Sie sind auf Seite 1von 38

Capsule - protective covering, made up of polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Capsules play a number of

roles, but the most important are to keep the bacterium from drying out and to protect it from phagocytosis
(engulfing) by larger microorganisms

Cell Envelope - The cell envelope is made up of two to three layers: the interior cytoplasmic membrane, the cell
wall, and -- in some species of bacteria -- an outer capsule.

cell wall - a rigid cell wall composed of peptidoglycan, a protein-sugar (polysaccharide) molecule. The wall gives
the cell its shape and surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane, protecting it from the environment.

Cytoplasm - The cytoplasm, or protoplasm, of bacterial cells is where the functions for cell growth, metabolism,
and replication are carried out. It is a gel-like matrix composed of water, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, and gases
and contains cell structures such as ribosomes, a chromosome, and plasmids.

Cytoplasmic Membrane - A layer of phospholipids and proteins, called the cytoplasmic membrane, encloses
the interior of the bacterium, regulating the flow of materials in and out of the cell. This is a structural trait bacteria
share with all other living cells; a barrier that allows them to selectively interact with their environment.

Flagella - hairlike structures that provide a means of locomotion for those bacteria that have them. They can be
found at either or both ends of a bacterium or all over its surface. The flagella beat in a propeller-like motion to help
the bacterium move toward nutrients; away from toxic chemicals; or, in the case of the photosynthetic
cyanobacteria; toward the light.

Nucleoid - The nucleoid is a region of cytoplasm where the chromosomal DNA is located. It is not a membrane
bound nucleus, but simply an area of the cytoplasm where the strands of DNA are found.

Pili - Many species of bacteria have pili (singular, pilus), small hairlike projections emerging from the outside cell
surface. These outgrowths assist the bacteria in attaching to other cells and surfaces, such as teeth, intestines, and
Ribosomes - Ribosomes are microscopic "factories" found in all cells, including bacteria. They translate the
genetic code from the molecular language of nucleic acid to that of amino acidsthe building blocks of proteins.

1. Rod-shaped Bacteria

Example: Bacillus Subtilis (rod-shaped, gram positive, mesophilic, non-pathogenic, aerobic)

Bacillus subtilis are naturally found in soil and vegetation. Bacillus subtilis grow in the mesophilic
temperature range. The optimal temperature is 25-35 degrees Celsius (Entrez Genome Project). Stress and
starvation are common in this environment, therefore, Bacillus subtilis has
evolved a set of strategies that allow survival under these harsh conditions.
One strategy, for example, is the formation of stress-resistant endospores.

Bacillus subtilis bacteria have been considered strictly aerobic,

meaning that they require oxygen to grow and they cannot undergo
fermentation. However, recent studies show that they can indeed grow in
anaerobic conditions making them facultative aerobes.

Scientific classification
Bacillus Subtilis are chemoautotrophs. They are nitrifiers. Bacillus
Domain: Bacteria
subtilis can use nitrite or nitrate as a terminal acceptor of electrons. Bacillus
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli subtilis contains two unique nitrate reductases. One is used for nitrate
Order: Bacillales nitrogen assimilation and the other is used for nitrate respiration. However,
Family: Bacillaceae there is only one nitrite reductase that serves both purposes. Nitrate
Genus: Bacillus
reductase reduces nitrate to nitrite in nitrate respiration, which is then
Species: B. subtilis
reduced to ammonia by nitrite reductase. Bacillus subtilis is different from
other facultative aerobes in that it undergoes fermentation without external acceptors of electrons .During
fermentation, the regeneration of NAD+ is chiefly mediated by lactate dehydrogenase, which is found in the
cytoplasm. Also, The bacteria can make ATP in anaerobic conditions via butanediol fermentation as well as nitrate


Bacteria lack nuclei and do not possess the complex chromosomes characteristic of eukaryotes. Instead, their genes are
encoded within a single double-stranded ring of DNA that is crammed into one region of the cell known as the nucleoid
region. Many bacterial cells also possess small, independently replicating circles of DNA called plasmids. Plasmids
contain only a few genes, usually not essential for the cells survival. They are best thought of as an excised portion of the
bacterial chromosome.

