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oAruu cHo rRUNG Hoc pnd rnOruc vA rRuruc Hoc co s6
2015
6 sd 456
Tru s6: 187B GiSng Vo, Ha NOi.
DT Bi6n tap: (04) 35121607: DT - Fax Ph5t hdnh, Tri sLI: (04) 35121606
Email: toanhoctuoitrevietnam@gmail.com website: http://www.nxbgd.vn/toanhoctuoitre

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


KX v,e{x c,{{ryN &d@o s,xNM Vmo mq{ ry'x;,Y&wi w,u6g ffi{&
mtr TrHuil Hsfr$ E0E&
NGUYEN KHAC MINH
(Cuc Khdo thi vd Kim dinh CLGD - BO GDADT)

(t(X i thi chqn hsc sinh vdo dQi tuy6n Qui5c gia Bni 5. (7 dim). Cho tam gi5c ABC nhon, kh6ng cAn vd
ll[ y dr.r thi blympic roin rrqt Q"6" t5 grrabl di6m P nim b6n trong tam gi6c sao cho
lan thu 56 n[m 2015 (IMO 2015) dd tluoc FB:;p-c: a voi a > 18oo -6ic. c6c duong
- He NQi. trong hai ngity 25 vd261312015. Cdn
t6 chriE-tqi
trdn ngopi ti6p c6c tam gi6c APB vir APC l6n luqt cit
cu Quy ctr6 ttri chgn hgc sinh gioi cAp Qu6c gia hiQn
hdnh, BQ GD&DT dd triQu tdp 49 hoc sinh tham dp ki
AC vd AB tai E vd F. Ldy di6m Q b6n trong tam gi6c
thi tuy6n chgn n6i tr6n, g6m I hgc sinh dE tham dU IMO AEF sao cho AQE= AQF:a. Gqi D ld dim rl6i
2014vit 48 hgc sinh dat tu 21,50 tli6m trd 16n trong ki ximg v6i Q qua ducrng thing EF'. Ducrng phdn giSc
thi chgn hqc sinh gi6i Qu6c gia m6n To6n THPT nim
trong cira g6c EDF cdt PA tqi T.
2015. Trong m6i ngdy thi, m6i thi sinh dugc dC nghi
gi6i 3 bdi to5n trong th<ri gian 270 phit; di6m tOi tla ctra a) Chimg mirljn DET: ABC, DFT: ACB.
m6i ngdy thilil2l di6m. b) Ducrng thing PA cfu Of , DF ldn lucrt.tai M, N. Ggi I,
_

