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WCDMA RAN

QoS Management Feature Parameter


Description

Issue 01
Date 2012-11-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.


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QoS Management Feature Parameter Description Contents

Contents

1 About This Document..................................................................................................................1


1.1 Scope..............................................................................................................................................................................1
1.2 Intended Audience..........................................................................................................................................................1
1.3 Change History...............................................................................................................................................................1

2 Overview of QoS Management..................................................................................................2


3 Technical Description...................................................................................................................4
3.1 QoS Architecture............................................................................................................................................................5
3.2 UTRAN QoS Mapping...................................................................................................................................................6
3.2.1 UMTS QoS Classes.....................................................................................................................................................6
3.2.2 CN QoS Parameters.....................................................................................................................................................6
3.2.3 UTRAN QoS Mapping Mechanism............................................................................................................................9
3.2.4 Uu Radio QoS Mapping............................................................................................................................................10
3.2.5 Iub/Iur Transport QoS Mapping................................................................................................................................13
3.3 UTRAN QoS Management..........................................................................................................................................15
3.3.1 Overview...................................................................................................................................................................15
3.3.2 QoS Guarantee for a Single User..............................................................................................................................15
3.3.3 DiffServ Provision for Different Users.....................................................................................................................17

4 Parameters.....................................................................................................................................21
5 Counters........................................................................................................................................22
6 Glossary.........................................................................................................................................23
7 Reference Documents.................................................................................................................24

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WCDMA RAN
QoS Management Feature Parameter Description 1 About This Document

1 About This Document

1.1 Scope
This document describes QoS management, including its technical principles.

1.2 Intended Audience


This document is intended for personnel who:

l Need to understand the features described herein


l Work with Huawei products

1.3 Change History


This section provides information about the changes in different document versions. There are
two types of changes, which are defined as follows:

l Feature change
Changes in features of a specific product version
l Editorial change
Changes in wording or addition of information that was not described in the earlier version

01 (2012-11-30)
Compared with Issue 02 (2011-12-30) of RAN13.0, 01 (2012-11-30) of RAN14.0 optimizes
some descriptions.

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QoS Management Feature Parameter Description 2 Overview of QoS Management

2 Overview of QoS Management

Quality of service (QoS) is a comprehensive reflection of the service capability of a WCDMA


system. It determines how satisfied the users are with the services provided by the telecom
operator. Therefore, it is an important factor to be considered in the WCDMA system.

To ensure the end-to-end QoS, all the nodes from the transmitter to the receiver need to cooperate
with each other.

The QoS is defined during subscription, and the related information is saved on the core network
(CN). When a user sends a service request, the CN negotiates with the UTRAN and the user
equipment (UE) according to the subscribed QoS. If the negotiation is successful, a set of QoS
parameters accepted by all the nodes can be obtained. Then, each node provides the services for
this user based on these parameters. The user can be satisfied with the services only when all
the nodes meet the QoS requirements.

In the UTRAN, the QoS is determined by the QoS management strategy, as shown in Figure
2-1.

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Figure 2-1 UTRAN QoS management strategy

The purpose of UTRAN QoS management is to ensure the QoS and provide differentiated
services (DiffServ) to maximize the number of satisfied users.

The basic procedure for QoS management is as follows:

1. The CN sends the related QoS parameters to the RNC on the Iu interface.
2. According to the QoS management strategy, the RNC maps the QoS parameters to the
parameters that can be used by the UTRAN, and then the RNC sends some of the parameters
to the NodeB.
3. Based on these parameters and the QoS management strategy, the RNC and NodeB perform
resource allocation and management, such as radio resource management (RRM) and
transmission resource management (TRM), and provide DiffServ for different users.

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3 Technical Description

This section describes how the UTRAN performs QoS management. It consists of the following
sections:

l 3.1 QoS Architecture


l 3.2 UTRAN QoS Mapping
l 3.3 UTRAN QoS Management

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3.1 QoS Architecture


3GPP TS 23.107 describes the QoS concept and architecture. In addition, it provides QoS
parameters based on the UMTS bearer service.

