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Philip Hawthorn and Caroline Phipps
Edited by Jenny Tyler and Helen Davies
Series editor: Anthony Marks

Designed by Kim Blundell and Lindy Dark


Cover design by Russell Punter

Illu ted by Joseph McEwan,


Guy Smith and Peter Dennis
Cover illustration by Ross Watton


USIC ts by Daniel Scott and Caroline Phipps
Music engravings by Poco Ltd and Michael Durnin

Contents
Section 1
Baroque music 4
Classical music 22
Romantic music 38
Playing the pieces in section 1 62
Glossary 64
Composer chart 66

Section 2
Theatre music 68
Music for dancing 86
Religious music 100
Descriptive music 110
Playing the pieces in section 2 126
Index 128
Pieces in this book
Trumpet tune (Purcell), 6 Terzettino (Mozart), 70
When I am laid in earth (Purcell), 7 Fidelio (Beethoven), 72
Adagio (AlbinonilGiazotto), 8 The Barber of Seville overture
Spring (Vivaldi), 9 (Rossini), 73
AlIa Danza (Handel), 10 Drinking song (Verdi), 74
Arrival of the Queen of Sheba Anvil chorus (Verdi), 76
(Handel), 12 Soldiers' chorus (Gounod), 78
Thine be the Glory (Handel), 14 March of the kings (Bizet), 79
Canon in D (Pachelbel), 15 Du und du (Strauss), 80
Viola concerto in G (Telemann), 16 Morning (Grieg), 81
Brandenburg concerto no.3 (Bach), 17 Flower duet (Delibes), 82
Air on the G string (Bach), 18 Pizzicati (Delibes), 84
Minuet in G (Bach), 20 Sleeping Beauty waltz
Rule, Britannia (Arne), 21 (Tchaikovsky),85
Bourree (Leopold Mozart), 24 Musette (J. S. Bach), 88
Che faro (Gluck), 25 German dance (Mozart), 89
Emperor's hymn (Haydn), 26 Minuet in A (Boccherini), 90
String quartet in D (Haydn), 27 The Blue Danube waltz nO.l
Clarinet concerto (Mozart), 28 (Strauss), 92
Romance (Mozart), 29 Hungarian dance no.5 (Brahms), 94
Symphony no.40 (Mozart), 30 Dance of the hours (Ponchielli), 95
Duet from The Magic Flute (Mozart)., 32 Slavonic dance op.46, no.8 (Dvorak), 96
Ode to Joy (Beethoven), 33 Eugene One gin waltz (Tchaikovsky), 97
Pastoral Symphony (Beethoven), 34 Norwegian dance op.35, no.2
Minuet in G (Beethoven), 35 (Grieg),98
Moonlight Sonata (Beethoven), 36 Polovtsian dance no.l (Borodin), 99
Impromptu (Schubert), 40 Wachet auf! (J. S. Bach), 102
The Unfinished Symphony (Schubert), 41 Jesu, joy of man's desiring
Serenade (Schubert), 42 (J. S. Bach), 104
Caprice no.24 (Paganini), 44 The Heavens are telling the glory of
William Tell overture (Rossini), 45 God (Haydn), 105
Harold in Italy (Berlioz), 46 The Lord's my shepherd (J. S.
The Jolly Peasant (Schumann), 47 Irvine), 106
The Wild Horseman (Schumann), 48 Jerusalem (Parry), 107
Prelude op.28, no.7 (Chopin), 49 Go down Moses, 108
Nocturne op.9, no.2 (Chopin), 50 Swing low, sweet chariot, 109
Violin concerto in E minor Autumn (Vivaldi), 112
(Mendelssohn),52 Nocturne (Mendelssohn), 114
Liebestraume (Liszt), 54 Hebrides overture (Mendelssohn), 116
La donna e mobile (Verdi), 55 Nocturne op.15, no.2 (Chopin), 117
Ride of the Valkyries (Wagner), 56 Romeo and Juliet (Tchaikovsky), 118
Bridal chorus (Wagner), 57 Promenade (Musorgsky), 120
Symphony no.3 (Brahms), 58 Vltava (Smetana), 121
Swan Lake (Tchaikovsky), 59 Scheherazade (Rimsky-Korsakov), 122
Piano concerto no.l (Tchaikovsky), 60 The girl with the flaxen hair
Solveig's song (Grieg), 61 (Debussy), 124
Introduction
The tunes in this book are taken from popular
pieces of classical music, and have been specially
arranged and simplified to make them easy to
play. Many of them should be familiar, even those
with titles that you may not recognize. The pieces
are grouped in three sections according to the
period in which they were written. At the
beginning of each section there is an introduction
to the music and composers of that period.