DE THI J 16n luot ld t6m c6c ducrng trdn nQi ti6p c6c tam giSc
lttgdy thi thth nhiit,25l3l20l5 PEM, PFN v* (fl n ducrng tron ngopi tip tam giSc DIJ
Bni 1. (7 dim). Cho a ld nghiQm duong cira phucrng v6i tdm ld di6m K. Duong thlng DT cdt (&J tai di6m 1L
trinl I * x=5. Gii sir n vd c0,c1,...,c, ld c5c s6 Chrmg minh HK di qua tAm ducmg trdn nQi tii5p tam
gi6c DMll.
nguydn kh6ng Am sao cho
BAi 6. (7 di6m). Tim s6 nguy6n duong r nh6 nh6t sao
co+ ctu + cra2 + ... + cdo = 2015 (*).
cho t6n tqi n s6 thgc th6a mdn d6ng thdi c6c diAu kiQn
a) Chimg minh ring co+ q + q+ ...+ c,:2 (mod3). sau:
b) Cho r thay tl6i vh co, ct,...,cn thay d6i nhrmg 1u6n i) T6ng cira chring ld m6t s6 ducrng;
ii) T6ng cilclQp phucrng cira chfng ld mQt s6 6m;
th6a mdn di6u kiQn (x). Tim gi6 tri nh6 nh6t ctra t6ng
iii) T6ng c6c lfry thria bflc 5 cta chring ld mQt sd duong.
co+ q + c2+...+ cn.
Bdi 2. (1 dim). Cho dudng trdn (O) vit d6y cung BC c6
KET QUA
dinh (BC khdc duong kinh). Di6m A thay aOl tr6n 1O; Cdn cf
k6t qui ch6m thi vd Quy ctr6 ttri chgn hgc sinh
ii
sao cho tam gi6c ABC nhgn vd AB < AC. Gqi H \d tr119 gioi cap qu6c gia hiQn hdnh, B0 GD&DT d6 quy6t clinh
tdm tam gi6i, t ld trung tlitim cua c4nh BC, D ld. giao chon 6 hoc sinh c6 di6m thi cao ntr6t 1cO t6n du6i ilny)
di6m clria AH vd BC. Tia IH cdt (O) tai K, tia KD cit (O)
vio DQi tuy6n Qu6c gia ftr thi IMO 2015:
tai M. Duimg thdng qua M vd vuong g6c voi Ag cit .lt
tai 1/. ir
l. ltlguyin Tttin Hai Ddng, Ws 16p 12 Trudng THPT
a) Chrmg minh rdng 1/ ch4y tr6n m6t ducrng trdn,pii dinh. chuyOn KHTN, DHQG Hi NOi, 32.50 di6m;
b) Euong trdn di qua diiim ff vd tit5p xric vdi dulng
2. lVguydn Htrlt Hodng, h/s lcrp 12 Trudng PTNK,
thhng AK tai di6m ,,q, c1t,qS, AC l6,n lugt tai P., Q Gqi J
ld.trung di6m cira doan P9. Chrmg minh r[ng ducrng DHQG TP. HO Chi Minh, 29.50 di6m;
thdng AJ di qua mQt di6m c6 tlinh. 3 lr,tgul,dn lh) Hoan, Us lop 12 Truong TIIPT chuyn
Bni 3. (7 diA$. Sd nguyQn ducrng k duoc goi ld c6 tinh KHTN, DHQG HA NO| 27.50 di6m;
chiil T(m) n6u v6i mgi s6 nguydn a, tdn t4i s6 nguydn 4. Hodng Anh Titi,Ws lop 12 Tr,ucmg THPT chuy6n Phan
ducrng n sao cho lk + 2k + ... + tf = a (rwtn). BQi Chdu, NghQ An, 25.00,diiim;
.t. , L
a) Tim tat ce
" c6c s6 nguyCn duong k c6 tinh ch6't T(20).
b) Tim s6eg@6n duongtnh6 *6tco tinh ch6t T(20t\.
5.lr{guyAn Thi Viil Lla;,hls lop 12 Truong T}IPT chuy6n Hi
Tinh,24.50 di6q
. ,\g,iy thi thft hai" 26l3l2t)15
6. Vii Xudn Trtutg, h/s lcrp 1l Trucrng THPT chuy6n
nai +. 1Z didm),.,::g6.1gO Jinh vien tham d1r mOt cu0c thi
v6n d6p. $.an gi6m,khao:961n 25 thefi vi6n. Mdi sinh Thdi Binh, 24.50 rti6m.
vin dugc h6i &jiboi mgt gi6m kh6o. Bi6t rang.n6i sinh Ngiry B0 GD&DT dd triQu tfp 6 hgc sinh cira
161412015,
vi6n thich it nhetil0 gi6m khdo trong s6 cac thdnh vi6n DQi tuyi5n tip hu6n chuy6n m6n
Ha NOi tham dg lcrp
tr6n. "C
chuAn bi cho IMO 2015. Trucrng EHSP He NOi duqc B0
a) Chimg minh rlng c6 th6 chqn ra7 gi6mkh6o sao cho
GD&DT giao nhiQm vr; chri tri c6ng tdc tQ,p hu6n dQi
m6i sinh vi6n thich it nh6t mQt trongT gi6m kh6o ndy.
b) Chrmg minh ring c6 th6 sip xi5p cuQc thi sao cho m6i
tuyiin, du6i sy gi6m s6t cua BQ. ,:,.