To ensure the QoS of a network, bearer services with explicit attributes and functions must be
set up between the transmitter and the receiver. A bearer service involves all the aspects that are
required to ensure specific QoS. These aspects are included in control plane signaling, user plane
transmission, and QoS management. Figure 3-1 shows the UMTS QoS architecture.

Figure 3-1 UMTS QoS architecture

As shown in Figure 3-1, the traffic from one terminal equipment (TE) to another passes different
levels of bearer services. The TE is connected to the UMTS network through a mobile terminal
(MT). The end-to-end service at the application layer is implemented through the bearer services
of the underlying networks.

The end-to-end service consists of the local bearer service, UMTS bearer service, and external
bearer service. These services ensure the QoS of the end-to-end service. They are described as
follows:

l The local bearer service is beyond the UMTS research scope.


l The external bearer service is coordinated by the telecom operator with the connected
networks. Between the UMTS bearer service and the external bearer service, QoS mapping
is required. Through the QoS mapping, the QoS requirement is sent to the next network
element (NE).
l The coordination and QoS mapping between UMTS bearer services is very important for
implementing the end-to-end QoS of UMTS.

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The UMTS bearer service consists of the radio access bearer (RAB) service and the core network
bearer (CNB) service.

The RAB service is implemented through the radio bearer (RB) service and Iu bearer service.
The RB service covers all the aspects of the transmission on the radio interface, and the Iu bearer
service provides the transmission between the UTRAN and the CN. For PS services, the Iu bearer
service can provide different QoS classes.

The role of the CNB is to provide a negotiated UMTS bearer service. The CN provides different
QoS classes for different backbone bearer services. A specific backbone bearer service can be
selected to meet the QoS requirement of the CN bearer service.

The RAB service involves the Uu, Iub, Iur, and Iu interfaces.

3.2 UTRAN QoS Mapping

3.2.1 UMTS QoS Classes


3GPP TS 23.107 defines the following four UMTS traffic classes: conversational, streaming,
interactive, and background.

The main difference among these classes is the degree of traffic sensitivity to delay, which is
described as follows:

l The conversational class (WRFD-010501 Conversational QoS Class) is the most sensitive
to delay. It is used to carry real-time traffic. The real-time traffic requires shortest delay
and strict time sequence between data streams. Therefore, this traffic class has the highest
QoS requirement.
l The streaming class (WRFD-010502 Streaming QoS Class) is used to carry unidirectional
data streams. It does not have a high requirement for delay, but the time sequence must be
kept within a data stream and the end-to-end delay jitter of data streams must be controlled.
l The interactive class (WRFD-010503 Interactive QoS Class) is used to carry traditional
Internet services, such as Web browsing and database query. Its round trip time (RTT) is
a key parameter, and data packets need to be transmitted transparently at low bit error rates.
l The background class (WRFD-010504 Background QoS Class) is used to receive or
transmit data in background mode. Such services include email, SMS, and FTP. This class
does not have a high requirement for delay, but it requires data packets to be transmitted
transparently at low bit error rates.

3.2.2 CN QoS Parameters


Different traffic classes have different QoS requirements. Therefore, a series of QoS parameters
are defined for each traffic class. Table 3-1 lists the QoS parameters to be set for each traffic
class.