Naming n p of c
i

Most pieces of music have a number, called an


opus number. (Opus is the Latin word for "work").
In the 17th century, composers began to number
their works as they were published, opus 1 (or
op.l), opus 2 and so on. Often a single opus
number was given to a group of pieces published
together in one book. When several pieces
appeared with the same opus number, each one
was given a second number, for example,
op.l, no.4.
Composers often gave their music titles as well.
For example, Beethoven called his sixth
symphony the Pastoral Symphony. Sometimes
titles were added later by other people.
Beethoven's sonata op.27, no.2 was given the name
Moonlight Sonata.
The Baroque period
Baroque is the name given to the Oratorios cantatas
European style of art, architecture and
music from about 1600 to 1750.
Buildings were very ornate, and music
echoed this. Baroque music started in
Italy, and worked its way north to
Germany, France and England. It is
known for its contrasts of speed and
volume.
Many new styles or forms of music
were developed in the Baroque period, An oratorio is a musical story or drama, usually
on a religious theme. It is performed by a choir
some of these are described here. On the and orchestra without costumes, scenery or
opposite page you can find out about the action. Cantatas are similar to oratorios but they
Baroque composers whose music are more an act of worship, often including
appears in this section. popular hymn tunes.
Opera The concerto grosso Dance music and suites
i,
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An opera is like a play where In the Baroque period, a type Baroque composers began to
some or all of the words are of piece called the concerto use dance music in their
sung. The first operas were grosso was popuJar. It was works. An example of this is
staged in private homes in the written for a small group of the minuet, a dance which was
1590s by a group of poets and instruments and a larger very popular at the court of
composers called the Camerata. orchestra. The orchestra acted Louis XIV in France.
The first public opera house (a mainly as an accompaniment, A suite is a group of pieces of
special theatre for opera) was while the smaller group played music, often including several
opened in Venice in 1637. special solo parts. different dance styles.

The first piano The orchestra

Example of
a baroque
Early orchestra.

plano Harpsichord

The first piano was made in about 1700 by an An orchestra is a large group of instruments.
Italian called Cristofori. Pianos didn't really In the Baroque period, an orchestra had up to
become popular, though, until later in the 18th around 40 players. More than half of the
century. Until then, the main keyboard instruments in an orchestra are strings. There
instruments were the harpsichord, virginal, are also sections of brass, woodwind and
spinet and clavichord. Only on the clavichord percussion instruments. Baroque orchestras
were the strings struck, as they are on a piano. were directed by the ha.l-psichord player or the
The others had quills to pluck the strings. lead violinist.
4
Baroque composers

Henry Purcell Tomaso Albinoni Antonio Vivaldi


(1659-1695) (1671-1751) (1678-1741)
Purcell was the most famous Albinoni was an Italian Vivaldi was an Italian
English Baroque composer. composer. He wrote over 40 composer who also trained to
He had a song published cantatas, many concertos be a priest. From 1703 he
when he was eight, and at 20 and a lot of other instrumental taught the violin at a girls'
became the organist at music, majnly for strings. He school in Venice. He is best
Westminster Abbey in also wrote over 50 operas. He known for his development of
London. He wrote over 500 lived most of his early life in the concerto, and wrote about
works, including music for Venice, where he opened a 550 of them for various
40 plays. He also wrote for singing school with his wife, instruments. Although he
royal occasions such as Margherita, in 1709. After her was a famous musician for
coronations, and the funeral death, he directed his operas much of his life, he died a
of Queen Mary in 1695. all over Europe. poor man.

