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Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Composites: Part B
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compositesb

A short review on basalt ber reinforced polymer composites


Vivek Dhand a, Garima Mittal a, Kyong Yop Rhee a,, Soo-Jin Park b, David Hui c
a
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin, Republic of Korea
b
Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea
c
University of New Orleans, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, New Orleans, LA 70148, United States

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A recent increase in the use of ecofriendly, natural bers as reinforcement for the fabrication of light-
Received 3 September 2014 weight, low cost polymer composites can be seen globally. One such material of interest currently being
Received in revised form 28 November 2014 extensively used is basalt ber, which is cost-effective and offers exceptional properties over glass bers.
Accepted 9 December 2014
The prominent advantages of these composites include high specic mechano-physico-chemical proper-
Available online 16 December 2014
ties, biodegradability, and non-abrasive qualities to name a few. This article presents a short review on
basalt bers used as a reinforcement material for composites and discusses them as an alternative to
Keywords:
the use of glass bers. The paper also discusses the basics of basalt chemistry and its classication. Apart
A. Fibers
A. Polymer (textile) ber
from this, an attempt to showcase the increasing trend in research publications and activity in the area of
B. Mechanical properties basalt bers is also covered. Further sections discuss the improvement in mechanical, thermal and chem-
B. Thermal properties ical resistant properties achieved for applications in specic industries.
Basalt 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction low loadings. The problems of weakness and brittleness in the


composite (carbon ber reinforced plastic-CFRP) can be resolved
Since its discovery in 1923 by American scientists, basalt was a by a hybridization technique, that is, by replacing the layers of
classied material of choice for military research and was exten- the carbon bers with ductile bers. This may result in cost bene-
sively used in defense and aeronautical applications during World ts and improvement in the physical and mechanical properties.
War II by the United States (US), Europe and the Soviet Union By using this technique, novel types of materials can be synthe-
[13]. Fig. 1 shows basalt ber and carbon woven fabrics, which sized and fabricated. For example, Park and Jang [12] introduced
are extensively used. In recent decades, an increasing research bers of polyethylene (PE) along with carbon bers within an
interest in the use of basalt bers due to their enhanced mechan- epoxy matrix to fabricate a hybrid laminated composite material.
ical properties has taken the polymer industry by storm. These In their experiment, they chose PE bers because of the high elon-
bers are now used in fabricating light, high-end hybrid composite gation at break followed by its high specic-strength and stiffness.
materials for infrastructural and civil applications [4]. Based on their observations, it was concluded that the superior
In general, hybrid nanocomposites are fabricated when two or mechanical properties of the hybrid-based composite depends
more combined foreign materials are embedded or reinforced strongly upon the position of the reinforcing ber. So, whenever
within a common host matrix. With this mixing of two or more the CF was placed at the peripheral (outermost) layer, the compos-
materials, a synergistic effect is realized, which provides new and ite delivered a high degree of exural strength.
superior properties within the material like improved elastic mod- Based on the above observations, strong, lightweight, durable
ulus, ductility, light weight, and ame retarding ability [57]. and economically viable bers are currently required for fabricat-
These qualities are already present in carbon-bers (CFs), which ing the hybrid composites. Presently, several organic and inorganic
are useful in a plethora of large scale engineering applications like bers are available in the market, but many of them either lack
aircraft (civil and defense), automobiles, shipping, sports equip- structural strength or durability, or are extremely costly for use
ment and construction [811]. CF-based composites are, however, in moderate loadings. Basalt ber is the material of choice pres-
pliable to stress concentrations owing to the brittleness of the ently and is an inorganic ber with extremely good modulus, high
carbon ber [8]. The major drawback in the carbon composite strength, improved strain to failure, high temperature resistance,
industry is the expense of production, resulting in the use of very excellent stability, good chemical resistance, and it is easy to pro-
cess, non-toxic, natural, eco-friendly and inexpensive [1318].
Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 31 201 2565; fax: +82 31 202 6693. Basalt ber is obtained after extrusion from basalt-based molten
E-mail address: rheeky@khu.ac.kr (K.Y. Rhee). igneous volcanic rock, which is found in owing lava [19]. The

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.12.011
1359-8368/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180 167

extrusion process of basalt ber is very energy efcient and sim- woven ber reinforced composites (BWFRC). They also found that
pler than that of any competing bers. The ber dimensions are their fabricated BWFRC had similar electrical properties in compar-
generally in the range of 1020 lm [16,19]. Several of these prop- ison with E-glass composites. As for the structural properties of the
erties (like tensile and compressive properties of basalt) are better basalt ber, several reports are available which show promising
than the bers of E-glass and are also far cheaper than their carbon capacities of the material. Previously, basalt was a preferred choice
counterparts [2022]. Hence, basalt bers have received increasing of material (as bers) in the construction industry, and has been in
attention as a novel type of reinforcement material for the fabrica- extensive use since as an external or internal reinforcement within
tion of hybrid composites/laminates. concrete materials [18,31,32]. Moreover, basalt can also be used in
Based on the merits of basalt ber, potential applications exist other applications like marine [16], impact or ballistic resistance
in the fabrication of basalt-epoxy composites, which are also light- applications [6,32]. Eslami-Farsani et al. [33] fabricated a compos-
weight and have strong load-bearing properties useful in the heavy ite by chopping the basalt ber and mixing it in a polypropylene
automobile industry. Currently, the CF composites are being exten- clay mixture. This approach not only improved the yield strength
sively adopted in the automotive industry due to their superior but also the elastic modulus of the composite dramatically. As
mechanical properties. By utilizing this reinforcing material, one basalt is more utility-friendly and ductile, basalt can be introduced
could decrease vehicle body weight by 4060%, but the cost of as a reinforcement within the matrix in various shapes other than
the whole process is not currently economically viable [23]. Thus, bers. Shapes like rods, bars and textile fabrics are possible
the need for lowering the production and delivery cost without [6,18,19,25,3450].
enduring a loss in CFRP-based composite mechanical properties The present review focuses on the extensive use of basalt bers
is important. As stated above, the promising nature, low cost and as stable, inert, eco-friendly and non-reactive reinforcement mate-
effective properties of basalt bers could make basalt a prospective rial used in the synthesis and production of light-weight compos-
candidate for reinforcement in CFRP based composites. Several ites with highly improved mechanical properties. Also, the present
accounts of reports are available which report the introduction of review highlights the applications of the composites made by using
basalt bers with different reinforcements within composite lam- a polymer matrix reinforced with basalt ber.
inates. Lopresto et al. [13] investigated and compared the compres-
sive strength, Youngs modulus and exural behavior of basalt ber 1.1. Chemistry of basalt
reinforced plastics or polymers (BFRP) with glass ber reinforced
plastics (GFRP), and they found that basalt was superior and has Basalt is chemically rich with oxides of magnesium, calcium,
the potential to replace glass. A similar report was prepared by sodium, potassium, silicon and iron, along with traces of alumina.
Manikandan et al. [24]. On the other hand, the mechanical, physi- Fig. 2 depicts the overall percentage distribution of the chemical
cal and physico-chemical properties of the ber reinforced plastics constituents in basalt. The chemical content may differ based on
or polymer were further improved by the introduction of foreign the geographical distribution. Basalt is abundant and comprises
llers like nanoparticles [2527], ber llers [6,28], and by surface up to 33% of the earths crust. Basalt bers are manufactured from
alterations [29] of the bers. At present, very few researchers have nely powdered basalt, which is melted at around 15001700 C to
carried out surface treatments of the basalt bers to enhance its yield a glassy molten liquid, which is then extruded in the form of
properties. Another possible alternative to enhance the properties thin threads.
of basalt as discussed previously is to hybridize it with carbon The bers are chemically composed of pyroxene, clinopyroxene,
bers. This would make it extremely light weight, durable, cost olivine, and plagioclase minerals [51]. Based on the above chemis-
effective and also opens numerous opportunities in the hybrid try, if the basalt is rich in silica and poor with sodium it is catego-
composite world [30]. rized as tholeiitic basalt. If the basalt is rich in sodium and decient
Carmisciano et al. [20], reported higher exural modulus and in silica then it is categorized as alkali basalt. Further, if the mineral
seemingly higher inter-laminar shear strength for their basalt is rich in alumina with a concentration over 17%, then the basalt is

