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# Republic of the Philippines

## CENTRAL MINDANAO UNIVERSITY

University Town, Musuan, Bukidnon

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

## MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

ME 56
(MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY II)

Exercise No. 3

## DATE PERFORMED: Criteria Score

REPORT Participation and skills in EVALUATION:
JANUARY 31, 2017 manipulating laboratory equipment,
apparatuses, etc. (10pts.)
Class attendance (5 pts.)
DATE DUE: Following procedures correctly (5
pts.)
FEBRUARY 2, 2017 Observance of laboratory rules and
orderliness in the laboratory room (5
pts.)
Discussion, data presentation and
SUBMITTED BY: computations (5 pts.)
Observations during the conduct of
ROGELYN C. JOSOL exercise and its results (5 pts.)
Student Conclusions (5 pts.)
Diagrams, figures and report (5 pts.)
Promptness (5 pts.)

Instructor
2ND SEMESTER
SY 2016 2017

I. OBJECTIVES

## 1. Discuss the strokes of two-stroke gasoline and two-stroke diesel engine.

2. Identify the parts of the two engines.
3. Enumerate the functions of the different parts of the engine.
4. Discuss the principles of operation of the internal combustion engine.
5. Discuss the principles and formulas in determining the power of the engine.

II. THEORY

1. Principle of operation of the two engines with respect to the following strokes.

## Two Cycle gasoline engine

As the piston travels down, the mixture previously drawn into the crankcase is partially
compressed. As the piston nears the bottom of the stroke, it uncovers the exhaust and
intake ports. The exhaust flows out, reducing the pressure in the cylinder. When the
pressure in the combustion chamber is lower than the pressure in the crankcase through
the part openings to the combustion chamber, the incoming mixture is deflected upward
by an encounter on the piston. As the piston moves up, it compresses the mixture above
and draws into the crankcase below a new air-fuel mixture.

## 2. Functions of the different parts of the engine.

Cylinder- the engine cylinders are contained in the engine block. Passage for the cooling
water are cast into the block
Piston- The piston is moved up and down inside the cylinder by the crankshaft, which
is connected to it via the connecting rod. A vacuum is formed as it takes its upward
stroke, drawing air and fuel down through the reed valve. When the piston reaches
the top, the spark plug then lights the air/fuel mixture, burning it and sending the
piston back down. On the downward stroke, the reed valve gets closed because of
the increased pressure of the fuel and air mixture within, which is being compressed.
New fuel and air travel via the intake port into the cylinder, ready to be burnt. The
exhaust is expelled through the exhaust port, and an unpleasant side effect is that it
usually takes some of the unburned fuel mixture with it.
Combustion Chamber - volume between cylinder head and piston face
Intake manifold - piping which delivers incoming air to cylinders
Exhaust manifold - piping which carries exhaust gases away from engine cylinders
Intake valve- allow the fresh charge of air-mixture to enter the cylinder
Exhaust valve- permits the burnt gases to escape from the cylinder bore at proper timing
Spark plug - creates high-voltage discharge across an electrode gap
Connecting rod- The connecting rod is connected to the crankshaft at one end, and to
the piston at the other. It translates the movement of the crankshaft so that the
piston is moved up and down.
Crankshaft - rotating shaft through which engine work output is supplied to external systems,
rotated by reciprocating pistons through connecting rods
Gudgeon pins- these are hardened steel parallel spindles fitted
through the piston bosses and the small end bushes or eyes to allow the
connecting rods to swivel. It connects the piston to connecting rod. It is made
hollow for lightness.

Camshaft rotating shaft used to push open valves at the proper time in engine cycle
Cam - mounted on the camshaft and operates the suction and discharge valves at correct
timing through rocker arm.

Carburetor- Venturi flow device to draw fuel and mix with air
Injectors- pressurized nozzle to inject fuel into air or cylinder
Injection pump- to move fuel from tank to engine
3. Power measurements of the engine.
Brake power
Indicated power
Indicated Mean Effective Pressure

III. APPARATUS/MATERIALS

1. Bond paper
2. Drawing pen
3. Straight edge
4. 2-stroke Gasoline & Diesel engine
IV. SKETCH/DRAWING

## 2. Label of the parts of the engine.

V. OBSERVATIONS

VI. CONCLUSION
VII. RECOMMENDATIONS