George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Thomas Arne


(1685-1759) (1685-1750) (1710-1778)
Handel was born in Germany. Bach was born into a famous Arne was one of the most
His father didn't want him to be German musical family, and famous English composers of
a musician, so as a boy he had held important posts as a the late 18th century. He was
to play in secret. He lived in musician at the courts of noted for writing pleasant
Italy for a while, then went to Weimar and Cathen. He was melodies. He wrote over 30
England and became a British an excellent organist, violinist operas, and lots of music and
subject in 1726. He composed and harpsichord player. His songs for plays, including
for kings George I and George music later influenced ma.ny those of Shakespeare. The tune
II. Handel wrote many kinds of other composers, including for which he is best
music, including oratorios, Mozart, Beethoven and remembered is now known as
operas and concertos. Mendelssohn. Rule, Britannia.

5
When I am laid in earth
This tune is from Jt is also called
the opera Dido and Didos La.ment and
Aeneas. It is based is sung before she
on The Aeneid, a dies.
story by the Roman
poet Virgil.
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he left a lot of music piece was so
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an Italian named completed it.
Giazotto listed all of
Albinoni's music.
Albinonil Giazotto
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This is one of four
Spring
On the left you
violin concertos can see how the
The Four Seasons. poem for Spring
Each is based
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9
This tune is from
Alia Danza (from Water Music)
This music was
the second movement composed for a
of the Water Music suite royal river outing
in D. It was written on the Thames.
for George I of
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Handel
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example on the right is
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__ ___ _
10
Handel also wrote some At the first
music for a fireworks performance in
display given by George London, the wooden
II in 1749, to celebrate frame built to support
peace after the war of the fireworks
Austrian Succession. caught fire.

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to the development of music by the French
music notation. In the composer Josquin des Pres
13th century Franco of (1440-1521). It was
Cologne first used written near the end of the
different symbols to show 15th century.
notes of different lengths.

11
Arrival of the Queen of Sheba
This tune is from It was written in
the oratorio 1749, and first
Solomon, based heard at Covent
on a story in the Garden, London.
Old Testament of
the Bible.
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Handel's best On the left you can
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Messiah, written in words, or libretto,
1742. It is about the were written by a
life of Christ. man called Jennens.

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13
Thine be the glory
This piece was The picture shows
originally from some of Handel's
Handel's oratorio pupils in England
called Judas - the Prince of
Afaccabaeus.Itis Wales and his
now better known sisters. Handel
as a hymn tune.

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Telemann (1681-
Viola concerto in G Telemann and his
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This theme is from play music and
the first movement socialize.
of the concerto.
Telemann
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This theme is from It is not known
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of the concerto. were written, but
Bach wrote six they were completed
Brandenburg by March, 1721.
concertos.
Bach
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Air on a G string
This tune is from The bass part,
Suite no.3 in D. with its regular,
Suites are groups stepwise pattern
of pieces, usually of notes, is typical
dance tunes. of Baroque music.

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Bach was a very fine On the left is a picture of
organist and wrote a lot the organ he used at the
of organ and church New Church at Arnstadt
music. After his death, in Germany.
his music went out of
fashion for about 80
years.

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MinuetinG
Bach wrote this tune The picture shows the
cover of a book of
for his second wife, / /
Anna Magdalena.
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< ....... which Bach
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professional
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in 1721. .... ,
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20
Rule, Britannia
This is a song Masques were
from a masque popular at the
called Alfred, houses of wealthy
written in 1740. noblemen.
A masque is a
sort of play with
music, singing Arne

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and dancing.
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21
The Classical period
Some people call all serious music develop new sounds, harmonies and
"classical", but the word is mainly musical forms. Some of these forms are
used to describe the music of the explained below. At this time, Vienna
second half of the 18th century. was one of the most important musical
Classical music reflects the confidence cities. Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven,
and prosperity of this period. New the three greatest composers of the
instruments enabled composers to age, lived there for much of their lives.