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Table 3-1 QoS parameters defined by the 3GPP

Traffic Class Conversation Streaming Interactive Background


al

Maximum bit
rate

Delivery order

Maximum SDU
size

SDU format - -
information

SDU error ratio

Residual bit
error ratio

Delivery of
erroneous SDUs

Transfer delay - -

Guaranteed bit - -
rate

Traffic handling - - -
priority

Allocation/
retention
priority

Source statistics - -
descriptor

Signaling - - -
indication

NOTE

l -: not involved
l : involved

These QoS parameters are sent by the CN to the UTRAN on the Iu interface when the service
is set up. Based on these QoS parameters, the UTRAN allocates appropriate radio resources to
users to ensure the QoS, user fairness, and DiffServ.
The parameters and their application principles on the UTRAN side are described as follows:
l Maximum bit rate (unit: kbit/s)
This parameter, also known as the MBR, specifies the maximum bit rate of an application.
It facilitates the configuration of the maximum channel bandwidth.

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By modifying this parameter in the HLR, the telecom operator can limit the maximum
bandwidth allocated to one or more users, thus supporting the deployment of some charging
policies.
l Delivery order (value range: Yes, No)
This parameter specifies whether the RAB delivers service data units (SDUs) in order.
During RAB-to-RB mapping, the radio link control (RLC) layer controls the delivery order
of upper-layer SDUs. Generally, the CS RAB delivers SDUs in order. The PS RAB,
however, may or may not deliver SDUs in order. If the delivery is not in order, an upper-
layer protocol, such as the IP, reorders these SDUs when they arrive.
l Maximum SDU size (unit: octets)
This parameter specifies the maximum permissible SDU size. It limits the maximum size
of the SDUs sent by upper layers to the RLC layer.
l SDU format information (unit: bits)
This is a parameter set, which includes the parameters of a RAB subflow combination.
Based on the SDU size and/or the subflow combination rate included in the SDU format
information, the corresponding transport format combination set (TFCS) and the dynamic
part of the transport format set (TFS) of the DCH can be specified.
l SDU error ratio
This parameter specifies the fraction of SDUs lost or detected as erroneous. It determines
the setting of the RB transmission quality. That is, the actual SDU error ratio of the RB
should be smaller than the parameter value.
l Residual bit error ratio
This parameter specifies the fraction of transmitted SDUs with residual bit errors in each
subflow. Qualitative analysis shows that the CRC capability is related to the number of
check bits. The CRC capability is high when there are a large number of check bits.
Therefore, the residual bit error ratio can determine the number of check bits used on a
transport channel.
l Delivery of erroneous SDUs (value range: Yes, No, -)
This parameter specifies whether error SDUs are delivered. If the upper layer has an error
tolerance mechanism or a recovery mechanism, error SDUs can be directly delivered
without an error check.
l Transfer delay (unit: ms)
This parameter specifies the end-to-end delay of SDU transmission within the UTRAN.
This parameter, together with the SDU error ratio, determines the setting of the BLER and
the settings of the ARQ parameters in RLC AM mode in the UTRAN. The ARQ parameters
include the maximum transmission times, polling parameter, and status reporting
parameter.
l Guaranteed bit rate (unit: kbit/s)
This parameter, also known as the GBR, is used for license control and resource allocation
based on available resources. In the case that the network resources are limited, whether
the service rate of a user on the UTRAN side is higher than the GBR indicates whether the
requirement of this user for the basic rate is met.
According to 3GPP specifications, the conversational class and streaming class require the
GBR, but neither the interactive class nor the background class has this requirement.
l Traffic handling priority

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This parameter needs to be set if the Traffic Class IE is set to Interactive. It specifies the
relative importance of handling the SDUs on the RAB compared with the SDUs on other
bearers. The value range is INTEGER {spare (0), highest (1) lowest (14), no priority
(15)}.
l Allocation/retention priority
This parameter, also known as the ARP, includes multiple IEs. It specifies the relative
importance of resource allocation and retention of a RAB compared with other RABs. The
ARP reflects the priority of a user.
l Source statistics descriptor (value range: speech, unknown)
This parameter needs to be set if the Traffic Class IE is set to Conversational or Streaming.
This parameter specifies the characteristics of the source of transmitted SDUs.
l Signaling Indication (value range: Yes, No)
This parameter specifies whether an interactive class carries signaling. If this parameter is
set to Yes, the UE sets the traffic handling priority (THP) to 1.
This parameter reflects the differences between this interactive class and other interactive
classes. This class may require a higher priority, shorter delay, or higher peak throughput.
For example, this parameter can be set to Yes when an interactive class carries the IMS
signaling.

