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NIM 157835470

Discourse analysis is the analysis of the discourse, how the language are used
from the narrowly focused on how the word oh or well are used in casual talk t the
study the dominant ideology in cultural as represented, for example in education and
or political practice
The focus of the discourse analysis is the linguistics and the pragmatics. When
it deals with the linguistics issues, discourse analysis focuses on the record (spoken
and written) of the process by which language is use in some context to express
intention. It focuses on the topic such the explicit connection between the sentences
in a text that create a cohesion, or on the element of the textual organization that are
characteristic of storytelling, for example a distinct from opinion expression and other
types of the text. It can be said that this discourse analysis is emphasis on the
expression use to intend the meaning. We can catch the meaning of the utterance
explicitly, for it is state clearly in the utterance.
However, within the study of discourse, the pragmatics perspective is more
specialized. It tends to focus on the aspect of what is unsaid or unwritten (yet
communication) within the discourse being analyze. To know the meaning of the
utterance we have to go to beyond the social concern and psychology aspect such
as; background knowledge, belief and expectation. It means that we explore what
are in the speaker or the writer mind. It is can be we called implicit meaning where
we cannot catch the meaning only based on the utterance, to know the meaning of
the utterance we have to go to beyond why the utterance is created by the speaker
or the writer, like background knowledge, belief and etc.
Coherence is what language users have in mind inevitably, that is said or
written will make sense in term of their normal experience of thing. So it means that
coherence is the familiar expected relationship in experience use to connect the
meaning of the utterances.
Plant sale
Garage sale
For who lives in the suburban life will take the meaning of the the plant sale as
someone sell plant and garage sale as someone sell house hold in the garage not
sell garage, even thought it has identical structural with plant sale. It is because
they have experience that garage sale means someone sell house hold. Their
environment and society usually do it, and sometimes do it too. It will have different
meaning or will make someone confuse for other people whose society never use
garage sale term. They will think what does it mean by garage sale is they sell
their garage or what.
The basis of coherence is familiarity and knowledge. Because of this, we tend
to make instant interpretation without thinking or see other alternatives.
How many animals of each type did Moses take on the Ark?
If you immediately thought two, it means that you have made coherence
interpretation. You dont noticing that the name Moses was inappropriate. The
appropriate is how many animals of each type that taken to the Ark? So if someone
asks you about it you will directly answer two that is coherence.
Another example, some tell you that Mr. Andri and Mss. Cindera got an
accident, their motorcycle hit the truck. So what will in your mind if someone asks
you who the rider of the motorcycle is? If in your mind is Mr. Andri, it is because in
our culture if there is a man and woman go with motorcycle the man is usually as the
rider. It is the coherence.
So it can be said that coherence is a concept of the language user has in the
mind based on the social experience and the knowledge about that.

Background knowledge is the re-existing structure knowledge in memory in
interpretation of the unwritten or unsaid. The most general pattern of this type is
schema. Our ability to arrive automatically at interpretation of the unwritten or unsaid
must be based on the re-existing knowledge structure. This structure functions like
familiar patterns from previous experience that we use to interpret new experience.

There are two types of schema:

1. Frame
Frame is if there is a fixed, static pattern to the schemata. A frame usually
share by everyone within a social group would be something like a
prototypical version. For example frame of the apartment there will be
assumed component such as kitchen, bathroom and bedroom. If you see
the advertisement about the apartment, those components are not stated
generally. For example: apartment for rent. $5000 6853. It means that
there a rent for apartment that consist of the kitchen, bedroom, and
bathroom. Even though it is not stated in the advertisement. And the rate of
this apartment is about $5000 6853 per month not per year, because the
rate is to cheap for an apartment for a year, it is the usually rate for a month
for an apartment.

2. Script
Script is pre-existing knowledge structure involving event sequences. We
use script to build interpretation of account what happened. For example,
Im going to the shopping with my mother yesterday. The sequences of the
events are, first I go to the shopping mall, after that I take the basket, select
what I want to buy, like milk, bread, butter, sugar, and etc, after that we went
to the cashier to pay them, and then we went home. That sequent of the
events assumed to be the background knowledge so it is not important to
share it to the interlocutor. So it can be conclude that script is a simply way
of reorganizing some expected sequence of an event. Because the details
of the sequence are assumed to be known that way is not important to state

Cultural schemata are developed based on the context of the basic
experience. For some obvious differences, we can modify the details of cultural
schemata. Sometime we dont recognize subtle differences, which make
misinterpretation indifferent schemata. It means that in one utterance can produce a
different interpretation based on the cultural schemata of the hearer or the reader.
For example an Australia factory supervisor clearly assumed, that the entire
employee know that the Easter was close and they all would have 5 days holiday.
And he asked the worker from the Vietnamese, about her plan for the holiday. You
have five days off, what are you going to do?. The Vietnamese worker interpreted
that she was fired and her boss ask her plan after that, not about the holiday plan. It
is because in the Vietnamese they dont have much holiday. So she interpreted what
the supervisor asked about holiday, she thought that she will fired in 5 days and the
supervisor asked her plan perhaps about find another job. For make it simple we can
see as the follow:

Vietnamese cultural schemata

Five days off = fired in five days
What are you going to do? = what is your plan (find another job)

The supervisor cultural schemata

Five days off = Easter holiday for 5 days
What are you going to do? = what is your planning in spending the holiday

So it can be concluded that one schema can be differ from another based on
their cultural schemata. Sometimes sound good for someone can be bad in


Cross culture pragmatics is a study of differences in expectations based on
the cultural schemata. To look at the ways in which meaning is constructed by
speakers from different cultures will actually require a complete reassessment of
virtually everything we have considered. The term and the terminology may provide
a basis analytic framework, but the realization of those concepts may differ
substantially from the English language. It means that the basic cultural of the
interlocutors will influence their understanding of the language. The different of the
perception of interlocutors can lead the misunderstanding one to each other.
We can see in the American English style of complimenting creates great
embarrassment for some Native American Indian receivers (its perceived as
excessive. When we explored the type of the speech act, we didnt include the any
observations on the substantial differences that can exist cross-culturally in
interpreting concept like complimenting, thanking and apology.
The American English style of complimenting creates great embarrassment
for some Native American Indian receivers (its perceived as excessive

For Japanese the apology is perceive as impossible to accept
There are some terms that used in the cross-cultural pragmatics. They are as
1. Contrastive Pragmatics
Contrastive pragmatics is the study of these different cultural ways of
2. Interlanguage Pragmatics
Interlanguage Pragmatics is when the investigation focuses on more
specifically on the communicative behavior of Non-native speakers,
attempting to communicate in their second language.
3. Pragmatics accent
Such studies increasingly reveal that we all speak with what might be
called a pragmatics accent, that is, aspects of our talk indicate what we
assume is communicated without being said.

We can conclude that discourse and culture there four domain in how the
meaning of the discourse can be understanding, they are discourse analysis,
coherence, background knowledge, cultural schemata, and cross-culture pragmatics