The symphony The concerto The sonata


A symphony is a piece of A concerto is a piece of Classical sonatas were
music for an orchestra. In music for an orchestra and written for either a single
the Classical period, most a soloist. It developed from keyboard instrument, or
symphonies had four the Baroque form, the for a keyboard and one
sections, called movements. concerto grosso (see page other instrument. They
Each one had its own speed 4). The concerto usually usually had three or four
and sty Ie, often in the had three movements, like movements (see below).
pattern shown below. those shown below.

I-
1. Fast. Usually I 1. Fast 2. Slow.
the orchestra

j;.
1. Fairly fast
and lively. begins and then
the soloist joins in.
2. Slow
2. Slow.
3. A minuet
and trio 3. Fast.
4. Fast
(dance tunes). and liVe]
3 Minuet \ Y.
4. Fast and
In the first and last trio. 'i,
cheerful. movements, the soloist
sometimes had a part to play
alone, called a cadenza.

Orchestras
23 violins

7 violas

A square piano A grand piano 2 trumpets


During the 18th century, the piano
gradually grew in popularity. Unlike the
harpsichord, it could play loudly (forte) 3 bassoons 2 harpsichords
and softly (piano). This meant that a
much wider variety of music could be As new instruments were invented or
played on it. developed, orchestras grew in size. Above
In the 18th century, Cristofori's you can see the most common orchestral
invention was called the "fortepiano". instruments of the classical period,
Later, it became known as the pianoforte, though others were frequently included
and eventually it was shortened to just the as well. Orchestras were usually still
piano. Today, the word Fortepiano is used directed by the harpsichord player or
for an instrument built in the early 18th lead violinist.
century.

22
Classicalconnposers
- --- ---

rranz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

\ Haydn was born in Rohrau, 108 symphonies, many


Austria. He trained as a string quartets, operas and
choirboy, and sang in the church music.
choir of St. Stephen's His music was popular all
Cathedral in Vienna for ten over Europe. He visited
years. In 1766, he became many major European
music director at the court cities, including London.
of the Esterhazys, a rich In the 1780's he became
Hungarian family. He very good friends with
worked for them, on and Mozart (see below), who
off, for most of his life. dedicated a set of string
Haydn wrote nearly every quartets to him.
form of music, including

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

---./
Mozart was an Austrian Mozart wrote his first Mozart wrote a huge amount
composer, and wrote his first symphony at the age of nine. of music, including 41
music at the age of five. At He lived in Salzburg, Paris symphonies, 27 piano
seven he went on a concert tour and Munich, but settled in concertos, religious music,
of Europe. Above you can see a Vienna in 1781. He often chamber music and 19 operas.
poster for a concert he gave in appeared as the soloist and Above is a scene from his
England. conductor for his own music. opera The Magic Flute.

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)


Beethoven was born in Bonn, was when he wrote some of
Germany, where his father his greatest music. His last
and grandfather were both string quartets contain some
musicians. From 1792, he of the most challenging music
lived in Vienna. His early ever written. In his ninth
pieces included the symphony, he used a choir as
Moonlight Sonata for piano, well as an orchestra, to
three piano concertos, and increase the dramatic effect of
two symphonies. the music.
From about 1802, he was
troubled by gradual and
incurable deafness. But he and two more piano concertos,
continued writing all kinds of he became known as the
music. Because of pieces like greatest composer of his day.
his third, fifth and sixth By the end of his life he was
..u.t, ......., ......"'''', the opera Fidelio almost totally deaf, but this

23
Bourree
Leopold was the The picture on the
father of Wolfgang left shows Salzburg,
Amadeus Mozart. He the city where
was also a musician. Leopold Mozart lived
and worked.
Leopold Mozart
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Gluck was a German
Che faro This song is from
composer. He an opera called
studied in Prague Orfeo ed Euridice.
and he also lived in The picture shows
Vienna and Milan. a scene from the
opera.
Gluck

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25
Emperor's hymn
This and the next tune It was originally the
are from a set of six Austrian national
string quartets, op.76. anthem, and is now the
This is the third, called anthem of West Germany.
The Emperor.

flag Haydn

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26
A string quartet is
String quartet in D
op.76, no.5 The op.76 string
music played by a quartets were
cello, a viola and written in 1797.
two violins. This
tune is the fifth in
the set. Cello
Haydn
Largo
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27
Clarinet concerto
Mozart loved the This tune is from
sound of the clarinet. the second, slow,
He wrote this A clarinet in movement.
Mozart's time.
concerto for his
friend Anton Stadler,
a famous clarinettist.
Mozart
Andante
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28
Romance
The title of this music This form of music is
is German. It means (from Eine Kleine Nachtmusik) called a serenade. It
"a little night music". would often be played
It was completed in after a dinner.
1787.