3.2.3 UTRAN QoS Mapping Mechanism


The QoS of featured services of the UTRAN is controlled by related parameters. CN QoS
parameters are mapped to UTRAN QoS parameters. All these parameters ensure the QoS of the
services provided for users.

The inputs of the QoS mapping are CN QoS parameters, and the outputs are radio QoS
parameters and transport QoS parameters. The mapping is implemented by the RNC.

The output of the QoS mapping is applied in the related functions of the RNC and NodeB. The
NodeB parameters are sent to the NodeB on the Iub interface.

Figure 3-2 shows the QoS mapping mechanism.

Figure 3-2 QoS mapping mechanism

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3.2.4 Uu Radio QoS Mapping


Uu radio QoS parameters are used to manage the radio resources on the Uu interface. The Uu
radio QoS mapping is implemented by the RNC, which is described in the following sections:

l RAB-to-RB Mapping
l User Priority Mapping
l RAB Integrated Priority Mapping
l HSPA SPI Mapping and GBR Mapping

RAB-to-RB Mapping
The RAB setup request initiated by the CN carries the QoS parameters. These parameters
describe the requirements for the QoS. Based on these parameters, the RNC selects appropriate
RB parameters such as the bearer channel type, channel parameters, RLC mode, data
transmission parameters, and power control parameters. The RB parameters provide the basic
configuration information about the RB service. Some of the information is sent to the NodeB
on the Iub interface.

The RAB-to-RB mapping considers all the QoS parameters of the CN.

Figure 3-3 shows the RAB-to-RB mapping, where the TRB is traffic RB.

Figure 3-3 RAB-to-RB mapping

For details about the RAB-to-RB mapping, see the Radio Bearers Feature Parameter
Description.

User Priority Mapping


The allocation/retention priority (ARP) reflects the subscribed priority. Based on the ARP, the
UTRAN can provide DiffServ for users with different priorities.

User priorities in the UTRAN are classified into gold, silver, and copper. The mapping from
ARP values to user priorities, as listed in Table 3-2, can be configured by the telecom operator.

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Table 3-2 User priority mapping

ARP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
value

User Gold Gold Gold Gold Gold Silver Silver Silver


priority

ARP 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
value

User Silver Silver Copper Copper Copper Copper Copper


priority

For details about how to set the user priority, see the Load Control Feature Parameter
Description.

RAB Integrated Priority Mapping


The RAB integrated priority is the integrated priority of a RAB. It is used for intelligent access
control (IAC) and load control by the RNC. In the case of congestion or resource insufficiency,
a service with the highest integrated priority is processed first.
For each service of a user, the mapping to the integrated priority is performed. The mapping
considers these factors in the following order: traffic class, ARP, THP, and bearer type. Here,
the sequence of traffic class and ARP can be set.
Each factor has multiple values and they are also sequenced, as shown in Figure 3-4.

Figure 3-4 RAB integrated priority mapping

For the configuration methods and specific applications of the RAB integrated priority, see the
Load Control Feature Parameter Description.

HSPA SPI Mapping and GBR Mapping


The scheduling priority indicator (SPI) is the priority of a RAB. It is used for resource allocation
during HSPA scheduling and flow control. The SPI mapping considers the traffic class, user
priority, and THP.
Based on the SPIs and user rate, the SPI weights can be determined to provide DiffServ for
HSPA users. Generally, a user with the highest SPI weight obtains the required QoS first when
the resources are insufficient and has more chances of being scheduled when the resources are
sufficient. In this way, the user experience is improved. Table 3-3 shows the SPI mapping.

