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Pompey chose to conduct his post in

absentia, by assigning lieutenants to run

Spain, while he stayed in Rome. Crassus
felt that military glory was the one thing
that money couldn't buy, and set off for
the east.

The triumvirate became a duo when

Crassus got himself killed at Carrhae in
53 B.C.. Perhaps more importantly,
earlier, Caesar's only daughter Julia,
who happened to be Pompey's wife,
died in childbirth (54 B.C.), severing the
marital relationship between the two
survivors. In 52 B.C. the death of
Clodius Pulcher, an aristocrat turned
Plebeian demagogue, set off extensive
civil unrest in Rome. Pompey, who may
have created the crisis, was awarded by
the Senate a sole Consulship (sine
This article will focus on Caesar's initial Julius Caesar had made his share of collega) to save the Republic, effectively
operations in Italy up to the Siege of powerful enemies while moving to the making him a Dictator.
Corfinium and Caesar's subsequent top of the Republican world. Caesar,
entry into Rome. It includes one very like Pompey, was attempting to main- Besides restoring order, Pompey
small historical engagement and one tain a series of Consular and Gubernato- instituted a series of judicial reforms
hypothetical battle that never occurred. rial posts without interruption to make that made juror bribery almost impos-
To play these small scenarios, all you himself proof against his enemies while sible. Caesar realized that under these
need is a copy of the "Great Battles of accumulating power. His intent was to new laws his immense wealth wouldn't
Julius Caesar" and the Stone Bridge ensure that there was no interruption in protect him from prosecution, that is, if
counter included in this issue of C3I. the succession of these offices, so that he he allowed such an opportunity to arise.
would never be accountable in court nor
The Crisis vulnerable to political defeat. The 1st The "constitutional" crisis that started
In order to grasp the nature of this Triumvirate formed in 60 B.C. between the Civil War was over a far more
crisis, a basic point of Roman law must Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar wasn't a subtle, but dangerous reform that would
be understood. A Consul or a Governor, formal legal institution, but an informal have created a six month gap in Caesar's
while in office, could not be prosecuted arrangement whereby the three most command. We are sure this was the key
or sued in court. All such actions could powerful men in Rome supported each issue for Caesar, based on his statement
and did occur after the term of office other's political agendas. It resulted in to Pompey's peace envoys. "Prestige",
had expired. In fact, most retiring Caesar becoming Consul in 59 B.C. and he averred, "has always been of prime
governors were sued by someone, with receiving the provinces of Cisalpine importance to me, even outweighing life
guilt or innocence determined by the Gaul, Illyricum, and Gallia Narbonensis itself; it pained me to see the privilege
amounts of capital (political and for 5 years in return for supporting conferred on me by the Roman people
monetary) that the defendant possessed Pompey's legislative agenda. That term being insultingly wrested from me by
relative to his accusers. The facts were of Governorship was extended by law my enemies, and to find that I was being
almost irrelevant in these high profile (Lex Pompeia Licinia) for an additional 5 robbed of six months of my command
cases, since the jurors were usually years in 55 B.C., during the Consulships and dragged back to Rome, although
bribed. It was this basic fact upon which of Pompey and Crassus. At the conclu- the will of the people had been that I
the crisis turned. sion of their Consulships, Pompey should be admitted as a candidate in
received Spain and Crassus got Syria. absentia at the next elections."
This was important, because holding a
province meant having an army of
Legions under your command. Caesar
was faced with a situation whereby
Pompey would have continued to
control Spain and his Legions, while
Caesar would hav^ temporarily, if not
permanently, become a private citizen
without any troops. Without those
Legions, Caesar knew that his election
to Consul in 48 B.C. might never occur.

To appreciate the subtlety and the level

at which these two individuals were
competing, we need to briefly examine
the details of the "constitutional" crisis.