2. Spherical bacteria

Example: streptococcus pyrogenes (spherical bacteria arranged in chains, pathogenic, Gram-positive, nonmotile,
nonsporeforming coccus)

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as the flesh eating bacteria, is the most
pathogenic bacterium in the whole genus .The name pyogenes comes from the
word pyogenic, which is a classification for the streptococci that are associated
with pus formation. The effects of this microbe range from mild illnesses such as
strep throat and impetigo to more serious diseases such as scarlet fever,
glomerulonephritis, and necrotizing fasciitis.

Genome Structure

The genome is a circular chromosome with an average G+C content

of 38.5%, and 83% of the genes were transcribed in the clockwise direction
and 76% of the genes were transcribed in the counterclockwise direction.The genome of an M1 strain of
Streptococcus pyogenes has been sequenced, and was found to contain 1,852,442 base pairs and about 1,752
predicted protein-encoding genes.


Scientific classification Streptococcus pyogenes is a chemoheterotroph. It has a protein called

protein F, which is a fibronectin binding protein that allows it to adhere
Kingdom: Eubacteria to respiratory epithelial cells.This protein is an important virulence
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli factor because by binding to the epithelial cells, the organism is able to
Order: Lactobacillales stick to the cells of the host tightly, and not leave.The metabolism of S.
Family: Streptococcaceae pyogenes is fermentative; the organism is a catalase-negative
Genus: Streptococcus aerotolerant anaerobe (facultative anaerobe), and requires enriched
Species: S. pyogenes
medium containing blood in order to grow.
3. Curved bacteria

Example: spirillium minus (spiral-shaped, gram negative, microaerophilic, aerobic chemoheterotroph

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch scientist, known as the Father of Microbiology, is believed to be the first person
to identify Spirillum species of bacteria in the 1670s.

Spirilla bacteria are elongated, spiral shaped, rigid cells. These cells may also have flagella, which are long
protrusion used for movement, at each end of the cell. An example of a spirillum bacterium is Spirillum minus,
which causes rat-bite fever.

They are microaerophilic, meaning the amount of

oxygen needed for their survival and proliferation is
significantly less. Oxygen concentration of 1 to 9% is
enough for their growth. In other words, they can easily
thrive in very low environmental oxygen levels.


These bacteria use storage granules that act as

storage areas for nutrients. For these bacteria, the
Scientific classification granules are made up of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate
(PHB). They have a strictly respiratory type of
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria metabolism and are microaerophilic: they need an
Class: Betaproteobacteria atmosphere of 1 to 9% oxygen for growth. Although
Order: Nitrosomonadales catalase activity is weak, positive reactions were found
Family: Spirillaceae for the oxidase and phosphatase tests.
Genus: Spirillum
Species: S. minus
Centrioles - Centrioles are self-replicating organelles made up of nine bundles of microtubules and are found
only in animal cells. They appear to help in organizing cell division, but aren't essential to the process.

and Flagella - For single-celled eukaryotes, cilia and flagella are essential for the locomotion of individual
organisms. In multicellular organisms, cilia function to move fluid or materials past an immobile cell as well as
moving a cell or group of cells.

Endoplasmic Reticulum - The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and
transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell. It is connected to the double-layered nuclear
envelope, providing a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Endosomes and Endocytosis - Endosomes are membrane-bound vesicles, formed via a complex family of
processes collectively known as endocytosis, and found in the cytoplasm of virtually every animal cell. The basic
mechanism of endocytosis is the reverse of what occurs during exocytosis or cellular secretion. It involves the
invagination (folding inward) of a cell's plasma membrane to surround macromolecules or other matter diffusing
through the extracellular fluid.

Golgi Apparatus - The Golgi apparatus is the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical
products. It modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export to the
outside of the cell.

Intermediate Filaments - Intermediate filaments are a very broad class of fibrous proteins that play an
important role as both structural and functional elements of the cytoskeleton. Ranging in size from 8 to 12
nanometers, intermediate filaments function as tension-bearing elements to help maintain cell shape and rigidity.