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Table 3-3 SPI mapping

Traffic Class User Priority THP SPI

SRB NA NA 15

IMS Signaling NA NA 14

Conversational Gold NA 13

Silver 13

Copper 13

Streaming Gold NA 12

Silver 12

Copper 12

Interactive Gold 1 10

Gold 2 9

Gold 3 ~ 15 8

Silver 1 7

Silver 2 6

Silver 3 ~ 15 5

Copper 1 4

Copper 2 3

Copper 3 ~ 15 2

Background Gold NA 8

Silver 5

Copper 2

The CN does not set the GBRs for the interactive class and background class. To provide the
basic rates for the two classes, the RNC supports the GBR setting. The GBRs vary with user
priorities and service directions. An example is listed in Table 3-4.

Table 3-4 GBR mapping

Direction Gold Silver Copper

Downlink 256 kbit/s 128 kbit/s 64 kbit/s

Uplink 256 kbit/s 128 kbit/s 64 kbit/s

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Note: the GBR is configured according to User Priority, TC, THP, and bearers (R99/HSPA).
The example shows only mapping between User Priority and GBR.

The SPI mapping and the GBR mapping are performed by the RNC. Then, the mapping results
are sent to the NodeB on the Iub interface. For details about the settings of related parameters
and the impacts of these parameters on the Uu radio resources, see the HSDPA Feature
Parameter Description and the HSUPA Feature Parameter Description.

For the impacts of the SPI on the Iub transmission resources, see the Transmission Resource
Management Feature Parameter Description.

3.2.5 Iub/Iur Transport QoS Mapping


The Iub and Iur transport networks can differentiate data packets by their priorities and thus they
can provide DiffServ. The main task of the Iub/Iur transport QoS mapping is to map different
services of different users to appropriate QoS classes so that different services on the Iub and
Iur interfaces can obtain different QoS. The mapping is performed by the RNC through the radio
link (RL) setup procedure.

Based on the transport modes, the Iub/Iur transport QoS mapping consists of:

l Service Mapping over ATM


l Service Mapping over IP

Service Mapping over ATM


The AAL2 QoS classes of ATM support the transport bearers with the following rates:

l Constant bit rate (CBR)


l Real-time variable bit rate (RTVBR)
l Non-real-time variable bit rate (NRTVBR)
l Unspecified bit rate (UBR)
l Unspecified bit rate with the guaranteed bit rate (UBR+)

Transport bearers of different types provide different QoS.

If the Iub transport network uses the ATM mode, the mapping from services to AAL2 QoS
classes can be configured by the telecom operator. The mapping considers the traffic class, THP
only for interactive traffic class, CN domain type, and RB type. Generally, real-time services
are mapped to high-priority queues to obtain higher QoS on the transport network.Figure 3-5
shows the service mapping over ATM.

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Figure 3-5 Service mapping over ATM

For details about the mapping from services to AAL2 QoS classes, see the Transmission
Resource Management Feature Parameter Description.

Service Mapping over IP


In the DiffServ model of the IP transport network, the IP QoS classes are:
l Expedited Forwarding (EF)
l Assured Forwarding 1 (AF1)
l Assured Forwarding 2 (AF2)
l Assured Forwarding 3 (AF3)
l Assured Forwarding 4 (AF4)
l Best Effort (BE)
The priority of an IP queue is identified by the DiffServ code point (DSCP) in the header of an
IP packet. Queues with different priorities can obtain different QoS.
If the Iub transport network uses the IP mode, the mapping from services to IP QoS classes can
be configured by the telecom operator. The mapping considers the traffic class, THP only for
interactive traffic class, CN domain type, and RB type. Figure 3-6 shows the service mapping
over IP.

Figure 3-6 Service mapping over IP

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For details about the mapping from services to IP QoS classes, see the Transmission Resource
Management Feature Parameter Description.