Under the Lex Sempronia of Gaius
Gracchus (c. 123 B.C.) the Consular
provinces were picked prior to a
Consular election, at which time they
were assigned. However, the Lex
Pompeia Licinia (55 B.C.), exempted
Caesar's provinces from being allocated
for five years (until 1 March 50 B.C.).
Therefore, on 1 March 50 B.C., Caesar's
provinces would have been allocated to
one of the Consuls of 49 B.C., but under
the rules, the Consul wouldn't have
gone to his province until 48 B.C., at
which time Caesar would have been
Consul-elect, and thus immune from
prosecution. What Pompey did in 52
B.C. was to pass a Senatorial decree that
effectively canceled the Lex Sempronia,
by stating that a five year interval must
elapse before an ex-Consul (and ex-
Praetor) could hold a province. What
this did was make Caesar's provinces
immediately available for occupancy,
since there were many individuals then
eligible who wouldn't wait until 48 B.C. Ariminum. Between these two towns sure that he appeared as the aggrieved
to take over. In effect Caesar was about was the provincial boundary marked by party. Suffice to say, the war was on.
to lose his provinces and his army the Rubicon River. Any governor who
before he could become Consul elect. crossed his provincial boundary without Next, while Caesar and two cohorts
express Senatorial permission, such as remained at Ariminum, he sent Mark
Caesar got Pompey to twice extend and Nero received during the Metaurus Antony with five cohorts to occupy
exempt his provinces from the new set campaign, was an outlaw. Hence, with Arretium, and three Cohorts to garrison
of rules, but on 7 January 49 B.C. the the famous phrase alea iacta est (loosely, Pisaurum, Fanum, and Ancona. An
Senate brought the situation to a head "the die is cast"), he crossed the Rubicon analysis of what Caesar appears to have
with its Senatus consultum ultimum, and began a Civil War. been doing, since he doesn't say, is that
which ordered Caesar to surrender his he was advancing South down the
provinces and demobilize his army, After Caesar's occupation of Ariminum, Adriatic coast of Italy while sending
while assigning Gaul to Lucius a peace delegation arrived attempting to blocking forces to cover his exposed
Domitius. Caesar's counteroffer was appeal to his love of Rome, but offering Western flank. Mark Antony at
that Pompey and he should give up nothing. Caesar counteroffered with his Arretium held a strong position on the
their provinces simultaneously. This mutual de-mobilization proposal. Via Cassia while Fanum sat on the Via
counteroffer was rejected, and on 10 Caesar's text is vague on the exact Flaminia, both of which led directly to
January 49 B.C., Caesar ordered the timing of these various delegations. Rome. Upon hearing that the towns-
Xlllth Legion from Ravenna to Considering, though, that at the time he people of Iguvium, further down the
wrote this down Pompey was dead, I'm
Via Flaminia, were well disposed conquest of Italy, it is unlikely that Picenum, rounded up many of the
toward him, he rushed forces to occupy Caesar could have sustained and deserters, besides others fleeing from
the town. Curio, with the two cohorts at sufficiently expanded his forces to win Camerinum (13 cohorts total), and
Ariminum and the one at Fanum, the war. forced marched to Corfinium. At
captured the town from its five cohort Corfinium was Domitius Ahenorbarbus,
garrison under the praetor Thermus. If Pompey had tried to confront Caesar with 20 recently-raised cohorts.
Thermus, upon hearing about the early, he still might not have fared any
advance and not liking the mood of the better in the war. That early in the After collecting additional corn sup-
townsfolk, withdrew, but his five conflict, a defeat in battle would have plies, Caesar advanced with his two
cohorts soon deserted. had a significant impact on Pompey's Legions (Xllth and XHIth), on
future operations. So Pompey decided to Corfinium. Upon his arrival he found 5
Heartened by his early receptions, give up Italy and marshal his forces cohorts attempting to destroy the bridge
Caesar increased his tempo of opera- overseas before confronting Caesar in over the Aternus river, about 3 miles
tions and advanced with 2 cohorts for battle. Pompey's naval superiority gave from the town. Caesar's advanced guard
Auximum, further South. The town was him a potentially war-winning advan- attacked and drove off Ahenorbarbus'
held by Attius, who received a local tage, strongly supporting the type of men who retreated into the town.