Lysosomes - The main function of these microbodies is digestion. Lysosomes break down cellular waste
products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds, which are transferred to the cytoplasm as new
cell-building materials.

Microfilaments - Microfilaments are solid rods made of globular proteins called actin. These filaments are
primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton.
Microtubules - These straight, hollow cylinders are found throughout the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells
(prokaryotes don't have them) and carry out a variety of functions, ranging from transport to structural support.

Mitochondria - Mitochondria are oblong shaped organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of every eukaryotic
cell. In the animal cell, they are the main power generators, converting oxygen and nutrients into energy.

Nucleus - The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and
administrative center of the cell. This organelle has two major functions: it stores the cell's hereditary material, or
DNA, and it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and
reproduction (cell division).

Peroxisomes - Microbodies are a diverse group of organelles that are found in the cytoplasm, roughly spherical
and bound by a single membrane. There are several types of microbodies but peroxisomes are the most common.

Plasma Membrane - All living cells have a plasma membrane that encloses their contents. In prokaryotes, the
membrane is the inner layer of protection surrounded by a rigid cell wall. Eukaryotic animal cells have only the
membrane to contain and protect their contents. These membranes also regulate the passage of molecules in and
out of the cells.

Ribosomes - All living cells contain ribosomes, tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and
40 percent protein. In eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA. In prokaryotes, they consist of three
strands of RNA.

The nucleus
The spherical nucleus typically occupies about 10 percent of a eukaryotic cell's volume, making it one of the cell's
most prominent features. A double-layered membrane, the nuclear envelope, separates the contents of the nucleus from
the cellular cytoplasm. The envelope is riddled with holes called nuclear pores that allow specific types and sizes of
molecules to pass back and forth between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It is also attached to a network of tubules and
sacs, called the endoplasmic reticulum, where protein synthesis occurs, and is usually studded with ribosomes (

The semifluid matrix found inside the nucleus is called nucleoplasm. Within the nucleoplasm, most of the nuclear
material consists of chromatin, the less condensed form of the cell's DNA that organizes to form chromosomes during
mitosis or cell division. The nucleus also contains one or more nucleoli, organelles that synthesize protein-producing
macromolecular assemblies called ribosomes, and a variety of other smaller components, such as Cajal
bodies, GEMS (Gemini of coiled bodies), and interchromatin granule clusters.

Chromatin and Chromosomes - Packed inside the nucleus of every human cell is nearly 6 feet of DNA, which is
divided into 46 individual molecules, one for each chromosome and each about 1.5 inches long. Packing all this material
into a microscopic cell nucleus is an extraordinary feat of packaging. For DNA to function, it can't be crammed into the
nucleus like a ball of string. Instead, it is combined with proteins and organized into a precise, compact structure, a dense
string-like fiber called chromatin.

The Nucleolus - The nucleolus is a membrane-

less organelle within the nucleus that manufactures
ribosomes, the cell's protein-producing structures.
Through the microscope, the nucleolus looks like a
large dark spot within the nucleus. A nucleus may
contain up to four nucleoli, but within each species
the number of nucleoli is fixed. After a cell divides, a
nucleolus is formed when chromosomes are brought
together into nucleolar organizing regions. During
cell division, the nucleolus disappears. Some studies
suggest that the nucleolus may be involved with
cellular aging and, therefore, may affect the
senescence of an organism.
The Nuclear Envelope - The nuclear envelope is a double-layered membrane that encloses the contents of the
nucleus during most of the cell's lifecycle. The space between the layers is called the perinuclear space and appears to
connect with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The envelope is perforated with tiny holes called nuclear pores. These
pores regulate the passage of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, permitting some to pass through the
membrane, but not others. The inner surface has a protein lining called the nuclear lamina, which binds to chromatin and
other nuclear components. During mitosis, or cell division, the nuclear envelope disintegrates, but reforms as the two cells
complete their formation and the chromatin begins to unravel and disperse.

