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2013(example)

and Terminology

PREPARED BY THE

Power Systems Operations Committee

State Estimation Algorithms Working Group

Task Force on State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

ii

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

Chair of the Task Force: Dr. Ali Abur

Vice-Chair of the Task Force: Dr. Sarma (NDR) Nuthalapati

Secretary: Dr. Cansin Y Evrenosoglu

Mehmet Celik

Narsi Vempati

M. Davis Hwang

John Allemong

Patrick Panciatici

Serge Lefebvre

Jacques Prevost

Jinazhong Tong

Jianwei (Jay) Liu

Luo Xiaochuan

Liang (Benny) Zhao

Djordje Atanackovic

Diran Obadina

Xiaoming Feng

Daniel J. French

Ali Ghassemian

Matthew Gardner

Xiaodong Liu

Robson Pires

P. Pentayya

Luigi Vanfretti

Kevin Clements

iii

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Task Force is truly grateful for the support of our sponsoring committee on Power

System Operations and the Working Group on State Estimation Algorithms.

The Task Force gratefully acknowledges the contributions of participants of our Task

Force Meetings who contributed through their discussions in converging on this report.

KEYWORDS

Pseudo-measurements, Residual Analysis, State Estimation, Topological Observability,

Topology Processing

iv

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

CONTENTS

1. SCOPE ............................................................................................................. 1

2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ...................................................................... 1

3. TERMS/CONCEPTS RELATED TO STATE ESTIMATION .............................. 1

4. REFERENCES ................................................................................................. 8

v

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

vi

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

1. SCOPE

This technical report provides the terminology and definitions used in the formulation of

a state estimation problem and provided in the output of commercially available state

estimation software.

2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Since its introduction in the 1970s, power system static state estimation has received

numerous technical contributions and has undergone substantial improvements. Various

terms were coined by different contributors sometimes referring to similar concepts.

Though most of the terms are well understood, there are some whose definition may not

be agreed upon or clear, leading to misunderstanding of the concepts being conveyed by

them. During the 2008 IEEE PES General Meeting held Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA,

the Working Group on State Estimation Algorithms decided to form a task force on SE

Concepts and Terminologies with an objective to create a consistent reference document

that includes the set of definitions of various terms/concepts that are often used in the

context of State Estimation. During the 2009 IEEE PES General Meeting held in Calgary,

Alberta, Canada, the working group discussed this and decided to move forward in

starting the activities for this task force.

List of terms/concepts related to State Estimation:

Term/Concept Explanation

Bad data Measurements that carry errors which deviate from

their assumed statistical models. Measurement errors

are typically supposed to be independent and

normally distributed with zero means and assumed

standard deviations.

Bad data analysis Statistical methodology to detect and identify bad

data .

Bad data detection Statistical tests applied to the residuals for detecting

the presence of bad data in the measurement set.

Bad data identification Methodology to identify which measurements carry

bad data.

Breakdown point It is the maximum fraction of outliers that an

estimator can handle, that is, for which it provides

reliable results. When the breakdown point is

exceeded, some biases of the estimates become

unbounded or reach the boundaries of their

admissible ranges.

1

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

Term/Concept Explanation

Chi-squared test A statistical test applied to the least-squares criterion

used to detect bad data for a given measurement set.

Critical measurement A critical measurement is the one whose elimination

from the measurement set will result in an

unobservable system.

Properties of a critical measurement :

- The column of the residual covariance matrix,

corresponding to a critical measurement will be

identically equal to zero.

- The measurement residual of a critical

measurement will always be zero.

Covariance matrix See measurement error covariance matrix.

Data availability The percentage of available real time measurements

used in the state estimator measurement set.

Degrees of freedom, df The number of random variables that are

independent. Chi-square distribution is said to have

k degrees of freedom, if k out of m random

variables are independent. In the chi-squared residual

test, it is equal to the rank of the residual sensitivity

matrix. The number of degrees of freedom is

calculated as k=m-n, where m denotes the number

of measurements and n is a dimension of the state

variable vector.

Dormant measurement A measurement which has no effect on estimation of

the state is referred to as dormant measurement. A

single dormant measurement will have a zero residual

when added to an existing measurement set that is

observable. This definition applies to multiple

dormant measurements as long as the state estimation

model is linear.

Error estimate Estimated value of a measurement error. True

measurement errors cannot be known or calculated.

Factor space A factor space is a vector space spanned by the row

vectors of the measurement Jacobian matrix.

Gain Matrix, G Inverse of which yields the covariance matrix for the

system states. Gain matrix is a function of the

measurement Jacobian and the diagonal measurement

error covariance matrix .

GM-estimators GM-estimators are generalized M-estimators that are

resistant to all types of bad data, including bad

leverage points.

2

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

Term/Concept Explanation

Gross error 1) An error which is considered statistically

significant. That is, it is not predicted by the

assumed Gaussian distribution.

2) A gross error may be a measurement error whose

variance is significantly larger than the one

assumed by the state estimator and the associated

residual statistical tests.