Fig. 1. Woven fabrics: (a) basalt ber fabric, (b) carbon ber fabric, (c) strands of carbon ber, (d) strands of basalt ber.
168 V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180

categorized as an intermediate between the tholeiitic and alkali


basalt. Magnesium-rich basalt is called boninite, which has extre-
mely small concentrations of titanium and other trace metals
[52]. A basalt tetrahedron diagram in Fig. 3 depicts the mineral dis-
tribution within basalt, which reects the chemical nature and
kind of basalt produced during a geological event. Basic mechanical
properties of basalt bers (Fig. 4) and a comparison with different
other commercial bers are depicted in Fig. 5, which shows that
basalt has an excellent tensile strength and also a good modulus.
When compared with other materials, one can infer that the
majority of the materials of choice are costly, heavy, chemically
unstable, or tough to handle and require longer curing prepara-
tions and methodologies to obtain good composites. In contrast,
basalt is eco-friendly, nontoxic, lightweight and easily affordable,
making it an ideal candidate for fabricating composites for several
applications.

2. Need/importance of reinforcement
Fig. 2. Percentage distribution of chemical constituents in basalt.
Reinforcements are constituents within a polymeric matrix of a
composite which help improve the strength, rigidity, matrix inter-
action, conductivity, heat resistance and resistance against chemi-
cal and physical corrosion. Several types of reinforcements are
used in different composites depending upon their applications.
Nonetheless, bers in the form of single strands or bundles have
also been used in processes like lament winding, but these bers
are arranged and woven in the form of a sheet or fabric for easy
handling. The various arrangement and assembly of bers, and
their orientations within the fabric lead to characteristic changes
in mechanical properties. In short, these bers act as load bearing
components. Different types of ber stacking are displayed in
Fig. 6, which exhibits different types of woven fabrics used for
composite fabrication.

2.1. Properties of reinforcing bers

As reported earlier, the mechanical properties of the reinforcing


bers are substantially higher than that of the non-reinforced
resin-based composites. The properties of these composites
(ber/resin based) are dependent upon the contribution of these
bers, which result in a synergistic effect in strengthening the
composite. The main contributors that govern the role of bers
Fig. 3. Basalt tetrahedron depicting different phases of basalt mineral based on the in composites are: (1) the inherent mechanical quality of the ber,
silicate concentration. (2) the physico-chemical interaction between the ber and resin
component (interface interactions), (3) the volume fraction of ber
within the composite, (4) the position, orientation and ber-layout
in the composite, and (5) recyclability.
If the above conditions are met, then the reinforcement success-
fully enhances the composite matrix and makes it much stronger
and stiffer than the matrix. This helps in mitigating deformation
effects and also possibly changes or delays failure mechanics in
the composite.

3. Physical attributes of reinforcements

As discussed above, reinforcements, when introduced into the


matrix, improve physical properties of the composite. The present
section discusses the mechanical and thermal properties of the
basalt ber reinforced composites as reported in the literature.

3.1. Mechanical properties

As previously outlined in the above section, the use of basalt


bers as the source of brous reinforcement has gained much more
Fig. 4. Typical mechanical properties of basalt ber. attention than any other conventional llers (glass bers) due to
V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180 169

Fig. 5. Stacked bar chart depicting the comparative mechanical properties of different known materials.