Nuclear Pores - The nuclear envelope is perforated with holes called nuclear pores. These pores regulate the passage
of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, permitting some to pass through the membrane, but not others.
Building blocks for building DNA and RNA are allowed into the nucleus as well as molecules that provide the energy for
constructing genetic material.
Do not contain chlorophyll
Absorptive heterotrophs - digest food first & then absorb it into their bodies
Release digestive enzymes to break down organic material or their host
Store food energy as glycogen
Most are saprobes live on other dead organisms
Important decomposers & recyclers of nutrients in the environment
Most are multicellular, but some unicellular like yeast
Some are internal or external parasites; a few are predators that capture prey
Lack true roots, stems, & leaves
Cell walls are made of chitin (a complex polysaccharide)
Grow as microscopic tubes or filaments called hyphae that contain cytoplasm & nuclei
Hyphal networks are called mycelium
Reproduce by sexual & asexual spores
Classified by their sexual reproductive structures
Grow best in warm, moist environments preferring shade
Characteristics :
sporangium fungi or common molds
Includes molds & blights
No septa in hyphae (coenocytic)
Asexual reproductive structure called sporangium & produces sporangiospores
Rhizoids anchor the mold, release digestive enzymes, & absorb food
Asexual reproductive structure called sporangium & produces sporangiospores
Sexual spore produced by conjugation when (+) hyphae
& (-) fuse is called zygospore
Zygospores can endure harsh environments until
conditions improve & new sporangium

Example: Rhizopus stolonifer (bread mold)


Rhizopus stolonifer is considered to be saprophytic because it feeds on dead, damp, and decaying
matter, such as soil. It is a heterotrophic organism that obtains nutrients by absorption. Rhizopus stolonifer
is also considered to be parasitic because it obtains nutrients from living organisms, causing the food to
rot. It secretes digestive juices, that contain enzymes, directly on the food. These enzymes cause the food
to become soluble, which it is then absorbed by the mold. The mold spreads over the surface of the
substrate, sending its hyphae inward to absorb the nutrients. Sugar and starch are favored by the mold, so
while growing on bread, the mold takes up nutrition from the carbohydrate compounds of the bread.

Scientific classification
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Zygomycota
Class: Zygomycetes
Order: Mucorales
Family: Mucoraceae
Genus: Rhizopus
Species: Rhizopus Stolonifer
Bread mold, Rhizopus stolonifer, most often reproduces asexually. Reproduction begins soon after bread mold finds a suitable
substrate and sends out its feeding structures, or hyphae, to absorb nutrients. The nourished fungus forms upright structures that
contain the fungal spores. These spores are the product of mitosis and remain with the fungus until conditions are appropriate for
their release; usually, the spores release when weather is warm and dry. The new spores now land on a new substrate, and the
fungal life cycle continues.

Includes mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, bracket fungi, shelf fungi, stinkhorns, rusts, & smuts

Some are used as food (mushroom) & others cause crop damage (rusts & smuts)

Seldom reproduce asexually

Basdiocarp made up of stalk called the stipe & a

flattened cap

Stipe may have a skirt like ring below cap

called the annulus

Gills are found on the underside of the cap & are

lined with basidia

Basidium sexual reproductive structure that

make basidiospores

Basidiospores are released from the gills &

germinate to form new hyphae & mycelia

Vegetative structures found below ground &

include rhizoids (anchor & absorb
nutrients), hyphae, & mycelia

Example: Collybia Mushroom

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Basidiomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Tricholomataceae
Genus: Collybia

In mushroom biology, metabolism is exemplified by:

1. The breakdown of substrate materials yielding energy and producing smaller, more souble compounds
2. those energy-requiring, enzymatically controlled processes which are essential for the transport of certain materials
across the cytoplasmic membrane
3. synthesis of cell materials, including cell wall, from the compounds that have entered the cell

Mushroom species are aerobic organisms and adequate oxygen is necessary for mycelial running. This vegetative
growth may be increased when the level of carbon dioxide is increased slightly, as will occur normally in confined areas
due to the respiratory activities of the mycelium. In aerobic respiration th mycelium breaks down the carbohydrates of the
substrate ultimately to CO2 and H2O.

