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Newton-Euler approach

Approaches to dynamic modeling

(reprise)

(Euler-Lagrange) (balance of forces/torques)

! multi-body robot seen as a whole ! dynamic equations written

separately for each link/body

! constraint (internal) reaction forces

between the links are automatically ! inverse dynamics in real time

eliminated: in fact, they do not ! equations are evaluated in a

perform work numeric and recursive way

! closed-form (symbolic) equations ! best for synthesis

are directly obtained (=implementation) of model-

! best suited for study of dynamic based control schemes

properties and analysis of control ! by elimination of reaction forces and

schemes back-substitution of expressions, we

still get closed-form dynamic

equations (identical to those of Euler-

Lagrange!)

Robotics 2 2

Derivative of a vector in a moving frame

from velocity to acceleration

0

( )

R i = S 0" i 0 Ri

!i

Robotics 2 3

Dynamics of a rigid body

! Newton dynamic equation

! balance: sum of forces = variation of linear momentum

d

" fi = dt

(mv c ) = m v c

! Euler dynamic equation

! balance: sum of torques = variation of angular momentum

!

d d

= I

" i dt ( ) # = I

# + (R I R T ) # = I# + R I R T + R I R T #

( )

dt

= I# + S(# )R I R T# + R I R T S T (# ) # = I# + # $ I#

! ! forces/torques: applied by body i to body i+1

= - applied by body i+1 to body i

Robotics 2 4

Newton-Euler equations -1

link i

FORCES

of mass from link (i-1) on link i

zi-1 ci zi

fi+1 force applied

. from link i on link (i+1)

. fi+1

Oi-1 Oi mig gravity force

fi

axis qi axis qi+1

mig

all vectors expressed in the

same RF (better RFi)

linear acceleration of ci

Robotics 2 5

!

Newton-Euler equations -2

link i

!i

TORQUES

"i torque applied zi-1 zi

from link (i-1) on link i ri-1,ci ri,ci "i+1

"i

"i+1 torque applied . .

from link i on link (i+1) Oi-1 Oi fi+1

fi

axis qi axis qi+1

fi x ri-1,ci torque due to fi w.r.t. ci

the same RF (RFi !!)

Euler equation

Robotics 2 6

Forward recursion

Computing velocities and accelerations

moving frames algorithm (as for velocities in Lagrange)

wherever there is no leading superscript, it is the same as the subscript

for simplicity, only revolute joints

(see textbook for the more general treatment) initializations

AR

the gravity force term can be skipped in Newton equation, if added here

Robotics 2 7

Backward recursion

Computing forces and torques

eliminated, if inserted

from Ni to Ni-1 in forward recursion (i=0) initializations

F/TR

from Ei to Ei-1

at each step of this recursion, we have two vector equations (Ni + Ei) at the

joint providing and : these contain ALSO the reaction forces/torques

at the joint axis they should be next projected along/around this axis

for prismatic joint

FP N scalar

for revolute joint equations

at the end

generalized forces add here dissipative terms

(in rhs of Euler-Lagrange eqs) (here viscous friction only)

Robotics 2 8

Comments on Newton-Euler method

! the previous forward/backward recursive formulas can

be evaluated in symbolic or numeric form

! symbolic

! substituting expressions in a recursive way

other) method

! there is no special convenience in using N-E in this way

! numeric

! substituting numeric values (numbers!) at each step

! strongly recommended for real-time use, especially when the

Robotics 2 9

Newton-Euler algorithm

efficient computational scheme for inverse dynamics

at every instant t

AR FP

F/TR

inputs outputs

AR FP

F/TR

(force/torque exchange

environment/E-E)

Robotics 2 10

Matlab (or C) script

general routine NE"(arg1,arg2,arg3)

! data file (of a specific robot)

! number N and types ! ={0,1}N of joints (revolute/prismatic)

! table of DH kinematic parameters

! list of dynamic parameters of the links (and of the motors)

! input

! vector parameter " = {0g,0} (presence or absence of gravity)

! three ordered vector arguments

! typically, samples of joint position, velocity, acceleration

! output

! generalized force u for the complete inverse dynamics

! or single terms of the dynamic model

Robotics 2 11

Examples of output

! complete inverse dynamics

. .. .. .

u = NE0g(qd,qd,qd) = B(qd)qd+c(qd,qd)+g(qd)=ud

! gravity terms

u = NE0g(q,0,0) = g(q)

! centrifugal and Coriolis terms

. .

u = NE0(q,q,0) = c(q,q)

! i-th column of the inertia matrix

u = NE0(q,0,ei) = bi(q) ei = i-th column

of identity matrix

! generalized momentum

. .

u = NE0(q,0,q) = B(q)q

Robotics 2 12

Inverse dynamics of a 2R planar robot

quintic polynomials for q1, q2 with

zero vel/acc boundary conditions

from (90,-180) to (0,90) in T=1 s

Robotics 2 13

Inverse dynamics of a 2R planar robot

initial torques = u1 ! 0, u2 = 0

free equilibrium balance

configuration link weights

+ in final (0,90)

zero initial configuration

accelerations

both links are thin rods of uniform mass m1 = 10 kg, m2 = 5 kg

Robotics 2 14

Inverse dynamics of a 2R planar robot

= total, = inertial

= Coriolis/centrifugal, = gravitational

Robotics 2 15

Use of NE routine for simulation

direct dynamics

.

! numerical integration, at current state (q,q), of

.. . .

q= B-1(q) [u (c(q,q)+g(q))]= B-1(q) [u n(q,q)]

! Coriolis, centrifugal, and gravity terms

. complexity

n = NE0g(q,q,0) O(N)

! i-th column of the inertia matrix, for i =1,..,N

bi = NE0(q,0,ei) O(N2)

O(N3)

InvB = inv(B) but with small coefficient

! given u, integrate acceleration computed as .

.. new state (q,q)

q = InvB * [u n]

and repeat over time...

Robotics 2 16

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