delegation that encouraged him to strategy he employed. He understood /
leave. He did. Caesar's advance guard that the advantage in naval mobility
pursued, and after a short skirmish, could be used to recapture Italy when
Attius' men deserted. Caesar was also Caesar pursued him into another theater A Bridge Too Near
using a very enlightened policy, of operations. If Caesar had been more (Historical)
whereby all prisoners, even leaders, conservative, such a battle probably
were freed and no pillaging was would have taken place in Italy, but Map:
allowed. I am sure that many a contin- under the circumstances, Pompey seems Use the Pharsalus South Map and place
gent of just recently recruited young to have decided to temporarily defer the the Stone Bridge counter across the
legionnaires felt that it was better to main event. S3217/3218 hexside. Assume Corfinium
surrender than die for a cause no one is 3 miles off the South end of the map.
understood. The obvious question is, The news of Caesar's rapid advance
"where was Pompey?" caused panic in Rome and the suspen- Initial Deployment:
sion of recruiting in that area. The Pompeian Forces (Set up first, within 2
Although Pompey had boasted that he Senate evacuated the city and moved hexes of the Stone Bridge, on either side
could stamp his foot and raise soldiers, further south to join Pompey. Leaving of the river)
Caesar's rapid advance with just one Auximum, Caesar advanced through Tribune XVIth Legion
Legion seems to have caught him off Picenum where he was joined by the
5 Cohorts of the XVIth Legion
guard. The two veteran Legions under Xllth Legion. He then advanced on
(pick any 5 cohorts,
his command were recently Caesar's, so Asculum, which was held by Lentulus
except the 1st)
their loyalty must have been suspect. Spinther with 10 cohorts. Upon hearing
Pompey never allowed those Legions to of Caesar's approach, Lentulus re-
Caesarian Forces (Set up on North side of
confront their old commander in battle treated, and his men deserted him on
river no closer than 5 hexes from the
during the entire Italian portion of the the road. Vibullius Rufus, who had been
war. sent by Pompey to take control of
Tribune Xlllth Legion
3 Cohorts Xlllth Legion
Characteristically, Caesar had seized the
(pick any 3 cohorts)
initiative by starting active operations
before his other Legions could arrive.
Special Rules:
Pompey was clearly surprised and
Tribunes can give Legion commands
unready to meet that threat. Conse-
without being in range of an SC.
quently, Caesar was able to mass
superior forces, even though he was
outnumbered, because Pompey's forces Retreat Direction:
were spread out and still in the process Pompeian: South map edge
of being recruited. The combat was Caesarian: North map edge
characterized by quick, almost bloodless
actions, that enhanced Caesar's support Game Length:
amongst the citizenry. It was that rapid 4 game turns
growth in Caesar's economic strength
and access to the Italian recruiting Victory Conditions:
districts that made Caesar such a serious Caesar wins if the both hexes adjoining
threat to the Senatorial forces. Had he the bridge are secured by the end of the \
not been able to secure such a rapid fourth game turn. Any other result is a
Pompeian victory.