Recently, Ary Subagia et al. [53] fabricated basalt/epoxy composites


with tourmaline micro/nano particles (0.52 wt%) using the vac-
uum assisted resin transfer molding technique. Laminates of TM/
basalt/epoxy showed that the tensile and exural strength
increased by 16%, whereas an increase of 27% and 153% was
observed for the tensile and exural modulus, respectively. Sarasini
et al. [47], recently reported the effects of hybridization using basalt
ber on quasi-mechanical properties and also addressed the low
velocity impact behavior of their carbon-epoxy based laminates.
They tested the interplay hybrid system by stacking two laminates
employing different sequences (sandwich-like and intercalated) at
three different energies. Results showed that the hybrid laminates
fabricated with the intercalated stacking sequence (alternating fab-
ric layers of basalt and carbon) possess better absorption of impact
energy with enhanced tolerance toward damage than the laminates
consisting of only carbon bers. Hybrid laminates resembling a
sandwich pattern (basalt:carbon:basalt, 3:7:3) layer showcased
promising exural behavior. Wang et al. [15] proposed an enhance-
ment method for BFRP based on hybridization, where its design was
optimized for the application in a long-span cable based bridge. The
results obtained showed that, due to the effect of hybridization of
the ber, the composite showed an increase in the overall modulus,
potential strength and also fatigue behavior. Similarly, Zhang et al.
[59], fabricated composites of basalt ber (BF) reinforced with poly-
butylene succinate (PBS) with variable contents of different types of
bers. They employed an injection molding method and assessed
the tensile strength, exural, and impact properties along with
the thermal stability of the composite (Fig. 7). They observed an
Fig. 6. Figure depicting different types of stacking in the woven fabrics in use for improvement in the tensile and exural properties of the PBS
improving the mechanical properties of the reinforced composite.
matrix due to the synergistic strength offered with an increasing
number of basalt bers in the composite. They demonstrated that
their enhancement of mechanical properties [47,53,54]. It was pre- the Vicat softening temperature (VST) and heat deection temper-
viously reported that the elastic modulus of the basalt ber rein- ature (HDT) of the composite was signicantly higher than the neat
forced composite strongly depends upon the chemical afnity and polymeric (PBS) matrix. Further, morphological analysis showed
composition of the individual basalt ber. Basalt is also known for that the fractured surface demonstrates superior interfacial adhe-
higher tensile strength and elongation at break [47,54]. With the sion and the linkage is stronger between the basalt bers and the
help of these improved parameters, one can also enhance the matrix component. When composite laminates prepared with
impact resistance and environmental sustainability of the proper- basalt bers are analyzed for their impact behavior, the basalt ber
ties within the composite. To date, several reports are available within the composite has shown excellent impact and energy
on the mechanical properties of basalt ber-based composites for shielding in the composite. The strength of the composite is higher
applications like thermosets [2,20,21,24,47,5557], thermoplastics if basalt bers are either placed on the surface or pre-preged using
[22,47,5860], and impact behavior [4,6,13,32,43,47,6163]. alternative layers within the composite (as in intercalating,
170 V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180

Fig. 7. Figure depicting (a) exural, (b) tensile, (c) heat deection and (d) impact strength properties of basalt ber reinforced composite, where the basalt ber content in the
poly (butylene succinate) matrix is varied. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Publishers. Ref. [59].

sandwich). This stacking results in dissipation of a large amount of energy of the SiAC bonds within the ber is lower than that of
the kinetic energy resulting in a series of changes upon contact of the C@C polymer bonds makes this composite vulnerable even at
the impactor. The mechanisms in action for the enhanced abidance short exposures of plasma. The strength of the composite is not only
are the changes in elastic and plastic deformations, friction, matrix dependent upon the curvature of the ber, but also on the matrix of
cracking, pull outs, delamination, debonding and ber breakage. the composite [7375]. Reinforced composites often display excit-
Based on these accounts, it can be inferred that the load bearing ing impact behavior, which is due to the fact that the inter-laminar
ability of the composite laminates made of basalt have higher toler- region is basically resin-rich due to the type of stitch made within
ance for the incident high kinetic energy based impactor when the composite fabric. The adjacent layers result in overlap in such
compared to their counterparts like glass or carbon laminates a way that the ber helps in reducing crack propagation during
[32,43,47,6469]. Also, it is known that the sensitivity of the ex- delamination [7688]. Kim et al. [45] investigated the mechanical
ural properties is much higher than the tensility and ber loadings, properties of surface treated basalt bers using a low-temperature
which means that the tensile modulus of a ber reinforced polymer atmospheric oxygen plasma. They studied the inter-laminar frac-
composite is primarily dependent upon the ber modulus and the ture, toughness and the behavior of the basalt/epoxy woven com-
modulus of the resin matrix, orientation of ber, length of ber posites. The main goal of their study was to understand the
and the content of the ber [59,70,71]. wettability of the basalt ber through contact angle studies. The
One can also enhance the properties of basalt ber composites results obtained showed a remarkable increase in the wettability
by altering the surface (functionalization) or by using the glow dis- of the bers along with enhancement of functionalization of the
charge method. Plasma treatment is a more eco-friendly approach ber surface through physical etching. As a result, the inter-laminar
than the usual wet processing technique where the wetting solu- fracture test showed a remarkable 16% improvement in the
tions used are either acidic, alkaline or silane-based. Using this strength when the samples were plasma treated using oxygen. They
approach, the surface modication of basalt ber can be achieved also reported that, by surface alteration and with the collective
with improved mechanical results [45]. Kurniawan et al. [72] inves- inuence of adhesive forces and increased wettability, the basalt
tigated the effects of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma bers mechanical properties improve greatly when reinforced with
polymerization on silane treated basalt ber to assess the mechan- a resin matrix [45,89]. Similarly, Botev et al. [90] fabricated and
ical and thermal properties of the basalt ber/polylactic acid com- enhanced the mechanical properties (impact strength and tensile
posite by irradiating basalt bers from zero to six minutes at strength) of basalt/polypropylene composites by using chopped
intervals. The results obtained showed that the composite proper- basalt bers treated with polypropylene-g-maleic anhydride (PP-
ties (strength and modulus) were 45% and 18% higher, respectively, g-MA). Bashtannik et al. [91] modied the basalt ber surface by
than the untreated ones (Fig. 8). The optimized time for such etching it with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a sodium hydroxide
improvement was found to be 4.5 min. They also found that when (NaOH) solution. The composite displayed high adhesive strength
the irradiation time is below 1.5 min, it leads to a decline in the between the ller (basalt ber) and the matrix (high density poly-
properties of the composite. This decrease in the properties can ethylene). An improved tensile strength in basalt/vinylester com-
be attributed to the breakage of the silane bonds instead of the for- posites was reported by Czigny et al. [87] when they modied
mation of the polymeric bonds. The fact that bond dissociation the basalt ber surface using a silane precursor as a coupling agent.
V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180 171