sinh vi6n duo. c h6i thi bdi gi6m k*r6o mlr minh thich vd IMO 2015 sE dugc t6 chr?e.'tu ngiry 4/7 di5n ngdy
m6i giam khao hoi thi kh6ng qu6 l0 sinh vi6n. 1617l2O15 tai Chi6ng Mai, Ttrii Lan.
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
,T&UNG c{, sd
(/rong di thi vdo THPT lu6n xudt hin bdi Ldigidi.A'>0 o m- l>0<> la>lthiPT
?, bdn hAn quan ddn viQc dp dung hQ thttc
Vidte. C6 nhirng bdi todn c6 thO dd ddng dua vi c6 hai nghiQm phdn biQt x1, x2 yd theo hO thirc
dqng dp dqng dagc hQ thuc Vidte, nhwng cfing Vidte c6: +xz=2m;xr.xr=m2 -m+1.
x1
cd nhirng bdi,todn phdi rh khdo leo mdi thqtc Vi x1 ld nghiQm cria PT(l) n6n :
hiQn duqc di2u d6 vd no gdy kh6ng lt kh6 khdn
diii vai cdc em hgc sinh. Sau ddy lit mdt sd 4 *2*,+nf -m+l=lo4:2nx,-n? +m-1.
dqng togn nha vdy vd cach s* dryng h thac f0t hqp v6i tlAu bdi ta c6: xl +Zmx, =9
Vidte d gidi chung. eZmxr-m2 +m*l+Zmxr=)
D4ng 1: Phuang trinh bflc hai c6 tham s6
e 2m (x1+ x2) * m' + m - 10:0
Bii 1. Cho phtrcrng trinh:
o 3m2+m-10:0
8-t: 8x+m2+1:0 (*)
';
Tim m de phtrcrng trinh (*) c6 hai nghim x1, x2 e m:-2 (loai), * : :(chsn).
md xf J
-"tl =.ri-"t:'.
NhQn xdt. Ta thdy h thric dA bai dua ra c6 v6 phfrc
Bni 3. Cho phtcctng trinh:
tpp vd g6y kh6 khln khi dua vd xrt xz vd. x1.x2 x2 -21m+ 1)x + m2 + 4: o (m ld tham sd).
nhrmg ta c6 thrS bien dOi xy, x2 th6ng qua phucrng Tim m d phaang trinh co hai nghim x1, x2
trinh (*) tl6 sir dlmg h6 thric Vidte.
thda mdn xi +2(m + 1)x, < 3m2 +16.
: 8 - 8m2. DC PT (*) c6 hai
Ldi gi,rti. Ta c6 A'
Ldi gidi.A' > 0 e m >jt.l,nt phuong trinh
nghiQm thi A' >0c> -l<m<l. Khi cl6 theo