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29
Symphony no.40
This symphony is one This is the first
of Mozart's last. Parts tune, or theme, in
of it are very sad and the symphony.
moving.

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Allegro
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30
Mozart's last three On the left
symphonies, is a picture
numbers 39,40 of Mozart
and 41, were conducting
written in six an
weeks during orchestra.
1788.

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Amazing pianos A "twin semi -cottage"


piano (made about
Ever since the piano 1850) had two
was invented, keyboards for
there have been A piano that
could also be two players.
many weird and used as a
wonderful ones table, made
made. You can see about 1850. A "harp piano"
made in 1857.
some on the right.

31
The Magic Flute is
Duet from The Magic Flute
It is sung just as
one of the last pieces Papageno rescues
Mozart wrote. This Pamina from the
duet is sung by the evil Monostatos.
characters Papageno ?

Papagenois
and Pamina. the royal
birdcatcher. Mozart

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32
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Ode to Joy
This tune comes from By the time it was
Beethoven's ninth performed Beethoven
symphony. It is called Beethoven's was too deaf to hear
birthplace in
the Choral Symphony Bonn, Germany. the music or the
because it was the first applause.
one to include a choir.
Beethoven
Allegro

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33
Pastoral Symphony
This symphony was The tune is from the
Beethoven's sixth. It is first movement.
based on the theme of
the countryside.

Beethoven
All tt
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34
A minuet is a The picture shows
dance tune in a piano quintet
three-four time. (a piano playing
with a string
quartet).
Beethoven

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35
Moonlight It got its name
This sonata (op.27, no.2)
was written in 1801. It Sonata because a poet called
was dedicated to a Rellstab said it
Countess with whom reminded him of
Beethoven was in love. moonlight on a lake.

Beethoven
Adagio sostenuto
fI.t.l- 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
If
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36
On the right is Beethoven played the
the last page of piano at the first
the original performances of much
manuscript for of his piano music. On
the Moonlight the left is a picture of
Sonata. his grand piano.

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dim. pp

37
The Romantic period
'Romantic' is the word used for a new first Romantic composer; he introduced
style of music that developed in Europe in Romantic styles and expressions into his
the 19th century. It was often inspired by later music. He was followed by Schubert
other arts, especially poetry and and then many others. You can find out
painting. Romantic composers tried to about them on the opposite page.
write music that expressed their feelings Romantic composers, especially when
and emotions, and much of their work is they performed as well, were often very
very dramatic and moving. popular and had huge followings. You
Some people view Beethoven as the can find out more on page 54.

The orchestra The Romantic piano


During the Romantic period,
the piano became the most
popular instrument. It was
Keys on a clarinet much more strongly built, so
A harp-the its sound was able to fill the
pedals were large concert halls that were
invented in 1810. being built. It was also given
more keys. In the picture
below you can see an upright
piano.
Valves on
a trumpet

By about 1830, the orchestra As a result, composers began


looked more or less like it to write more complex music
does today. There could be with greater variation in
anywhere between 70 and dynamics and tempo. The
100 instruments, depending conductor was able to control
on the type of music. Many the speed, volume and mood
instruments were improved of the music very accurately,
by the invention of valves so composers began to be These were first produced on
and keys (see above). The more adventurous in the a large scale in the 1870s and
harp was also included in kind of music they wrote for were the kind most people
had in their homes.
orchestras from about 1820. the orchestra.
As orchestras grew larger,
it was no longer practical for Romantic
one of the musicians to direct music
the others and play at the
same time. Since the eary During the
19th century, most Romantic
orchestras have been directed period, many
by a separate musician Music for ...... H<O"'"'.
different
example, that of
called a conductor. types of
Tchaikovsky.
A conductor stands in music were
front of the orchestra, popular. On
beating time with one hand, the right,
and telling the orchestra how you can read
loudly or softly to with about some
the other. The introduction of the most
of a conductor meant that important Opera - with exotic
very precise directions could Romantic expressed a mood settings and romantic
be given to the orchestra. styles. (Chopin's Nocturnes). or adventurous plots.