All the proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and cell wall polysaccharides are synthesized by anabolic processes within the
hyphae or cells of mushroom species. The main ingredients in the substrate which supports the growth and development
of the mushroom are insoluble polysaccharide. They are broken down to smaller, soluble compounds by enzymes
secreted from the hyphae andthus referred to as extracellular enzymes. The soluble molecules may be taken from the
hyphae by absorption, which is responsible for the term absorptive or osmotrophic nutrition a distinguishing feature of
fungi. By respiration, the fungus breaks down by enzymatic means the carbon substrates and forms various intermediates
for the synthesis of compounds needed for its life activities.


They can undergo both asexual and sexual production. Mushrooms reproduce asexually by either budding or
asexual spore formation. Budding occurs when an outgrowth of the parent cell is separated into a new cell. Asexual spore
formation, however, most often takes place at the ends of specialized structures called conidiophores. The septae of
terminal cells become fully defined, dividing a random number of nuclei into individual cells. The cell walls then thicken
into a protective coat. The protected spores break off and are disbursed.

Sexual reproduction in Basidiomycota takes place in the fruiting body, in specialized structures called basidia. The
basidia is itself formed by plasmogamy between mycelia from two different spores. Plasmogamy results in binucleate
hyphae, that is, hyphae with two types of nuclei, one from each parent. In the gills of the fruiting body, some cells undergo
fusion of these two nuclei. These now diploid cells are the basidia. The diploid phase is very brief. Soon after fusion,
meiosis takes place, resulting in four haploid nuclei. The nuclei then migrate to the terminus of the basidium and form four
individual projections. These projections are then separated by cell walls to become spores.


Includes yeast, cup fungi, truffles, powdery mildew, & morels

Sac Fungi can reproduce both sexually and asexually
Yeast reproduce asexually by budding (form small, bud-like cells that break off & make more yeasts)
Asexual spores called conidia form on the tips of specialized hyphae called condiophores
Ascocarp specialized hyphae formed by parent fungi during sexual reproduction
Ascus sacs within the ascocarp that form spores called ascospores
Example: Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Cell structure and metabolism

Saccharomyces cerevisiae can exist in two different forms:

haploid or diploid. It is usually found in the diploid form. The diploid
form is ellipsoid-shaped with a diameter of 5-6um, while the
haploid form is more spherical with a diameter of 4um. In
exponential phase, haploid cells reproduce more than diploid cells.
Haploid and diploid cells can reproduce asexually in a process
called budding, where the daughter cell protrudes off a parent cell.
The buds of haploid cells are adjacent to each other, while the
buds of diploid cells are located in opposite poles. Additionally,
diploid cells can exhibit pseudohyphal growth if it is growing on a
poor carbon source, exposed to heat or high osmolarity. Activated
by cAMP, newly developed cells remain attached to the parent cell
through a septum..
In addition to budding, diploid cells can undergo a meiotic
process called sporulation to produce four haploid spores. Haploid
spores can be one of two mating type, a or . These spores can
also undergo budding to produce more haploid cells. a and cells
can also mate and fuse together, producing a diploid cell. S. cerevisiae strains are further distinguished by
differences in the haploid stage. In heterothallic strains, the spores resulting from sporulation cannot undergo
budding, and their mating type cannot be changed. However, in homothallic strains, the presence of a HO gene
allows the spores to change mating type as they grow . Sporulation can be induced if the yeast is exposed to either
a poor carbon or nitrogen source or lack of a nitrogen source. Spores also have a higher tolerance to conditions
such as high temperature.
As a eukaryote, S. cerevisiae contains membrane-bound organelles. Its chromosomes are located in the
nucleus, and it uses mitochondria to conduct cellular respiration. Like all other fungi, the cell's shape is based on its
cell wall. The cell wall protects the cell from its environment as well as from any
Scientific classification
changes in osmotic pressure. The inner cell wall has a high concentration of -
Domain: Eukarya glucans, while the outer cell wall has a high concentration of mannoprotein. Chitin is
Kingdom: Fungi
usually located in the septum.
Subkingdom: Dikarya
Phylum: Ascomycota S cerevisiae can live in both aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. In the
Subphylum: Saccharomycotina presence of oxygen, yeast can undergo aerobic respiration, where glucose is broken
Class: Saccharomycetes to CO2 and ATP is produced by protons falling down their gradient to an ATPase.
Order: Saccharomycetales When oxygen is lacking, yeast only get their energy from glycolysis and the sugar is
Family: Saccharomycetaceae
Genus: Saccharomyces instead converted into ethanol, a less efficient process than aerobic respiration. The
Species: Cerevisiae main source of carbon and energy is glucose, and when glucose concentrations are
high enough, gene expression of enzumes used in respiration are repressed and
fermentation takes over respiration (2). However, yeast can also use other sugars as a carbon source. Sucrose can
be converted into glucose and fructose by using an enzyme called invertase, and maltose can be converted into
two molecules of glucose by using the enzyme mannase (2).
budding yeast