3.3 UTRAN QoS Management

3.3.1 Overview
The UTRAN QoS management strategy is to try its best to ensure the QoS for each user and to
provide DiffServ for different users, thus meeting the requirements of more users.

The strategy is implemented by specific functions. From the beginning of the service setup,
functions such as the RB function, rate control, HSPA scheduling, power control, and handover
are performed for the user to ensure the QoS and service continuity. In addition, functions such
as load control, HSPA scheduling, and Iub flow control are performed among different users for
resource allocation to provide DiffServ and maximize the system capacity.

Figure 3-7 shows the UTRAN QoS management mechanism.

Figure 3-7 UTRAN QoS management mechanism

3.3.2 QoS Guarantee for a Single User


QoS guarantee for a single user is implemented by a series of functions. One purpose is to ensure
the user requirement for the basic QoS of the user by carrying the user services on appropriate
channels and setting corresponding parameters. The other purpose is to ensure the service
continuity by monitoring the link quality when the user is in movement.

QoS guarantee for a single user involves QoS guarantee during service setup and QoS guarantee
after service setup.

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Guaranteeing QoS During Service Setup


The functions to be performed for guaranteeing QoS during service setup are channel type
selection and admission control.
When a service setup request is initiated, the RB function selects an appropriate channel type
such as the R99 or HSPA channel according to service attributes such as the traffic class and
MBR. The R99 channel and HSPA channel have their respective characteristics. The R99
channel can provide an MBR of 384 kbit/s, but it requires dedicated radio resources. In
comparison, the HSPA channel can provide an MBR of 28.8 Mbit/s in R7 and even higher along
with the technological development. The HSPA channel resources can be shared, and thus the
service rate may vary with the channel environment and the user's integrated priority using the
resources. Therefore, selecting an appropriate channel type based on the service attributes is an
important step for QoS guarantee. In addition to the channel type, you need to select
corresponding channel control parameters and power control parameters to ensure the correct
data transmission. For details about radio bearers, see the Radio Bearers Feature Parameter
Description.
After the channel type is determined, an appropriate cell needs to be selected to provide services.
The admission control of each cell prevents the cell from being overloaded due to admission of
too many users. This function monitors the cell load, predicts the load increase after a new service
is admitted, and determines whether the admission will lead to overload. The admission control
ensures the QoS of admitted services and the QoS of the new service after it is admitted. If a
new user is rejected because the cell is overloaded, the new user attempts to access another cell
with the same coverage. For details about admission control, see the Call Admission Control
Feature Parameter Description.

QoS Guarantee After Service Setup


The functions to be performed for QoS guarantee after service setup are as follows:
l Power control
After service setup, power control enables the user data to be transmitted with the
appropriate power. It ensures correct data reception and at the same time avoids wastage
of power resource. For details about power control, see the Power Control Feature
Parameter Description.
l Mobility management
When the user moves to the edge of a cell, the QoS may degrade. The handover function
can direct the user to a more suitable cell in time to ensure the service continuity. For details
about handover, see the Handover Feature Parameter Description.
l Rate control
If the service is set up on the DCH, the RNC can detect whether the transmit power for this
user is limited in the uplink or downlink. If the transmit power is limited, the data
transmission capability may be affected and call drop may occur. To ensure the QoS in this
case, the system reduces the service rate or performs an inter-frequency or inter-RAT
handover to select a more suitable cell. For details about rate control, see the DCCC Feature
Parameter Description.
l HSDPA resource management
If the service is set up on the HSPA channel, the HSPA scheduling function ensures that
the user is able to obtain the basic QoS. For example, for a delay-sensitive service, this
function ensures that the packet transmission delay is within an acceptable range; for a