hC thuc Vidte c6: xt+-x2=l; xr.xr=(m2 +1):8. c6 hai nghiQm x1, x2,thi d6: x, * xz =2(m+l);
Vi x1, x2 ld hai nghiOm cria PT ( *) n6n xt.x2=m2 +4 vd xl =Z(m+l)xr-m2 -4.
[S*3-Ar, =-(m2 +l) bii xl +2(m+l)x, <3m2 +16
Theo tl6
' ),.,.
farj -8xr=-(m2 +l)
(D
e 2(m+1) (x1+ x2) - 4mz - 20 S 0
r , --2
Tac6: xl-xi=x?-x3 a 2
l2(m+t)) -am -20<0.
exl (8;f - 8-r, ) - xr2 (8 xl -8xr) = 0 (1) (do (x1 a xr) :2(m+l))
Thay (I) vdo (1) ta dusc o8m-16<0 e m<2.
(xl-xl)(-m'-1)=0
e (x, - xz)(xt + xzX- *'- 11: g K6t hqp voi (*) tu .0, ]2 < m < 2.
) xr- xz:0 (vix1 + x2:lvd -*'* 110). Bii 4. Cho phaong trinh:
I mz+l .x' -21m - 1)x + 2m - 5: o (l)
Do d6 xt = -y2 = x1.xz = suy ra
r.*d ?, Tim m d phwong trinh (1) c6 hai nghiQm phdn
m= *7 (th6a min bdi to6n). biQt x1, x2 thda mdn
Bii 2. Cho PT *' - 2m, + m2 - m + 1 : 0 (1). (xl -2mx1 + 2m - 1)(xi - 2mx2+ 2m - 1) < 0 (2)
Tim m ae pf c6 hai nhim phdn bit x1, x2 thoa Ldi gidi. A' : (* - 2)' + 2 > 0 lu6n rlirng vdi
mdn: xl *2mx" =). mgi m, vfly phucrng trinh (1) lu6n c6 hai nghiQm

.. nu.,.-roru,
T?8I#E[
1
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
ph6n biQt x1, x2 YOi mQi m. Khi d6: trinh (1) c6 hai nghiQm phin biQt e A'> 0 <>
xl + xz = 2(m -l); x.x, = 2m - 5'
m< 3 . Khi d6 xt xz ld. hai nghiQm PT ( I ), ta c6:
Yl xy x2li hai nghiQm PT(1) n6n
lxl -2(m- l)x, + 2m-5 =0 lx,+xr=4 ,,n
'' Iy,=2xt-m+l
1r,.*, =2(m-l)
\Y,=2*.,-m+I
\xj-2(m-l)x, + 2m-5=0 Ta c6: xfiz (!t + Y2) : - 48
,_- [
r? -2mx, + 2m - I=4 -2x r
O xtxz (2x, - m * | * 2xz- m+ 1) : - 48
- lri -2*r+2m-l=4-2xz e (xp2)12(xt+ xz) -2m + 2): - 48
Tt (2) suy ra: (4 - 2x) (4 - 2xz) < 0 e2(m- 1)t8 *2m*2):*48
e 4xrxr-8(x, +xr)+ 16 < 0 e*'-6m-7:0.
e *, e m: - 1 (chqn) ho$c m:7 (loai).
4(2m - s) -t.z1m- 1) + 16 < o <>
+. Bni 2. Cho parabot (P): t' : -- *' t'a drrd'ng,
Bdi5. Cho phuongtrinhrl+(n i),r 6:0 (i). rhang (ct):j!': (3 nr)r * 2 - 2m. Tim m d,: 1ct1
Tim m dA phwong trinh co hai nghiAm phdn hidt cat @\ tai htti diim phdn bier A (.u l.)'t): B(-rr; .vr)
.\1,.\ rnit B : ( ri - 9) (-r,t 4) dqt GTLN'" thoa mdn'. il., - r'r l : z.
Ldi gi,rti. Ta *dy (1) lu6n co hai nglriQm ph6n biQt
Ldi gidi. Phucrng trinh hoinh dQ giao ditim ctra
xl,x2ybimojm vi c6 a. c:- 6 < 0. Theo hQ thtc
(P) vd (d) td:
j ue x1+xz=l-m. x'+13-m)x+2-2m:0 (1)
,
Vidte: xr.xz=-6<=' x2=
x,
Phuong trinh (1) c6 A' > 0 e m * - l,tathiy
a : (x? - g)(x| - 4) : x? . x', - (4 *? + 9 xZ) +36
xe,xoldhai nghiQm cira phu<rng trinh (2)'
:36- (4xi +44*1+X Lpi c6:
xi
I xo+ x, = m -3,,^ Iro = 73-m)xo +2-2m
B<36- 2 E;g-+36=0. 1ro.*, =2-2m
"' lr, =\3-m)xr+2'2m
!xf Do ct6 lyo -yrl =2 a
ltl-*){*o-*ul=z
Ding thirc xhy rakhi 4 t :
324
xi, <+ - m;2 l(x1-Y
(3 *u)' - 4x1 . xsf : 4
e (m - 3)' (* + 1)' : 4. Tim dugc
e xl :81 <+ xr:3 ho6c xr:-3. m=lxJ6; m=7xJT.
. Khi x1 : 3 thi xz: - 2, suy ra: m:0 Bni 3. Cho clu'o'ng thang lch. r : (/. I )r - 4 r'a
. Khi xr : - 3 thi xz:2, suy ra: m:2 parcrbal(P):-y: xt. Ti,, k (tO ((t) r'r) (P) c,it nlturt
Vfly minB : 0, khi m: 0 hodc m: 2. tcri hai dient phtin bi1r. Goi ttttt ,lo giatt diun la
I)4ng 2: 'fuo'ng giao cria parabol vh tlutrng ( xr, -r'r) ; ( -r2,-y2) . Tim k tli 1'1+ lz:.vt..\'t.
thang
Ldi gidi. Phucrng trinh hodnh d$ giao diiSm cua
Bii l. L'lrts purctl'tol lPl: .t - 1rt vi clmhtg (P) vd (d) ld: x2- (k * 1), - 4:0 (fr le hing
sO;. fnucrng trinh niy c6: a.c : - 4 < 0, n0n
thang ({t\: .)' '- 2x rtt } l. Tirn m di \A t:dt (P\
1u6n c6 hai nghiQm phdn bigt.xr, xz. li"hi d6
tui hui efient phan hi\t t'ri tQrt do: (rr;.r',) vri
(r:..i,r) suo c:ho.r1..11 (,,r,q 1"1'2) -' 48. lx,+x,=k-l iY, =xi
l..r= = ,j
lxr.x, = -4
Ldi gidi. Phuong trinh hoinh dQ giao <lii5m cua
Vfly:yr + yz: yt.lz a x? + xl = 11.fi
(4 vd (d)tir: * m- 1 :0 (1)
|* -2x e (xr + x:)2 - 2.r1. x2: xi.xi
DC (A cat (P) tai hai <tim phan biet thi phuong (k- t;2 + 8: 16 e k: I +2J7,.