resistance, and they showed higher adaptability than the glass ber.
Fibers were also tested for their thermal stability where they were
kept at 600 C for 2 h, and they still retained a maximum of 90% of
their normal temperature strength. Flexural strength was evaluated
and was found to improve with a yield of 27% based on the layers of
bers employed. They concluded that the use of two layers of basalt
ber sheet is enough to express the desired strength in the concrete.
Earlier, Brik [93,94] studied the properties of basalt bers and
emphasized its fundamental use as a possible replacement to steel
as a reinforcing agent in concrete-making. Similarly, the use of
short bers like basalt and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) improved the
mechanical properties of geo-polymers. Since these bers provide
considerable support and control cracking (thereby increasing the
fracture toughness of a matrix), they ought to be brittle due to
the bridging action occurring during the process of micro and
macro cracking [95,96]. Previously, Dias and Thaumaturgo [97]
studied the fracture toughness of basalt ber reinforced geopoly-
mer concrete. They found that with 0.51.0% basalt loading the geo-
polymeric concrete showed higher fracture toughness than the
concretes made of commercially available Portland brand cement.
Similarly, Li et al. [98] noted that with very low loadings of basalt
bers (<0.3% volume fraction) in geopolymeric concrete there was
a signicant improvement in energy absorption and deformation
capacities [95104]. Borri et al. [105], reinforced wood with natural
bers, including basalt for testing the mechanical strength of the
timbers. They introduced a series of natural bers in the tension
zone. Analysis showed that the reinforcement of basalt bers for
the low quality timber beams demonstrated high strength with a
good level of ductility and deection. However, other natural bers
also provided some exceptional results in terms of the mechanical
strength when compared to basalt. Further, it was noted that the
unidirectional basalt ber based reinforcements beams having 2
Fig. 8. Figure depicting different mechanical properties of the basalt and polylactic and 3 strips of basalt bers expressed a dramatic increase of 26%
acid reinforced composite: (a) strength and stiffness data, (b) tensile strength and and 11%, respectively, in load carrying capacities when tested by
modulus data. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier publishers. Ref. [72]. the 4 point bending method.
Zhu et al. [40], recently studied the mechanical properties of the
BFRP bars and also assessed its re resistance capabilities at higher
Likewise, Fiore et al. [92] analyzed ways to connect an aluminum temperatures by using different types of heat resistant vinyl and
alloy (AA6086) to BFRP by exercising three different joining tech- epoxy resins. They found that the mechanical properties and the
niques, i.e., mixed, self-piercing riveting and adhesive co-curing thermal resistance improved even at higher temperatures up to
bonding on the rivets. They also employed the hand layup tech- 100 C. This increased mechanical and thermal stability of the BFRP
nique and vacuum bagging process to realize the fabrication of bars up to 100 C is due to the impregnation of the heat resisting
the composite laminates for joining the structures. Results show resins with basalt bers and sufcient cohesion between them.
that vacuum bagging allows a 23% increase in their average failure Fan et al. [106] investigated the impact-mechanical properties of
load due to the improvement in adhesion strength between the riv- basalt ber reinforced concrete (BFRC). The volumetric loading of
ets and the BFRP. This helps in modifying the failure mechanism. basalt in the concrete was from 0% to 0.3%. Split Hopkinson pres-
Mixed joints fabricated through the hand layup method demon- sure bar (SHPB) dynamic stressstrain curves showed that the
strated a higher adhesive resistance of 43% compared to the mixed BFRC had promising and favorable impact properties at high strain
vacuum bagging based laminates. On the other hand, the hand rate because the volume content of the concrete was mainly basalt
layup fabricated composite showed an equal resistance. If co-curing bers. When the basalt ber volumetric loading was 0.1%, they
adhesion was attained by the process of vacuum bagging, the adhe- found that the concrete demonstrated higher toughness, impact-
sive joints offered a conjoined resistance 67% higher than the mixed compression strength, strain rate strengthening effects, and strain
samples. This shows that the surface treatment allows the matrix rate sensitivity to impact-compression.
chemical moieties to form strong bonds with the surface function- Harsh environments are always a threat to conventional archi-
alized bers and synergistically provide higher strength to the tectural components. They present the clear danger of weathering
ber-matrix medium, thereby improving the adhesion properties and bio-activity in moist and cold atmospheres and cause damage
and increasing the mechanical properties of the composite [59,91]. due to the development of crack and fatigue within the structures
The merits of basalt composites have long been utilized in civil [107,108]. In order to understand the dynamics of composites
infrastructural applications. Sim et al. [31] investigated the rele- under harsh cold conditions, the freezethaw (FT) tests are used
vance of the use of basalt ber to strengthen skeletal material for [109113]. Due to the thermal incompatibility, moisture build-up
the infrastructural industry. They assessed the durability, mechan- and chemical reactivity, damage to the FRP composite is imminent,
ical qualities and also the exural strength of the concrete material which not only inuences the tensile properties but also causes
fabricated using basalt bers. The group employed a high-grade severe damage. There are very few reports published on this
Russian basalt ber, which is reported to have 1 GPa as its tensile account [114117]. More recently, Shi et al. [118] investigated
strength. Chemically, the ber is 30% carbon and 60% high strength the FT resistance for basalt, glass and carbon ber reinforced poly-
s-glass ber. The bers were also examined for their weathering mers (BFRP, GFRP, CFRP) along with their hybridization. Coupon
172 V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180