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throughput-sensitive service, this function ensures that the rates provided are not lower than
the GBR. For details, see the HSDPA Feature Parameter Description and the HSUPA
Feature Parameter Description.
l User experience improvement
For the voice service, the de-jitter function can be applied in IP transport. When the Iub/
Iur interface uses the IP mode, data packets may not be transmitted in sequence. In this
case, the de-jitter function can restore the data transmission order and limit the
transmission delay within an acceptable range.
For the TCP service, Huawei uses the TCP performance enhancer (TPE) and active
queue management (AQM) functions to improve the QoS. TPE aims at a service with
only one TCP connection and increases the data transmission rate at the TCP layer.
AQM aims at a service with multiple TCP connections and improves the QoS of the
TCP connections with a small amount of data. For details about the two functions, see
the TPE Feature Parameter Description and the AQM Feature Parameter
Description.

3.3.3 DiffServ Provision for Different Users


The objective of DiffServ is to serve as many users as possible with limited resources and to
meet the requirements of more users.

DiffServ Provision Principles


The DiffServ provision principles are as follows:

l Providing DiffServ for users with different priorities, with high-priority users being served
preferentially
l Providing DiffServ for services with different traffic classes:
A CS service has a higher priority than a PS service.
Within PS services, delay-sensitive services have higher priorities than throughput-
sensitive services.
Emergency services are provided preferentially.

The provision of DiffServ requires the mapping of the following parameters:

l User priority: Different users have different priorities. The ARPs sent from the CN indicate
the subscribed priorities. Based on the ARPs, users are classified into 15 priorities. In the
UTRAN, users are classified into three priorities, namely gold, silver, and copper.
Therefore, the user priority mapping is based on the ARP to provide DiffServ for users in
the UTRAN.
l RAB integrated priority: This parameter is set on the basis of the RAB and with reference
to the traffic class, user priority, THP and bearer type. It is used for the provision of DiffServ
during Intelligent Access Control (IAC) and load control by RNC.
l SPI and SPI weight: The SPI is used to indicate the priority of each HSPA service. The SPI
weight is determined on the basis of the SPI and used to provide the HSPA DiffServ.

DiffServ Provision
DiffServ provision is described as follows:

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QoS Management Feature Parameter Description 3 Technical Description

l DiffServ provision during service setup


During channel type selection, the processing is based on service attributes. Generally, CS
services have stable rates and a high requirement for low delay. Therefore, they are carried
on the R99 channel to use dedicated radio resources and to obtain required bandwidths. In
comparison, PS services usually have a huge amount of data to transmit in burst mode.
Therefore, they are carried on the HSPA channel to improve the resource sharing degree
and to ensure the basic QoS. For details about how to select a channel type, see the Radio
Bearers Feature Parameter Description.
During admission control, the provision of DiffServ is based on traffic classes. Compared
with PS services, high-priority CS services such as the AMR voice service have lower
admission limits and higher access success rates.
If the service admission fails, a service with a higher integrated priority can preempt the
resources of a service with a lower integrated priority to increase the access success rate.
Whether the integrated priority considers the traffic class first or the user priority first can
be determined by the telecom operator. Generally, it is recommended that the traffic class
be considered first. Thus, CS services can have higher integrated priorities than PS services
and can preempt the resources of PS services. In this way, the access probability can be
increased and the overall user satisfaction can be improved.
During admission control, emergency services are assigned the highest priority and
therefore they have the highest access success rate.
For details about the DiffServ provision during service setup, see the Load Control Feature
Parameter Description.
l Congestion control after service setup
If the system enters the basic congestion state, there are two methods for ensuring the system
stability. One is to decrease the rates of admitted users by reserving resources for new
services. The other is to reduce the cell load by performing operations such as handover.
If the system enters the overload state, it terminates the services of some users to reduce
the load rapidly. Users with low integrated priorities are preferentially selected for
congestion relief to ensure the overall QoS of the cell.
Whether the integrated priority considers the traffic class first or the user priority first can
be determined by the telecom operator. It is recommended that the traffic class be
considered first. Thus, CS services can have higher priorities than PS services, and delay-
sensitive services can have higher priorities than throughput-sensitive services within PS
services. In this way, the impact of congestion control on user experience can be reduced.
During congestion control, emergency services are not selected for congestion relief.
For details about congestion control, see the Load Control Feature Parameter
Description.