3) A gross error may be a measurement error with a

large systematic bias.

4) A gross error may be a random measurement error

with a large random non-zero mean.

Hierarchical State A hierarchical state estimator estimates in a

Estimation hierarchical manner the state vector of a power

system consisting of several interconnected

subsystems by first estimating the state variables of

each local subsystem and then integrating the local

state estimates into a global estimation of the state of

the interconnected system.

Hypothesis testing Hypothesis testing is a general method in making

decision about accepting or rejecting a statement.

Ill-conditioning A linear equation system is said to be ill-conditioned

if small errors in the entries of the coefficient matrix

and/or the right hand side vector translate into

significant errors in the solution vector.

Influence functions Sensitivity functions that measure the influence of the

biases and co-variances of the state and parameter

estimates to outliers.

Injection measurement The measured net difference between the injected and

withdrawn power/current at a given bus.

Interacting bad data Gross errors in measurements whose residuals are

strongly correlated, i.e. off-diagonal entries in the

residual covariance matrix , are significant.

Irrelevant injection An injection measurement is called irrelevant if it is

taken at a bus which is incident to at least one

unobservable branch. All injection measurements at

the boundary buses of observable islands are

irrelevant measurements. Irrelevant measurements

can be removed without affecting the outcome of the

network observability analysis.

Irrelevant branch An observable branch whose parameters do not appear in

any of the linear or nonlinear expressions relating

measurements with state variables.

3

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

Term/Concept Explanation

Leverage point Leverage measurements (points) have very high

influence on the state estimated by an M-estimator.

Their residuals are very small, making it very difficult

to detect errors on these measurements using an M-

estimator. Typical conditions that lead to leverage

measurements are: injection measurements at buses

with a very large number of incident branches,

injection measurements at a bus where incident

branches have very different parameters (several

orders of magnitude difference), use of

disproportionate weights on measurements in order to

indirectly enforce equality constraints, etc.

Local redundancy for a It is the minimum number of measurements whose

given topology deletion turns a given measurement into a critical one.

Measurement Error, e Error between the true value and measured value of a

quantity. This error cannot be measured.

Measurement redundancy The ratio of the total number of measurements to the

number of state variables.

Measurement residual, r The difference between the measured and estimated

value of a measurement.

Measurement error Diagonal matrix whose entries are the assumed

covariance matrix, R variances of measurement errors.

Measurement Jacobian, H (m x n) gradient matrix of measurements to system

state vector or augmented state and parameter vector.

Rows correspond to measurements, columns

correspond to the system states and parameters to be

stimated, i.e. voltage magnitude and phase angles,

transformer taps, or any parameters included in the

vector to be estimated .

Measurement function, h(x) Vector function of dimension m, every entry

represents the functional expression of the

corresponding measurement in terms of the system

state variables.

M-estimators M-estimators are maximum-likelihood-type

estimators introduced by Huber in 1964. They include

the least squares estimator, the LAV estimator, the

Huber estimator (Quadratic Linear), the Hubertype

skipped mean estimator (Quadratic constant), the

Hampel estimator, the Tukeys biweight estimator,

the Merill-Schweppe estimator (Quadratic-Square-

root), etc.

4

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

Term/Concept Explanation

Network Topology Procedure which uses the on/off status of all breakers

Processing and tie-switches at substations in order to create the

bus/branch level one-line diagram of the system from

the initial bus section/breaker model. Any incorrect

information on breaker/switch status will lead to

errors in the one-line diagram.

Non-interacting bad data Gross errors in measurements whose residuals are

weakly correlated, i.e. off-diagonal entries

corresponding to these residuals in are

insignificant.

Normal equation G * x = H * inv(R) * (z h(x)). Equation

describing the relation between the weighted least

squares estimate for incremental change in states and

the mismatch between the measured and calculated

measurements. State estimation procedure involves

iterative solution of this equation until convergence.

Normalized residual, rN Standardized residual, which follow the standard

normal distribution with zero mean and unit variance

when the measurement errors are normally distributed

(satisfy the null hypothesis). Ratio of the absolute

value of the measurement residual to the square root

of the corresponding diagonal entry in . rN = |r| /

sqrt(ii), where represents a residual covariance

matrix.

Null hypothesis When used for bad data detection, it is the hypothesis

that there is no gross error in the measurement.

Hypothesis test will then check validity of this null

hypothesis. The measurement errors follow the

assumptions, that is when they are independent and

they follow the normal distribution with zero mean

and the given covariance matrix, R.

Numerical Observability Analysis of network observability using numerical

triangular factorization of the gain matrix or of the

Jacobian matrix.

Objective Function, J(r) Weighted sum of squares of the measurement

residuals. Weights are defined as the reciprocals of

the assumed measurement error variances.

Observability Analysis Analysis of network topology and measurement

configuration in order to determine if the system is

observable. If the network is found to be

unobservable, the analysis also identifies all

observable islands.

5

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

Term/Concept Explanation

Observable island An observable island is a set of interconnected

branches whose flows can be estimated based on the

available measurements. Observable islands may be

connected to other observable islands by

unobservable branches.

