small cube made up of clay, only a small weight was placed on top of it since the volume

occupied by the specimen is also small and clay is a soft, loose earthy material. Also, the test was

performed for only a short span of time. In the experiment conducted, the initial side

measurement of 33m had a settlement of only 4mm after the consolidation test due to a placed

weight of 1129.8 grams which lasted for 15 minutes. Therefore, the smaller and softer a

specimen is and the larger and longer the subjected loadings and the duration of tests are,

respectively, the larger the settlement that may possibly occur within a specimen.

The group also had the following recommendations:

1. In choosing the clay, it is better to use a new one so that its properties are not too much

altered.
2. During trimming of the specimen to form a cube, care should be taken in handling the

specimen, having the least pressure as possible.


3. Only small or adequate loadings should be placed over specimens of small volume just

like the need for smaller increments of loading to be adopted in soft soil specimens for a

standard consolidation test.

REFERENCES

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https://www.utm.my/labmanagementunitkl/files/2013/06/DDPA-3092-SOILS-

CONSOLIDATION_2013.pdf
http://theconstructor.org/geotechnical/consolidation-test-of-soil/3054/
http://theconstructor.org/geotechnical/compressibility-and-consolidation-of-

soils/1083/
http://www.slideshare.net/hronaldo10/class-7-consolidation-test-geotechnical-

engineering

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