tests were carried out to investigate the tensile characteristics of case of the BSCC composite, debonding between the matrix and
the FRP sheets along with their representative epoxy resins up to bers was the prime cause for the initiation of fracture. This
300 FT cycles. The results obtained show that, due to the effects implies that basalt stacked as a core material is sure to improve
of hybridization, the BFRP has improved FT resistance in compari- the mechanical properties of the composite. Several other authors
son to GFRP and CFRP sheets. Secondly, continuous FT cycle results have also reported similar results with improved mechanical prop-
show degeneration of the tensile properties of the resin matrix due erties when basalt was used as a central/core material during the
to sustained loading. Since the co-efcient of thermal expansion of fabrication of composites [125127].
basalt is much closer to the epoxy resin, the samples exhibited
strong bonding between the matrix and bers after FT cycling 3.2. Thermal properties
[119,120]. Recently, Diab and Farghal [121] assessed the bond
strength and the bond length of FRP-based concrete applied using Mishaps that occur mainly in chemical and petrochemical
an adhesive. They created an extensive database of FRP-concrete industries are caused due to the spontaneous combustion of acci-
joints to validate the choice of adhesive layer. dentally released volatile/combustible substances leading to jet
Wu et al. [108] showed the tensile fatigue behavior for the ber res [128]. Eventually, these res may lead to a major catastrophic
reinforced polymer (FRP) and hybrid-FRP based composites. secondary event leading to loss of lives and property. Passive re
Amongst the several FRPs used, BFRP showed some incredible protection (PFP) is the need of the hour and can prove to be a reli-
results and is promising for use in civil infrastructure and develop- able solution where the chosen material is not only able to endure
ment. Wu et al. documented that there was a 36% increase in the elevated temperatures, but also retains its mechanical strength.
tensile strength/modulus when compared to the GFRP. Further- The system is maintenance-free and does not involve any kind of
more, they assessed the rupture strain of the BFRP, which was activation or power or triggering in its action. The main function
found to be 2.56% higher than that of polyparaphenylenl benzobis- of such a system is to maintain low temperatures and also protect
oxazole (PBO) composites. They also compared the load carrying its targets against any re hazard or impending mishap. This can be
capacity for each and every FRP composite (pre and post fatigue achieved by the use of a dissimilar variety of materials and prod-
load). For BFRP, due to fatigue load, there was a 45% capacity drop. ucts. Safety requires a thermal shield made of cementitious, ceram-
These failure modes within the BFRP composite demonstrated the ics, vermiculite, mineral-based and tumescent materials, which
existence of transverse cracks. This shows that the bers tensile can be utilized to make composites [128134]. Presently, the only
moduli within the composite inuenced the failure mode. Also, way to fabricate a composite is to impregnate organic and inor-
due to the consequence of low moduli in composites of both GFRP ganic materials. The choice of inorganic material over the organics
and BFRP, the stress (i.e., transverse cracks) were more readily serves the purpose, since they are completely neutral toward re
absorbed by the adhesive layers within the hybrids. The modulus and also maintain the conguration of the material and product
results obtained showed that the BFRP could withstand 90 GPa of with a good balance of thermal resistance. However, re exposure
stress, and this resulted in transverse cracks caused due to the makes these materials weak and brittle. Hence, these materials are
transfer of stress to the adhesive layer. They concluded that the best suited for xed or static installations, specically for large
BFRP did not exhibit any kind of delamination within their com- scale modern industries [128]. However, Landucci et al. [128] fab-
posite sheets, thus explaining its nature as a promising material ricated composites of basalt bers, impregnating it with organic
for manufacture of heavy, load-bearing infrastructure and civil and inorganic matrices. They experimentally studied the suitability
applications due to strong bonding [122]. Wang and Wu [123] of these materials during accidental ame impingement under
investigated the merits of using high performance hybrid basalt/ strict conditions. To further understand the suitability, they
carbon FRP composites in the construction of a thousand meter designed and also simulated jet res at bench-scale. They deter-
long cable-stayed bridge. Their results show that the hybrid com- mined the response of various kinds of materials by using the time
posite (B/CFRP) cables displayed superior performance in mechan- and rupture sequence, temperature prole, and weight loss during
ical, aerodynamic, static, dynamic and long-term properties the imposed conditions of ame impingement. Their results
compared to a bridge made of steel cables. They emphasized that, showed that basalt composites demonstrated low wall tempera-
with the aid of hybridization, properties like fatigue, and resistance ture with excellent residual strength, which decelerated the panel
of the B/CFRP could be enhanced for sufcient times, which is failure. They concluded that, with such an outcome, basalt bers
highly benecial for bearing dynamic loads. may perhaps be considered as a fundamental constituent for the
Lim et al. [124] studied the stacking effect and the mechanical manufacture of novel thermal shields for PFP. Table 1 shows a
qualities like fracture and exural properties of basalt ber sheets comparison of thermal properties between basalt, berglass and
sandwiched with carbon sheet in the presence of epoxy resin. Two silica laments.
types of composites were made. For the rst case, the composite Czigny [58] not only investigated basalt ber (BF) strength
was formed by making four sheets of basalt ber cloth at the center properties but also checked its thermal properties in comparison
covered with two sheets of carbon ber cloth on either side (i.e., to glass ber (GF). Tensile strength results of BF were found to be
2C4B2C), this was dubbed a carbon skin-basalt core (CSBC) com- 568 267 MPa, whereas its modulus was around 60.4 18.9 GPa.
posite. A second set was formed by making four sheets of carbon Apart from the superior mechanical performance of BF, there are
ber cloth at the center covered with two sheets of basalt ber other properties which make basalt a remarkable ber. BF is
cloth on either side (i.e., 2B4C2B), this was dubbed a basalt skin- known to possess outstanding thermal resistance, sound insulation
carbon core (BSCC) composite. The composites were then investi- ability, chemical resistance and low water absorption. Recently, BF
gated using exural and mode I interlaminar fracture tests. They has gained attention for its potential application as a reinforcing
found that the exural modulus of the CSBC composites was material for composites and also its use in thermoset-matrix based
around 245% greater than that of BSCC composites. On the other composites and re-resisting thermoplastics [58,135138].
hand, the exural strength of CSBC was found to be 32% greater Militky et al. [122] studied the tensile properties of BF by tem-
than that of BSCC. In the CSBC case, the inter-laminar fracture pering it at different temperatures of 50, 100, 200, and 300 C. They
toughness was found to be 10% less than that of the BSCC compos- found that, due to the thermal effect, there were some morpholog-
ite. They found that in the case of the CSBC composite, the ber ical and structural changes observed within the bers including a
breakage and the cracking of the matrix were the dominant fea- change in tensile properties. They concluded that the bers
tures for initiating the fracture mechanisms from within. In the showed strong tensile properties when the bers were treated
V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180 173

Table 1
Comparison of various thermal properties of basalt bers, berglass, and silica laments [128].