HSPA DiffServ Provision


HSPA resources are shared among multiple users. PS services are usually carried on the HSPA
channel. In R8, the CS AMR voice service can also be carried on the HSPA channel.

HSPA scheduling and flow control determine the resource allocation among users in real time.
During resource allocation, both service-based DiffServ and user-based DiffServ can be
provided.

l Service-based DiffServ provision

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QoS Management Feature Parameter Description 3 Technical Description

Services carried on the HSPA channel are classified into delay-sensitive services and
throughput-sensitive services, as listed in Table 3-5.

Table 3-5 Service classifications

Type Delay-sensitive service Throughput-sensitive


service

QoS l Low traffic volume l High traffic volume


l Short acceptable delay l High throughput

Service l Signaling l Streaming service


l VoIP service l Interactive service
l CS AMR service l Background service
l IMS signaling

For different services, different QoS is provided. For example, for a delay-sensitive service,
the scheduling function limits the packet transmission delay within an acceptable range;
for a throughput-sensitive service, this function ensures that provided rates are not lower
than the GBR. Users are more sensitive to the QoS of delay-sensitive services. Therefore,
the requirement for this kind of QoS is met first during scheduling.
3GPP TS 23.107 defines only four traffic classes, which cannot fully reflect the
requirements for QoS. For example, a Web page may contain video streams in addition to
texts and pictures. All of email, video website browsing, and Bit Torrent (BT) download
may be mapped to the background class, but they have different QoS requirements. After
service setup, the RNC can further identify and classify the traffic classes and attributes
and then provide appropriate QoS to improve user experience.
l User-based DiffServ provision
User-based DiffServ is mainly aimed at throughput-sensitive services. The provision is
described as follows:
The CN does not set the GBRs for the interactive class and background class. The RNC,
however, can set the GBRs based on user priorities. The HSPA scheduling function
ensures that users with different priorities obtain different GBRs.
The RNC can also set Happy Bit Rate (HBR) which determines the throughput expected
by the user based on a study on user experience. When the rate for a user reaches the
HBR, the scheduler decreases the scheduling probability for the user.
The SPI weight is set on the basis of the SPI and user rate range, and the SPI considers
both the user priority and the traffic class. The SPI weight is always used in throughput-
sensitive services.
The user-based setting is recommended to implement user-based DiffServ. Users with
higher SPI weights have more chances to obtain required resources and satisfied user
experience.
For details about HSPA DiffServ, see the Differentiated HSPA Service Feature Parameter
Description.

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QoS Management Feature Parameter Description 3 Technical Description

For details about the Iub resource allocation among HSPA users, see the Transmission
Resource Management Feature Parameter Description.

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QoS Management Feature Parameter Description 4 Parameters

4 Parameters

There are no specific parameters associated with this feature.

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QoS Management Feature Parameter Description 5 Counters

5 Counters

There are no specific counters associated with this feature.

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QoS Management Feature Parameter Description 6 Glossary

6 Glossary

For the acronyms, abbreviations, terms, and definitions, see Glossary.

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QoS Management Feature Parameter Description 7 Reference Documents

7 Reference Documents

1. 3GPP TS 23.107, "Quality of Service (QoS) concept and architectur"


2. Radio Bearers Feature Parameter Description
3. Load Control Feature Parameter Description
4. Transmission Resource Management Feature Parameter Description
5. Power Control Feature Parameter Description
6. Handover Feature Parameter Description
7. DCCC Feature Parameter Description
8. HSDPA Feature Parameter Description
9. HSUPA Feature Parameter Description
10. TPE Feature Parameter Description
11. AQM Feature Parameter Description
12. Differentiated HSPA Service Feature Parameter Description

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