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Z icruagw
TOnN HQC

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


tlff#ng d*n gifri uE rHr TuyEru srruH vno r#r ,l0 {Huy*ru ro*r*
rnuftruG hxsp rn rr$ cmi FfIHm NAlvr Hoc 2014 - 2ots
I riu tr. a) EKXD: -r-]. Khi d6 x:2.Tu(*)c6 2Y =3'-le2Y =23 ay=3,
)
. N6u x =2k+ I (k e N),ta c6
PT <+ (J3x++)- : (t + J2x+ t )- 3* -t=r(r'o - t)+z=r(r- - !)+2 chia cho 8
-.
e x+Z=2J2*q e(x+2)' =4(zx+t)
-ll):(9-1)) +2' chia cho 8 du 2
du 2 (vi(er
<+.r'' -4r-=0.
Tt d6y tim du<yc nghiQm: x : 4, x : 0. . +2Y =2=y=1. Ta c6 3'-l=21 ex=1.
VQy tQp nghiQm cira phuong trinh ld: S =
YQy chc cflp s6 nguyOn duong (x; y) cAn tim ld:
{+;O}. (2:3),(1; l).
b) DKXD: x > 0. Khi tl6
{--6u 3. a) Ta c6 ("*u)' , (o*u)'* (r-t)'=\; *t7.
rr e (-r + JI +t)' = z(*' +2x + t) -z+x
Do cl6 (a+ b)' +a'). ruong tr;
e (x + t)' +2Ji (x +t) + x =2(x +I)' -Z+* =r(o'
e (x+1)' -3sx -z{i (x+1) = 6 (a'+u')' ,r(o* +uo). raco
e (x + t)' -t Ji (x +r)+sG(.r + 1) -35-r = 0 .
(o' + u')' ). ua
(a + b)' o(o' + u')(o^ + ao
e (,r + 1) (x + t -t "{i) + sJi (x +t -t Ji) = o (a+b)' =4. Do vQy,tac6 a2 +b'<ao +bo.
e (x + t-7 Ji)(x + r +sJx ) = 0. b) Do x, !, z > 0, xy + yz + 7x : 1, 6pdgng b6t
Tim tluoc tdp nghi6m cua phu'crng trinh lir: tl6ng thr?c Cauchy cho hai sd duong, ta c6:
. fqt+ztJi
'
"=t 2 ,47-2tJs)
J
.r( t * I )
-2[r+y'x+z)
Cfru 2. a) 8p -1,8p,8p + 1 ld ba s6 nguy6n li6n
t t( t I \
ti6p, n6n c6 mQt si5 chia h6t cho 3. Md Bp t,
8p + 1 ld c6c sd nguyn tO tcrn trcrn : n6n U sO
- - ,tl +-r+r+* - 2[x+Y ' x+z)'
A:'-l-r-l