Thermal properties SI units Basalt laments Fiberglass Silica laments


Maximum application temperature (K) 1255 923 16402070
Sustained operating temperature (K) 1093 753 1470
Minimum operating temperature (K) 15 210 100
Thermal conductivity (W/m K) 0.0310.038 0.0340.04 0.0350.04
Melting temperature (K) 1720 1390 2070
Thermal expansion coefcient (1/K) 8.0  10 6 5.4  10 6 5.0  10 8

below 300 C for a period of 1, 15 and 60 min. Ozturk et al. [84] fab- properties of the resin. There is presently a lack of basic under-
ricated hybrid composites of basalt bers and ceramics for study- standing of the complete mechanism involved in ber damage
ing its hot wear properties. The ber content of basalt was varied and degradation during chemical corrosion of a composite. It has
between 0 and 40 vol%, and the ceramic content was kept constant been reported that, upon prolonged exposure to an unfavorable
(10 vol%) throughout the experiment. They studied the mechanical environment, morphological and structural changes in the bers
and the wear friction properties by using a heated pin-on-disc arise. To avoid such circumstances, there is a need for an alterna-
apparatus. They observed that the wear test coefcient of friction tive ber, which is not only chemically inert but also resistant to
increases directly when the disc temperature is increased up to any kind of environmental. Recently, basalt has been used to
300 C. They also showed and concluded that with an increase in address the above challenges. Basalt, in addition to its superior
the volume content of basalt ber, the friction coefcient of the mechanical properties, also possesses high chemical stability when
hybrid composite also increases dramatically. exposed to different environmental conditions [149]. For the above
Medvedyev and Tsybulya [139] showed the effective use of reasons, basalt bers are extensively used to counteract chemical
basalt ber composites in the area of hot gas ltration. They corrosion. This section further highlights some work carried out
showed that by incorporating basalt bers in the fabrication of a by researchers related to the use of BF as a chemo-resistant
bag house increases its life span by 710 years [140,141]. They also material.
explained the importance of the use of basalt composite-based l- Wei et al. [150] studied the effects of surface chemical corrosion
ter fabrics for remediating hot corrosive gases and polluted air con- on basalt and glass bers in both acidic (HCl) and alkaline (NaOH)
taining suspended hot particles with temperatures up to 800 C. media (Figs. 9 and 10). They also examined post-treated bers in
They emphasized that even though the life span of a basalt com- terms of their strength maintenance ratio and mass loss ratio. They
posite under these drastic conditions may be less than a year, there observed that basalt bers were extremely resistant to acid attack
is no other known ltering fabric which can be employed under rather that alkaline attack, whereas for glass ber, alkali and acid
these conditions. They also showed that when the bags are fabri- resistance was similar [145]. They concluded that amongst these
cated with other high-temperature based synthetic bers, the solutions, alkaline conditions were the most corrosive for basalt.
strength of these bags decreased by 2030% in less than two years Due to the long-term chemical action on the mineral/natural bers,
of operation at a temperature of 190 C. In contrast, the strength of it is difcult to measure or determine the corrosion effect. The rate
the basalt ber composite bag retained the same strength even of corrosion depends on several intrinsic and extrinsic factors like
under similar conditions. This ability of basalt to retain strength temperature, ber composition, aging time, solution composition,
may be attributed to the fact that the fabric is more resistant pH and size of the bers. Wei et al. [14] reinforced basalt and glass
toward higher temperatures than the synthetic bers grown using bers in an epoxy resin to study composite degradation in seawa-
a similar technique. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a ter. The tensile strength and bending results of seawater treated
few authors who have reported the thermal properties of basalt composites indicated a decreasing trend based on the time of treat-
bers composite for diverse areas. All these authors conclude in ment. They observed that BFRC expressed anti-seawater corrosion
their work that the use of basalt bers in composites allows the properties similar to GFRP. They concluded that by effectively low-
material to be much cooler on one side than the side exposed to ering the content of Fe2+ ions within the basalt bers, one can
higher temperatures. They all also reported that the mechanical achieve better and improved stability of composites in seawater
properties of the basalt ber composite varied with its matrix environments. Reports in the literature have revealed that basalt
and result in different types of deformity/damage to the composite bers have higher chemical durability and superior corrosion resis-
only after the limit of thermal saturation at elevated temperature tance [14,150152].
is achieved [17,49,142144]. Rybin et al. [153] employed a solgel technique to coat a dense
and a porous layer of zirconia on basalt ber to assess the chemical
3.3. Chemo-resistance activity resistance of the bers in an alkaline medium. They also studied
parameters like surface topology, elemental mapping and phase
Several high performance laments (carbon, glass, and ceram- composition for determining the etching effect on the ber surface
ics) have been used in composites as reinforcements. The compos- with respect to time. As zirconia is generally used as a coating
ite derives its strength synergistically due to the presence of bers material against corrosion, they attempted to slow down the corro-
incorporated within the weak matrix [24]. During the service of the sion rate of basalt ber in alkaline solution. They found that the
composite, the reinforced bers play a pivotal role in balancing the thickness of a denser zirconia coating on BF is promising in pro-
external load and stress [31,145,146]. For a composite, the most tecting the ber against corrosion rather than the porous zirconia
challenging hurdle is its long term performance and durability coating. Schefer et al. [152] investigated the aging of basalt and
and maintenance under critical environments. It is also a crucial glass bers in alkaline solutions of NaOH and cement (Fig. 11).
point to understand how these materials behave in such harsh They chose bers with different compositions and observed that
environments in applications [147,148]. Chemical corrosion of calcium ions play an important role in the inhibition of corrosion
composites is also a major challenge. The resistance offered by activity. Also, they observed that during aging in a NaOH solution,
the laments during corrosion is dependent upon the resistance the outer surface of the bers corroded extensively when com-
activity, toughness, corrosion crack-propagation, and degradation pared to the bers exposed to the cement solution for a very long
174 V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180

Fig. 9. Figure depicting activity of acid and alkali on the basalt bers and glass bers, respectively. (a) Relation between mass loss ratio and treating time of bers during acid
treatment. (b) Relation between mass loss ratio and treating time of bers during alkali treatment. (c) Relation between strength maintenance ratio and treating time of bers
during acid treatment. (d) Relation between strength maintenance ratio and treating time of bers during alkali treatment. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier
publishers. Ref. [150].