Imperfect fungi are those that do not display a sexual phase. They are classified as belonging to the form Phylum
Deuteromycota. Deuteromycota is a polyphyletic group where many species are more closely related to organisms in
other phyla than to each other; hence it cannot be called a true phylum and must, instead, be given the name form
phylum. Since they do not possess the sexual structures that are used to classify other fungi, they are less well described
in comparison to other divisions. Most members live on land, with a few aquatic exceptions. They form visible mycelia with
a fuzzy appearance and are commonly known as mold. Molecular analysis shows that the closest group to the
deuteromycetes is the ascomycetes. In fact, some species, such as Aspergillus, which were once classified as imperfect
fungi, are now classified as ascomycetes.

Reproduction of Deuteromycota is strictly asexual, occuring mainly by production of asexual conidiospores . Some
hyphae may recombine and form heterokaryotic hyphae. Genetic recombination is known to take place between the
different nuclei.
Example: Aspergillus niger

Cell structure and metabolism


A. niger produce colonies that are composed of white or yellow felt that is
covered by dark asexually produced fungal spores. Mycelial, or threadlike,
hyphae are divided by a septum and
transparent. Conidiophores (asexually
produced fungal spores) of A.
niger usually range from 900-1600 m in
length and contain globose (globular) vesicles ranging from 40-60 m in diameter. Each globose vesicle is completely
covered with biseriate phialides which are projections from the conidiophore of A. niger. These phialides come out from
brown metulae, which is the site where a conidiogenous cell is created. The phialides go through a process of blastic
basipetal conidiogenesis to create globose mitospores, which have a diameter that ranges from 3 to 5 m.

Metabolism and Energy

A. niger has a metabolic system which is composed of the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and peroxisome. Incorporated in this
system are carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism which take place in both
Scientific classification anabolic and catabolic reactions. For the most favorable growth rate, linear programming
Domain: Eukaryota was used. Linear programming was combined with 37 other metabolites in order to test for
Kingdom: Fungi different flux distributions in those metabolites. By using the technique of logarithmic
Phylum: Ascomycota
Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
sensitivity analysis, it is shown that the amino acids proline, alanine and glutamine
Class: Eurotiomycetes prospered in this environment. The amino acid tyrosine had no effect; however it has the
Order: Eurotiales possibility of helping with biomass manufacture. In addition to this, four other amino acids
Family: Trichocomaceae
Genus: Aspergillus caused a 44% increase in biomass manufacture and a 41% increase in recombinant protein

One of the most common ways that A. niger gains energy is through bioleaching. Bioleaching is the process of
extracting metals from ores via the use of bacteria. A. niger gains its energy by breaking down the minerals into its most
basic element. This fungi specifically is able to break down copper, tin, aluminum, nickel, and lead, and with this energy is
able to produce oxalic acid, gluconic acid, and citric acid.

Different reactions and pathways are used whenever A. niger consumes a substrate or forms a metabolic product.
Chitin, for example, makes up the cell wall of A. niger, however the only enzymatic steps that are used to create chitin are
those catalyzed by glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase as well as chitin synthase.

One of the most important products that A. niger produces is citric acid. Under conditions of citric acid accumulation, the
metabolism of A. niger is slightly altered. In normal conditions metabolism of the fungi progresses at a linear rate. In this
linearly progressive state, production of citric acid is high, however there is still an
opportunity for changes which can lead to a five fold increase in basal rate
synthesis. Again, this value can be further increased with a doubling in enzyme
concentration. Doubling the concentration allows at least a 12 fold increase in
citric acid production and a maximum of a 50 fold increase when enzyme
concentration is 10 times its normal value. Under optimal conditions, at least 13
enzymes need to be altered in order to obtain a maximum in citric acid production.