kh6ng chia htit cho 3. Do v6y (Ap)i:. Ua Dod6 2=!(-t*-j-)


(8; 3) : 1 nOn p i3. Dop ld s6 nguy6n t6 nn ,ll+i 2(x+y x+z ) rrl
t- ''

p :3; p: 3 thi 8p + I :25ldhqp s6.


Vay khdng c6 sd nguy6nt6 p thbamdn 8p - 1,
ruong tu ta c6: +.1[-r*-r)
,ll+Y" z\x+Y Y+z )
O, '

8p + 1 ld c6c s6 nguy6n tii. , l( , , \


b) Ta c6 3* *2Y :1<> 3* (*)
-I=zt -:.'l " * ' \-/' rt
- Z\y+z' x+z)l (:). -- (l), \-/'r,d (3)
\-" (2)
. N6u x:2k (fteN.), tu(*)tac6 Jt*r'
taco: -4--L--L
(a-*r)(:* -r)=2,. Do do =zou
oong Jl+ x' ,lt* y' r'
[:-.1
LJ -t=Z y
'll+
-l( x
< _t _J_ x L-_!_
y
L__Lr_f_
z z ) :
d6 a,beN vda>b.Tac6 |

2\x+y x+z x+y y+z'y+z x+z)=_2'


T -t =2e*(t' -1)=2. Nc, C4u 4. a) Gi6 sir (dr),(dr),

{l2'-n-l=l<}<
12"-u=2'
<}<
" la-l=l <><
I --
la=2
'
(4) d6ng quytaiO.
l2o =2 lb=l lb= [tr= t Do LOBD w6ng tai D,
f* ,, .2 LOCD rndng tai D nn B
Dod6 1',-'-".
l?r :)l
<=13(=3' <>k=l.Khid6 theo tlinh ly Pythagore ta D
-1