Fig. 10. Cross sectional SEM images of basalt ber before and after acidic (HCl) treatment, (a) original basalt ber, (b) 1 h post acidic treatment, (c) 3 h after acid treatment.
Alkali (NaOH) treated SEM images of (d) glass ber and (e) basalt ber surface. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier publishers. Ref. [150].

time. Under such conditions, local attack was revealed on the dominantly a characteristic feature of NaOH corrosion. This brittle
bers. During aging with NaOH, they observed the formation of a layer often is peeled off, resulting in a decrease in the diameter of
brittle layer surrounding the axial length of the bers, which is pre- the ber and degradation of its mechanical properties.
V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180 175

cycling on BFRP. Composite aging for 240 days was carried out in
salt water. Post-aging results showed that the tensile strength
and Youngs modulus of the composite decreased only slightly.
There was no change in the shear strength for the BFRP composites
even after 199 freezethaw (FT) cycles. But, when the composites
were immersed and aged under hot salt water at 40 C, a sudden
decrease in the shear strength occurred. They infer that, for BFRP
composites, the vulnerability of the interfacial region is the pre-
dominant factor which results in the damage of the composite.
Shokrieh and Memar [157] investigated the stress corrosion behav-
ior in bending loading of epoxy/basalt composites when sub-
merged in 5% corrosive sulfuric acid. They observed that the
above parameters degraded gradually with respect to time. When
the loading of bers is beyond 50% of the ultimate strength, there
seems to be an accelerated degradation. They observed an intense
effect of plasticization within the broken cross sectional zones of
the sample. Finally, they concluded that the mode of the nal fail-
ure is widely affected by the degree of corrosion stress induced
within the composite. Eventually, future equipment will be made
of basalt-ber based composite materials, which not only possess
high strength but also exhibit extreme anti-corrosive properties.
Basalt bers in the future may serve as an effective substitute
against the use of traditional bers for manufacturing several types
of ber reinforced composites.

4. Applications

Many authors in the past have discussed the various applica-


tions of basalt bers especially in the eld of composites and high
Fig. 11. SEM image revealing the formation of corrosion layer on the surface of (a)
performance end uses. Basalt, being an ecologically pure substance,
glass berAR grade stored at 60 C in 5% NaOH for 7 days and (b) basalt ber
stored at 40 C in 5% NaOH for 7 days. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier has a wide spectrum of applications. Unlike the conventional
publishers. Ref. [152]. asbestos/glass bers, which can cause health hazards, basalt bers
are non-hazardous as they are spun with a diameter higher than
6 lm [13]. Basalt bers also have three times the heat insulating
Manikandan et al. [24] explored of the effect of corrosion on the
capability of asbestos. Abrasion of the basalt only produces thick
physical properties of BF. They note that bers corrode due to dif-
ber fragments that pose no respiratory hazard. However, as with
fusion of corrosive agents through the matrix following the path of
most substances, care in handling is recommended. Basalt ber is
a degraded interface leading to matrix cracking [154]. The mecha-
non-reactive toward water and does not cause air pollution. It
nisms involved in acid or alkaline attacks on the bers are totally
has favorable bio-persistence and has been made a label-free
different. The strength of both of these attacks is directly propor-
material in the USA and Europe. Basalt bers are mainly produced
tional to time and temperature. Further, the chemical makeup of
for structural and electro-technical purposes and its applications
the bers determines the resistance to wetting by water. During
include electromagnetic shielding structures, automobile, aircraft,
an alkali attack, the chemical resistance depends purely upon the
ship and household appliance components [5,811]. The type of
mixture of various oxides. The acid resistance increases with
application determines the surface densities, and they range
increasing silica content, whereas the alkali resistance increases
between 160 g/m2 and 1100 g/m2 for insulation-type applica-
due to the presence of a high concentration of alkaline earth ele-
tions. Owing to its inherent thermal properties, both woven and
ments and alumina. An attack over a long period of time dissolves
knitted basalt bers are used in making re-blocking materials
the SiAO skeleton structure, which results in loss of mass and also,
for public transport systems. Basalt inter-liners in mattresses are
the surface of the ber eventually becomes rough. Further, this
commonly used to prevent accidental res. Glass reinforced with
deteriorates the ber elasticity and makes it brittle. Thus, the ber
these bers is used in opto-mechanical applications [97]. The fol-
surface progressively forms a loosely bound layer of reaction prod-
lowing section discusses the potential of basalt bers in various
ucts, which thickens over the time and does not prevent further
industries for diverse applications.
alkali attack. This corrosive activity of an alkali over the bers
results in loss of rigidity within the composite. Nasir et al. [155]
investigated crack formation and corrosion of basalt ber in sulfu- 4.1. Geocomposites
ric acid. Using microscopy and elemental mapping tools, they
attempted to examine and explain the cause of corrosion in terms Basalt bers are useful in transporting and storage of radioac-
of leaching of calcium and ferric ions from the surface of the basalt tive nuclear materials since they do not absorb any kind of nuclear
ber. The appearance of spiral and axial cracks throughout the sur- radiation. Basalt-based geo-composites are extensively used in
face of the ber is attributed to longer exposure times. In compar- making radiation-proof protective caps for nuclear waste disposal
ison to glass ber, they found that the strength of basalt ber was sites. These caps provide protection for several centuries to protect
too high and glass ber degraded earlier than the basalt. Thus, they public health and the environment against leaching or release of
concluded that basalt ber was superior to glass bers in their nuclear underground wastes [158]. Nuclear landll sites are often
study. Liu et al. [156] studied the tolerance level of BFRP compos- situated in arid, sub-humid zones, which have zero or limited
ites immersed in salt water. Apart from this, they also studied the underground water; the area is often devoid of any life forms, is
tolerance and effect of temperature, moisture absorption, and leak-proof and should also be a maintenance-free zone. These
176 V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180