Siege of Corfinium Final Operations in Italy
Caesar conducted some local operations On learning of the fall of Corfinium,
and then began siege operations when Pompey ordered all of his forces to
the VHIth Legion arrived. Ahenobarbus Brundisium. Caesar pursued him with
sent messengers to Pompey informing Six Legions (3 Veteran and 3 Recruit).
him that 33 cohorts and many promi- Upon Caesar's arrival at Brundisium, he
nent men were in danger unless he came found that most of Pompey's forces had
to their aid. Pompey managed to get a left for Dyrrachium. Pompey remained
message through which basically stated in the town with a small force, whether
he never told Ahenobarbus to go to by design or due to lack of shipping
Corfinium and he wouldn't put his Caesar didn't know, but he immediately
plans in jeopardy because of that attempted to block off the harbor
decision. Pompey encouraged him to entrance. After nine days of small intense
escape with his forces and join him, but siege actions, the ships arrived to take
Caesar's rapidly growing siege lines Pompey and the remainder of his forces
made that nearly impossible. out of the town, which they successfully
accomplished. With Pompey's with-
Ahenobarbus told his men that Pompey drawal, Caesar was the master of Italy,
was marching to their relief, but his look but he couldn't pursue Pompey until he
and demeanor gave him away. His men could assemble a fleet. While his orders
negotiated a surrender and Corfinium were being carried out for assembling a
fell to Caesar bloodlessly. Caesar, true to navy, he entered Rome, sine collega.
his policy, incorporated the new men Retreat Edge:
into his forces and gave free passage to Pompeians: Caesar's success was based on his .
Ahenobarbus and his prominent The Roman Camp - once they enter intuitive grasp of the value of time. He
compatriots. the camp they cannot be Rallied and was able to accomplish with one Legion,
are eliminated. before Pompey was prepared, what it
Caesarians: would have taken an army to accomplish
Battle of Corfinium Mapedge with hex 3000. later. Pompey's standing forces were
(Hypothetical) troops whose loyalty was suspect,
Victory Conditions: something Caesar knew. Caesar's rapid
Ahistorical Notes: The victory conditions are based on the advance through Pompey's mobilization
This battle assumes that, after hearing number of Cohorts that rout off the areas prevented his rival from raising a
the bad news, Ahenobarbus decided to map. The first side to have 15 Cohorts new army. Caesar's offensive was one of
lead his forces out of Corfinium to fight rout off the map loses. In reality, calculated risk, and the payoff was
a battle with Caesar. Caesar's forces would have fought Rome. Due to his conquest of Italy,
harder and longer in my estimate, but enormous monetary and human re-
Map: this makes it more of a match, although sources fell under Caesar's control,
Use the Munda Map without the a long shot for the Pompeians. giving him a substantial base from which
extension. Assume the camp is the outer to further prosecute the war. Had Caesar
Ramparts of Corfinium from which For more balanced play, substitute the failed in that strategic roll of the die,
Ahenobarbus has deployed his men to Pompeian 1st and 3rd Legions for the Pompey's more extensive resources, plus
challenge Caesar in battle. 17th and 30th. control of Italy, probably would have
changed the outcome of the war. At no
Pompeian Forces (Set up first within Variant: other time in his career was Caesar's
15 hexes of the camp) To make things a bit more interesting genius for rapid action and political
Ahenobarbus OC and SC for for Caesar, this variant examines what acumen better demonstrated than during
Pompeian forces might have happened if Pompey had his nearly bloodless conquest of Italy.
marched to the relief of Ahenobarbus.
Use the XVIth, XVIIth, and XXX Each turn, during the Auxiliaries Phase, (The Great Battles of Julius Caesar picks
(with Tribunes) Legions plus the Pompeian player rolls one die to up where this article ends, with the battles of
Tribunes and set them up first. determine whether Pompey arrives this Dyrrachium and Lesnikia.)
turn. On a die roll of "0-2", Pompey
Caesarian Forces (Set Up within 15 hexes arrives, along with the 1st and 3rd
of hex 3000). Legions. On any other result, he does
Caesar OC not arrive.
Mark Antony SC for Vlllth, Xllth,
and Xlllth Legions When Pompey and the Legions arrive,
Use Vlllth, Xllth, and Xlllth Legions (with they may enter the map via any vacant
Tribunes) plus Antesignani 1-6 and two hexes between 1015-1032 (inclusive),
Gaul LN, plus one Praefect. paying normal movement costs.