Orthogonal factorization Factorization of a matrix, A=QR, in such a way that

Q is an orthogonal matrix, i.e. Q*Q = I (identity

matrix) and R is upper trapezoidal.

Outlier Data point that deviates from the pattern formed from

the bulk of the data set. For example, a bad data is an

outlier.

Over-determined system A system of equations where the number of equations

is larger than the number of unknowns.

Parameter error Parameters are associated with the assumed network

model, which includes the lines, transformers, shunt

or series elements, specialized control equipment, etc.

Errors in these parameters will bias the state

estimation results.

Phasor measurements Measurements of magnitude and phase angle of

voltage or current signals, which are synchronized via

the global positioning satellite (GPS) system.

Pivot ordering Re-ordering of row-column pairs of a matrix. The

purpose of re-ordering could be to minimize

factorization fill-ins, to improve numerical stability,

etc.

Plausibility check If all branch flows as well as external injections

(generation/load) incident to a bus are measured, their

sum is expected to be small (ideally zero). Voltage

magnitudes cannot assume very low or negative

values. Load / generator buses cannot have positive /

negative net real power injections. Also

inconsistency between status and analog telemetry

such as MW/MVAR flow telemetry that indicates

flow larger than a tolerance on an open branch can be

used to indicate inconsistency. Such rules can be used

to rule out gross errors before initiation of the state

estimation solution. This procedure is referred to as

the plausibity check.

Power injection The difference between the net power injected and

withdrawn at a given bus.

6

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

Term/Concept Explanation

Pseudo-measurement An injection whose value is obtained either from bus

load forecasts or generation schedules. It is used as a

substitute for a missing measurement in order to

restore observability. Typically, very low weights are

assigned to pseudo-measurements.

Pseudo-inverse matrix A rectangular matrix that relates the least-square state

estimate vector to the observation vector in a linear

regression model.

Raw data Data that have not been processed by any of the

application functions.

Redundancy See measurement redundancy.

Redundancy index See measurement redundancy.

Redundant measurement A measurement is said to be redundant if its removal

does not lead to an unobservable system.

Residual analysis Statistical analysis applied to the measurement

residuals, which are computed following the

convergence of the state estimator.

Statistically robust Estimation which has bounded influence to outliers,

estimation i.e. gross errors in measurements and parameters.

Degree of robustness of an estimator can be measured

via influence functions and breakdown points.

Numerically robust Estimation which may solve reliably for ill-

estimation conditioned gain matrix.

Residual covariance matrix, = R-H*inv(G)*H. Square and symmetric matrix

with dimension equal to the number of

measurements. Diagonal entries correspond to

variances of measurement residuals, off-diagonal

entries correspond to covariances between the

measurement residuals of respective rows and

columns.

Residual sensitivity matrix, S = I H * inv(G) * H * inv(R). Square and singular

S matrix, whose entries represent the sensitivities of

measurement residuals to the measurement errors, r =

S * e.

Largest Normalized Residual Statistical test that is used to detect and identify bad

Test data. Measurement residuals are normalized and

ranked in descending order. If the largest normalized

residual is significant (i.e. larger than 3.0), it is

identified as bad datum and removed from the

measurement set. After executing the state estimator

again, the test is repeated. The procedure is

terminated when/if the largest normalized residual

falls below the threshold.

7

PES-TR20 State Estimation Concepts and Terminology

Term/Concept Explanation

Topology error Error in the status of a circuit breaker, disconnect or

tie-switch, leading to an incorrect configuration of the

network one-line diagram.

Topological observability Analysis of network observability based on the graph

theoretical concepts without using the actual network

model parameters and/or measurement weights. No

floating point arithmetic is used or needed.

Unobservable branch A branch whose flow cannot be estimated. Such

branches connect (or separate) observable islands in a

given system.

Unobservable state A state which satisfies all the measurements when all

measurements are set equal to zero, yet at least one

branch flow computed based on this state will be non-

zero. In general, an unobservable state is not

uniquely defined.

Weighted least squares Method used in estimating the system state from

estimation network measurements. It minimizes an objective

function which is the weighted sum of squares of the

measurement residuals. Nonlinear nature of the

measurement equations leads to an iterative

implementation of the algorithm for power systems.

The diagonal weighting matrix is W= inv(R).

Weighted residual Ratio of the measurement residual to the assumed

standard deviation of the corresponding measurement

error.

4. REFERENCES

1. Ali Abur, Antonio Gomez Exposito, Power System State Estimation Theory and

Implementation, Marcel Dekker Inc Publishers, 2004.

2. A. Monticelli, State Estimation in Electric Power Systems A Generalized

Approach, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

3. L. Mili, V. Phaniraj, P. J. Rousseeuw, Robust Estimation Theory for Bad Data

Diagnostics in Electric Power Systems, in C. T. Leondes (Ed.), Control and

Dynamic Systems: Advances in Theory and Applications, Vol. 37: Advances in

Industrial Systems, Academic Press Inc., 1990.

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