38
Romantic composers

Franz g"'UULUII:,&- Nicolo Pag-anini


(1797-1828) (1782-1840) (1792-1868)
Austrian Italian Italian

Schubert was known mainly Paganini was not only a Coming from a musical
as a writer of songs, but he composer, but also a family, Rossini wrote his
also composed beautiful virtuoso performer. He first opera at 18. He composed
instrumental music, played the violin to wildly 40 more, including The
such as the Trout Quintet. enthusiastic audiences. Barber of Seville.

Hector w"",... Robert Felix


(1803-1869) Schumann Mendelssohn
French (1810-1856) (1809-1847)
German German
Berlioz was a very A gifted pianist, Schumann Mendelssohn was a pianist
inventive composer. He wrote piano and orchestral and conductor as well as a
was also a very emotional music. He composed over composer. He played and
man, and this is reflected 300 songs, many influenced conducted his music all
in much of his music. by his love for his wife, Clara. over Europe.

Fryderyk Franz Liszt Giuseppe-Verdi


Chopin (1811-1886) ( 1813-1901)
(1810-1849) Hungarian Italian
Polish
Chopin was one of the Liszt was a brilliant Almost all Verdi's music is
greatest composers of piano concert pianist by the age opera. He wrote and directed
music. He influenced many of 12. His piano music is allover Europe. Among his
others, including Liszt, among the most difficult best known are Afda,
Tchaikovsky and Grieg. ever written. La Traviata and Rigoletto.

Richard Wagner Johannes CaDdllEi ..


(1813-1883) Brahms Saint-Saens
German (1833-1897) (1835-1921)
German French
Much of Wagner's music was Brahms wrote a wide Saint-Saens was a famous
political. He was banished variety of music, including pianist, organist and
from Germany for 11 years. four symphonies and composer. He was admired
His 4 operas called The Ring many songs. He was a by Liszt and influenced
of the Nibelung last 18 hours. close friend of Schumann. many others, including Ravel.

Pyotr Il'yich Edvard Grieg Giacomo Puccini


Tchaikovsky (1843-1907) (1858-1924)
(1840-1893) Norwegian Italian
Russian
Tchaikovsky is famous for Grieg promoted Norwegian After seeing Verdi's Afda,
many types of music: music as a composer, pianist Puccini dedicated himself to
symphonies, concertos, and and conductor. Two famous opera. Among his best
ballets such as Swan Lake works are the Piano known works are La Boheme
and The Nutcracker. Concerto, and Peer Gynt. and Madam Butterfly.

39
Impromptu op.142, no.3
An impromptu is The picture on the
meant to sound as if it left shows
is being improvised, Schubert's room
that is, made up on with his piano.
the spot.

Schubert
Andante
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The Unfinished
This symphony, It wasn't
Schubert's eighth, only Symphony performed until
has two movements. 37 years after
It is thought he A statue of Schubert Schubert's death.
didn't finish it because in Vienna, Austria.
he got tired of it.
,J, Schubert
Allegro moderato
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41
This piece is the
Serenade
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music to a song. +- One of page of a song which
Schubert wrote over Schubert's Schubert wrote, called
600 songs, called song
manuscripts. The Trout.
Lieder.
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43
Caprice no.24
A caprice is a light- Paganini wrote this
hearted piece of piece for the violin. He
music written to be was a brilliant and
played in a carefree popular violinist.
style.
Paganini
Allegro
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An overture is the The picture shows
instrumental music characters from an
which introduces an 1844 production at
opera or oratorio. London's Covent
Rossini wrote the Garden.
opera William Tell
in 1829. Rossini
Allegro
1 3

to Coda Ee

11. I 12. 3

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45
Harold in Italy
This piece has a solo It is based on a poem
viola part that Berlioz by the poet Byron
wrote for Paganini. called Childe Harolds
In fact, Paganini Pilgrimage.
never played the
piece. Berlioz was also a
famous conductor. Berlioz
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46
The Jolly Peasant
This tune is from a This is the town
set of piano music of Leipzig, where
called Album for the Schumann
Young. It was studied.
written in 1848.
Schumann
Moderato