Protozoa are one-celled animals found worldwide in most habitats. Most

species are free living, but all higher animals are infected with one or more species
of protozoa. Infections range from asymptomatic to life threatening, depending on the
species and strain of the parasite and the resistance of the host.

Protozoa are microscopic unicellular eukaryotes that have a relatively complex internal structure and carry out complex
metabolic activities. Some protozoa have structures for propulsion or other types of movement.

Life Cycle Stages

The stages of parasitic protozoa that actively feed and multiply are frequently called trophozoites; in some protozoa, other
terms are used for these stages. Cysts are stages with a protective membrane or thickened wall. Protozoan cysts that
must survive outside the host usually have more resistant walls than cysts that form in tissues.


Binary fission, the most common form of reproduction, is asexual; multiple asexual division occurs in some forms. Division
is longitudinal in the flagellates and transverse in the ciliates; amebas have no apparent anterior-posterior axis.
Endodyogeny is a form of asexual division seen in Toxoplasma and some related organisms. Two daughter cells form
within the parent cell, which then ruptures, releasing the smaller progeny which grow to full size before repeating the

Example: Typanosoma evansi

Organelle function

Most parasitic protozoa in humans are less than 50 m in size.

Protozoa are unicellular eukaryotes. As in all eukaryotes, the nucleus
is enclosed in a membrane. The organelles of protozoa have
functions similar to the organs of higher animals.

nucleus -vesicular, with scattered chromatin giving a diffuse

appearance to the nucleus, all nuclei in the individual organism
appear alike. One type of vesicular nucleus contains a more or less
central body, called an endosome or karyosome. The endosome
lacks DNA in the parasitic amebas and trypanosomes.

plasma membrane - encloses the cytoplasm also covers the

projecting locomotory structures such as pseudopodia, cilia, and

pellicle - outer surface layer of some protozoa which is sufficiently

rigid to maintain a distinctive shape

cytoplasm - differentiated into ectoplasm (the outer, transparent

layer) and endoplasm (the inner layer containing organelles

subpellicular microtubules (for protozoa with no external

organelles for locomotion) these provide a means for slow

Many other structures occur in parasitic protozoa, including the Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, food vacuoles, conoids in
the Apicomplexa, and other specialized structures.

The nutrition of all protozoa is holozoic; that is, they require organic materials, which may be particulate or in solution. Many
protozoa have a permanent mouth, the cytosome or micropore, through which ingested food passes to become enclosed in food
vacuoles. Pinocytosis is a method of ingesting nutrient materials whereby fluid is drawn through small, temporary openings in the
body wall. The ingested material becomes enclosed within a membrane to form a food vacuole.

Cell structure

Cell wall- Cell wall of most algae is cellulosic. It also contains

hemicellulose, mucilage, pectin and other substances like
alginic acid, fucoidin, fucin, calcium carbonate, silica etc. in
different combinations in different groups of algae.

Plasma lemma - It is present just below the cell wall and

consists of two opaque layers which remain separated by less
opaque zone

Protoplast - It is bounded by plasma lemma. It is differentiated

into cytoplasm, nucleus, chloroplast with one or more
pyrenoids, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, two contractile vacuoles,
a red eye spot and two flagella.
Chloroplasts - are the sites of photosynthesis, the complex set of biochemical reactions that use the energy of light to
convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars. Each chloroplast contains flattened, membranous sacs, called thylakoids,
that contain the photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments,