dumping pits are often deep and made of several layers of sand, linings are general applications of basalt ber tissues. Basalt ber
gravel, coarse materials and basalt rock armor. Another example reinforced plastics are another example of these composites and
is basalt geo-mesh [159], which possesses remarkable properties they have a broad spectrum of applications [5,811]. Enhanced
like chemical inertness, very high thermal sustainability against surface properties of basalt plastics make them a better choice
molten asphalt/tar and is lighter than other known metallic for paint applications. Surface treatment of basalt bers has been
meshes. Therefore, glass and metals used for pavement reinforce- achieved by using silane coupling agents, which enhance the inter-
ment are thus substituted by basalt geo-meshes. Since basalt is facial properties between the polymer matrix and basalt bers, fol-
environmentally friendly, it is appropriate for use in soil and lowed by enriched exural properties [25,57,159]. As pre-pregs of
embankment stabilization. Furthermore, basalt ber-based geo- these modied basalt bers (chopped and laments), reinforced
polymeric concretes show enhanced mechanical properties over polymer composites can be stored for several years at 40 C with
conventional cement [93,94]. hermetical packing, and they are suitable for a large array of appli-
cations. Pre-pregs of basalt bers with modied polyester resins
4.2. Abrasion resistance for industrial pipes are appropriate for die-casting, winding lying, vacuum molding,
and direct pressing autoclaves. To further enhance the properties
During the 1980s and 1990s, basalt lined pipes were widely of the composites some combination of the reinforced materials
installed. These basalt lined pipes (BLPs) are known for their hard- are used. Basalt ber laminates synthesized using resin transfer
ness (89 Mohs). They are often used in making impact resistant molding (RTM) are used as composite panels in graph plotters,
and abrasion units [160]. Transport of slag is a major challenge printable circuit boards, and electrical circuits to provide good
and this results in severe strain on the pipes and their components. insulation [2].
BFRP-based high pressure pipes are also known to withstand
higher pressures up to 1000 atm when compared to steel. These 4.4. Basalt lined castings
basalt pipes are used extensively as components in shaft linings
and transportation of corrosive chemicals. The pipes lined by basalt Basalt casting can be a good solution for the equipment facing
are expected to give a longer shelf life up to 6080 years, which is high wear and tear in the mining industry. Since basalt has impres-
comparatively much higher than the metallic pipes. BLPs are tough sive anti-corrosion and anti-frictional properties, it can be coated
and require almost negligible maintenance even when they are onto friction-contacting parts to make a smooth, abrasion resistant
carrying abrasive material like a coal slurry. Even today, industrial surface. For example, during the production of slag cement, which
furnaces also employ basalt to contain the hot liquid slurry of the is an additive of Portland cement, pipes carrying lime, silica, alu-
ash [161]. It should be noted that low-sulfur coal, when liqueed at mina and magnesia containing granulated furnace slag cause high
high temperatures, is more abrasive than any material, hence the wear due to their high abrasiveness. This issue can be resolved by
basalt lining within the boilers helps to counteract this. Similarly, using basalt lined casted pipes [160]. In case of abrasiveness life
BLPs are extensively used in mining. For example, the transport span of the pipes can be improved up to 8 years.
of mining chemicals like chlorides of sodium and potassium are
known to be highly abrasive and corrosive in slurry form and can 4.5. Electrical insulation
cause severe, irreparable damage and premature wear in ordinary
pipes if not lined by the basalt. Further, collection of salt and par- Basalt is known for its insulation properties and has long been
afn within the pipe decrease due to the lower thermal conductiv- in use as an insulating fabric around electrical wiring and appli-
ity of basalt. ances. After metallization, the basalt fabric exhibits shielding prop-
Also, due to heat, friction and chemical resistance, basalt bers erties to electromagnetic radiation. Basalt is extremely resistant to
are also used in the manufacture of some machines [162]. Due to temperature. Specically, it can withstand wide range of tempera-
its exceptional chemical resistant properties, basalt-lined equip- tures from 260 C to 800 C, making it superior to glass ber
ment and pipes are ideal for transportation and storage of highly [162]. Basalt has already replaced asbestos as a heat insulator
corrosive chemicals like hydrogen sulde, mineral/organic acids due to its low thermal conductivity. Apart from these examples,
and alkali chemicals. On the other hand, BFs are known to have basaltic tapes/fabrics have also been in use for insulating high ten-
high wettability, through which various chemicals can be applied sion wires during power transmission and for protection against
on the surface to yield nishes which are resistant to attack from re hazards [16,164].
oil, abrasion, soil, and colors. A few other advantages of BLPs are
as follows: 4.6. Generalized industrial applications

 Basalt is an insulator often found to be resistant toward electro- Basalt bers have been employed in several high temperature
chemical corrosion. applications. For example basalt ber is used in hot gas/particle
 Basalt bers are resistant toward fungus and microorganism separation industries, where the lter bags often are damaged
attack. due to excess heat, causing leaks and hazards. In order to avoid
accidents, these lter bags requires proper maintenance so that
4.3. Laminates and pre-pregs they are leak proof. Thus, basalt ber based sewing threads are
used, which help in repairing leaks [122]. By introducing basalt
One of the widely used examples of these composites employ- fabrics into industrial ventilators, re safety also increases since
ing basalt is basalt ber tissue, which is basically an ordered dis- these natural inorganic geo-mineral bers are non-ammable,
persion of basalt ber in a binder matrix such as PVA, polylactic which makes them an ideal candidate for providing re resistance.
acid, phenyl formaldehyde, melamine, latex, epoxy, phenolic resin, As previously described, basalt in the presence of thermoset
poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(butylene terephthalate), poly- resins have been successfully employed in various sectors from
amide, starch resin, or polyamide [163]. It is a porous, non-woven construction to aerospace industries. In the automobile industry,
structure which has impressive resistance against alkalis, acids, basalt bers are employed in the fabrication of car brakes [165
environmental conditions and UV-rays. Soft roong, water proof- 167]. Being a natural geo-mineral, basalt is easy to recycle and also
ing with bituminous coatings, tissue tapes for joining two boards, poses no threat to the environment. To date, no known toxicity has
anti-corrosion material, geotextiles, and plastic foams with foam been reported. In the medical research eld, basalt bers in the
V. Dhand et al. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166180 177

presence of organic binders make an ideal cryogenic storage con- of the abovementioned properties. Still, the authors feel that there
tainer t for storing and transporting biological samples [168]. is presently a great need for a detailed review or research to be
Intumescent, non-woven basalt bers with epoxy have carried out in the use of basalt bers in the eld of biology for
demonstrated re-proof properties used to meet re code safety the fabrication of biodegradable composite materials, electromag-
standards for construction of concrete bridges and also for marine netic absorption, nuclear remediation and transport, mining engi-
applications [16,46,169]. Acoustic proong of basalt bers has neering, deep sea civil infrastructure and environmental
shown that the bers can act as a barrier [13,31] and absorb up applications.
to 8095% of the sounds propagating in the frequency of
1800 Hz. Basalt as a mineral has also been employed in agricultural
practices and applications like hosing and irrigation pipes, land Acknowledgements
drainage, seeding, vegetable growth, development of antifriction,
non-abrasive, agrarian machines and construction [170,171]. Last This work was supported by the Basic Science Research
but not least, basalt has also been used by the tile industry to Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea
enhance the glaze of the surface and also bring out colors (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
[172176]. (Project Number: 2013R1A1A2A10063466).

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