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The Wild Horseman
This tune is also Schumann's wife,
from Schumann's Clara, was a concert
Album for the Robert and Clara pianist and music
Young. He wrote Schumann at the journalist.
many pieces with
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48
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Prelude Although he was a
For a while, Chopin
lived in Paris (shown op.28, no.7 very talented pianist,
on the right). he gave very few
public performances.

Chopin
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49
Nocturne op.9, no.2 Chopin was inspired
A nocturne is a piano
piece which is quiet by John Field, an
and thoughtful. The Irish composer who
name is from the word wrote nocturnes in
nocturnal, meaning the early 19th
"of the night". century.
Chopin

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50
Chopin was a On the left is a
brilliant pianist. He picture of Chopin at
often composed music the age of 19,
by improvising playing for Prince
at the piano. Radziwill in Berlin.

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51
Violin concerto in E minor
Mendelssohn wrote The picture shows
this concerto for his Mendelssohn, aged
friend Ferdinand 11, playing for the
David, a violinist. writer, Goethe.
This tune is from the
second movement.

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Mendelssohn wrote His music was very
many kinds of popular with the
music, including English aristocracy,
concertos, sonatas, and he was invited
piano works and to many social
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53
Liebestraume
Liebestriiume means The Liebestriiume
"dreams of love". Liszt are nocturnes.
gave the title to the
piano arrangements Liszt as
of three of his songs. an old man,
in his study.
Liszt
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Famous musicians
During the 18th century, The Polish pianist
audiences often ate, drank and Paderewski (1860-1941)
talked during concerts. In the was often mobbed by
Romantic period, audiences audiences during his
listened more carefully. Some concerts. In 1919, he
soloists had many fans, a bit like became the president of
Paderewski played in Poland.
modern pop stars. London in 1892.

54
La donna e mobile
This song is from This opera is about
an opera called a court jester. The
Rigoletto. It was picture shows
first performed in costume designs
1851. for the first
production.
Allegretto Verdi
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The story of Rigoletto to go to church. She is in love Duke. She refuses to let her
with a stranger she has seen brother kill him, but they must
There is gossip that there (the Duke). kill someone to give Rigoletto a
Rigoletto (the Duke of Some of the Duke's men kidnap body and claim the fee. To save
Mantua's jester) has a lover Gilda, to prove that Rigoletto the Duke's life, Gilda allows
hidden away. In fact he is has a secret lover. In a rage, herself to be killed, and her
keeping Gilda, his daughter, Rigoletto pays an assassin to body is placed in a sack. When
hidden from the world, only kill the Duke, but the assassin's Rigoletto opens it, he finds the
allowing her out on Sundays, sister falls in love with the body of his daughter.

55
Ride of the Valkyries
This is from the opera The picture shows
The Valkyrie. It is the the Valkyries. They
second of four that were the daughters
make up the opera of Wotan, the chief of
cycle called The Ring the Gods.
of the Nibelung.
Wagner
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56
This popular wedding Wagner wrote the
march is from the libretto for the
opera Lohengrin. It is opera, as well as the
played when music. He finished it
Lohengrin, Knight of in 1850.
the Grail, marries
Elsa. Wagner
Moderato

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The tune below is from
Symphony no.3 Brahms was an
the third movement. excellent pianist. On
In the symphony (first the left is a picture of
heard in 1883) it is him playing.
played by the cellos.
Brahms
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58
SwanLake
Swan Lake is a This tune is
ballet, written in for the first
1877. The swans in appearance of
the story turn into the swans.
beautiful maidens.

Tchaikovsky

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