Pyrenoid A pyrenoid is a differentiated region within the chloroplast that is denser than the surrounding stroma that may
or may not be traversed by thylakoids. A pyrenoid is frequently associated with storage products. Pyrenoids occur within
every class are considered to a primitive evolutionary characteristic. Pyrenoids contains ribulose 1,5 biphosphate
carboxylase (Rubisco) the enzyme that fixes carbon dioxide.
Nucleus - The mature cells of eukaryotic algae have one or more vacuoles bounded by distinct membranes. These
vacuoles play an important role in osmotic relations and the absorption of solutes and water. In motile algae, two types of
vacuolar apparatus are recognized, namely, (1) the simple vacuoles, called contractile vacuoles, which contract
periodically and expel their contents to the exterior as in the green alga Chlamydomonas.
Golgi apparatus - a series of flattened, membranous sacs that are arranged in a stack, performs four distinct functions: it
sorts many molecules synthesized elsewhere in the cell; it produces carbohydrates, such as cellulose or sugars, and
sometimes attaches the sugars to other molecules; it packages molecules in small vesicles; and it marks the vesicles so
that they are routed to the proper destination.

Mitochondrion are the sites where food molecules are broken down and carbon dioxide, water, and chemical bond
energy are released, a process called cellular respiration

Stigma - Chloroplasts commonly contain small (30-100nm), spherical lipid droplets between their thylakoids. These lipid
droplets serve as a pool of lipid reserve for the synthesis and growth of lipoprotein membranes within the chloroplast.

Contractile vacuoles - are specialized organelles that regulate the water content of cells and are therefore not involved
in the long-term storage of substances. When too much water enters the cells, contractile vacuoles serve to eject it.

Thylakoid Thylakoid membranes contain integral membrane proteins which play an important role in light harvesting
and the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.

Flagella - used by cells and unicellular organisms for movement, sensation and signal transduction.
Example: Chlamydomonas Reindartii (simple, motile, unicellular, fresh water alga)

Chlamydomonas is haploid and has a controlled sexual cycle with
the possibility of tetrad analysis.
Its photosynthetic apparatus is closely related to that of vascular
plants, and it is also a eukaryote, with photosynthesis genes
encoded by both the nuclear and chloroplast genomes.
Like a plant cell, the cell of Chlamydomonas has a cell wall.
Chlamydomonas ability to grow heterotrophically allows the
isolation of viable mutants that are unable to perform
Like animal sperm cells, Chlamydomonas has a flagellum, which

enables it to carry out phototaxis, moving towards or away from light to maximize light perception for
photosynthesis and minimizing photodamage.
Chlamydomonas can adopt an anaerobic metabolism, producing hydrogen
gas and metabolites such as formate and ethanol.
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota Chlamydomonas is the only known eukaryote in which the nuclear, chloroplast
Kingdom: Plantae and mitochondrial genomes can all be transformed.
Division: Chlorophyta
Class: Chlorophyceae
Order: Chlamydomonadales
Family: Chlamydomonadaceae
Genus: Chlamydomonas
Species: C. reinhardtii

Nutrition - Chlamydomonas makes its food in the same way as green plants, but without the elaborate system of roots, stem
and leaves of the higher plants. It is surrounded by water containing dissolved carbon dioxide and salts so that in the light, with
the aid of its chloroplast, it can build up starch by photosynthesis. From this carbohydrate, with additional elements, it can
synthesize all the other materials necessary for its existence.

Reproduction - In favourable conditions the chlamydomonas individuals will continue to grow and then, at a certain size,
reproduce by cell division. The flagella are withdrawn, the cytoplasm shrinks slightly within the cell wall, the nucleus and then
the cytoplasm divide once, twice, or occasionally three times, to give two, four or eight separate units of cytoplasm each with a
nucleus and chloroplast. Each of these units forms a new cell wall and a pair of flagella. The parent cell wall bursts open and
releases the daughter individuals.This fission may occur once a day, so that great numbers of Chlamydomonas may appear
very rapidly, when they usually make the water look green.Sexual reproduction, of a kind, occurs. Division as described above
takes place but produces up to sixteen new individuals which do not develop cell walls. On release from the parental cell they
swim about and may meet other individuals and fuse in pairs to form a zygote.The zygote eventually rounds off, withdraws the
flagella, secretes a thick wall round the cytotoplasm so forming a zygospore which sinks to the bottom of the pond. In this form
it may be resistant to extremes of temperature and survive even the drying up of the pond. As a zygospore, too, it may be
distributed in dust or mud, and so reach new situations. The cytoplasm in the zygospore will divide, usually into four units,
which are released as new chlamydomonas individuals.