TOAN I,{Q(
Sti ese (6-2ors) -i-qrudifue J^
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
qB$} qefffl LE ToNG KET vA TRAo cr qr rmu'Gtic rrxr t.EoN{c 20ts
F{ST SOI{G T}IT E{A NOI
Kj thi Olympic To6n Hd NOi ry0 rQng - giii To6n bing tiiSng enfr - tan thri 12 ndm 2015 (HOMC ZOIS; tO
chric ngdy 22/312015 de thdnh c6xg t6t dqp. Ngny 17i5l2015 tpi Truong THPT Chu Vdn An, He NQi, Ban chi <Ipo
thi HOMC 2015 dd"ti6n hinh 16 tOng ti5t vi trao gi6i thuong cho c6c thi sinh du thi d hQi tl6ne thi He NOi.
L6n thi thri 12 niy dd c6 42 tirt , titann phi5 ttram dU vdi sO luqng 634 thi sinh: 320 thi sinh lua tu6i Junior
Qdp THCS) vir 314 thi sinh hia tudi Senior (lop 10 THPT) thi t4i ba HQi d6ng: Hn NQi: 487 thi sinh (237 lop 8;
8
250 lop l0); Dak Ldk 57 thi sinh (13 lop 8; aj lcrp 10); E6ng Th6p: 90 thi sinh (2516p 8; 65 lop 10). T6ng s6 gi6i
thuong cta kj,thi HOMC 2015 ld: 449 gibi g6m 45 girli Nh',t, 120 giitiNhj, 155 giiliBavd.lz9 giii Khuy6n khich.
Bdi thi duqc itt6m tneo thang ditim 15, ph6 Aidm cO tu 0 di6m ai5n i:,S ditim. Iftdng c6.dir5m tuyet d6i 15/15. Ch6t
luqng bdi ldm cira thi sinh t6t hcm c6c nbm tru6c, ttr6 nien 0 di6m binh quOn f,uong d6i cao. Thri khoa o hia tu6i
Junior c6 I em: Mdn Ddo Son Tirng,THCS Hoang Vdn Thp, Lqng Scrn, 13,5 di6m. Thri khoa d lua tu6i Senior c6 3
em'. Phqm Kim Anh, THPT chuy6n Hd NQi-Amsterdam, 13,5 di6m; Mai DQng Qudn Anh, THPT chuy6n Ha NQi -
Amsterdam, 13,5 itirSm; Dodn bao KhA,THPT chuyn LC Khi6t, Qu6ng Ngdi, 13,5 di6m. Thi sinh dat gi6i dugc
nhQan Giiiy chilmg nhQn cira S0 GD - DT vi HQi To6n hgc Hd NQi, girii thu&ng cua S0 vir qud tflng cria HQi. C6c
tinh, thenh c6 hgc sinh tham dp lc, thi HOMC 2015 duqc tflng C] luu niQm cta Ban t6 chric. Mgi ngucti du mong
mu5n, nhu, ldi GS. Nguydn Vdn Mdu, Cht tich H6i To6n hqc Hi NQi: "Srira md rgng cu\c thi HIMC ra cdc rurdc
ASEAI\1'd6 hgc sinh Viet Nam dugc dua tdi cring hqc sinh ciic nu6c trong khu 1uc D6ng Nam A * Th6i Binh Duong.
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THAM NGQC KHUT (Hd Nr.i)

c6 DB2 +ODz =O82, DC2 +OD2 =OC2. Do d6 tip Md BAT=BCK (th gi6c ABCD
=BHI=BAT.
DP -rc =OE -U2 (l). Chrmg minh tuong tU BIIT BCK , do d6"
cfrng c6: W -W =OC -O,4 (2) vir "glcp)_l3 180"=> K,H,T thdng hdng.
BHT + BHK =
FA2 -FB2 =OA2 -OB2 (3). Tri (l), (2) vd (3) ta c6 "
Chrmg minh rucrng tU cfrng co P, Q,7 th6ng hdng.
(oe -x:)+(n: -w)+(FN -Fr,)=o() Vpy c6c duong thdng AD, PQ, HK d6rg qtry.
b) cia sri c6 (*). Ggi O ld giao di6m cria (dr) vit -blli c6:
rytc_ITBK
(4).VC OD'LBC tqiD' . Cdn chimg minh D'=D. AtB+DKB =90'+90'=180" =ru giitc DTBK ndi
Tir cdu a) ta c6 tip > ADB = HKB. Ta co BAD = BHK (vi cung
(o' w - o' c) +(rc" - a,+)+(raz -raz ) = s 1"x;.
bir v6i BCD )
Tir (*) vd (**) ta c6 DBz - DC2 = D' 82 - D'C2 =MBD,n U{BK(e.E)
AD AD AB zAM AM
o BCIDB - DC)= BC(D', B - D',C\ HB HK HB 2HN HN
o DB-DC =D'B-D'C
MAM vd MHN c6:
'BAU
= 91151.!!
AD Ai'
=!l!
<+ (or + DC) -zDC=(o' a + D' c) -zD' c HB^HN
6 ^
e DC =D'C eD'=D (tlpcm). = MAM trpHN {c.g.c) =>BMA=BNH
gi6c BNMTnliti6p
- irr ::" 1S =BNM+BLM=IKP.
BNM =180. -BTM =180" -90" =90".
Vfly n4lru6ng g6c v6i -A/8.
Cfiu 6. C6 50 dinh n6n c6 50 tich ba s6 trn ba dinh
li6n ti6p. Vi ba dinh 1i6n ti6p U6t tcy c5c sii kh6ng
blng nhau n6n chi c6 hai lopi tich:
Logi I: Ba s6 0 ba tlinh li6n ti6p chi c6 mQt s6 2, tich
. i. . .:
ba so ndy b1tng 2. Logi II: Ba s6 6 ba dinh 1i6n ti6p
c6 hai sii 2,tichbas5 ndy blng 4. .
Gqi s6 tich 1o4i I Id x (x e N) thi s6 tich loai ll ld
50 -x. Md s6 s6 2 6 50 tich c6 ld 30 . 3 : 90, ta c6
phuong trinh: x.1 + (50 - x).2 =90<+ .r = 10.
Vf,y c6 10 tich loai I vd 40 tich loai II. Do vf,y t6ng

"si6c le:2.ro+4.40=l8o.
a) Yd Et LAD. Ta c6 BHC=BKC=W ru t6t cd cdc tich ba sO tr6n ba dinh 1i6n ti6p cira da giSc
=
BHKCnditidp <+ BHK+BCK =180". Md
ATB + AHB - 90" +90" = 180' ttr giitc ATBH nQi NGUYEN PIIC TAX
= (TP H6 Chi Minh)

"
4
T$ffiru E{#{
- rflaaeffis*Sd ase (6-2015)

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


n& rm ruv*nr slffi v*rlr*p r o
Yrt$nrg Tl{trTshu;rn L Auy S n -,T'lxhNinh,Shu$n
ruAnnrrcca6rq-aots
(Thoi gian ldm bdi 120 phrtt)
Cflu 1 p aia6. Cho phuong trinh: a) Xhc dinh tdm O'crta <lucrng tron (Q vd
x' -Zx + m' -2m +l= 0 (1), voi m ldtham s6. chimg mkthAB ll MN.
a) Gi6i phuong trinh (1) khi m=J, . b) Chung minh CD ld tia phdn gi6c cira g6c
-^
b) Chung minh rdng nliu phucrng trinh (1) c6 ACB vd CD diqua mQtiliOm c6 dinh E.
hai nghiQm x'x, th\ xrl<2. c) Chung minh ring clu<rng trdn ngoai titip tam
lxr- gi6c ACD ti6p xric voi AE tqi A.
Cdu 2 (2 die@. Tim gi6 tri nh6 ntr6t va gi6 tri

lcrn nh6t cua bi6u thtic: D =4{*3 . Cflu 4 (2 diAm).Cho phdn s5 p = t:+,v[i n
x'+7 n+5
ld s6 t.u nhi6n. H6y tim tdt cb chc sO t.u nhi6n ,t
Cflu 3 @ diefi. Cho tlucrng trdn (O) tluong
trong khoing tu I d6n 2015 sao cho phdn siip
kinh AB vd cludng trdn (Q di dQng lu6n ti6p , .1, ."
cnua tol glan.
xric trong v6i nira tluong trdn (O) tai C vi ti6p
xric v6i doqn AB tai D; CA vd CB lin luqt cft CAO TRAN TtI TTAI
duong trdn (q @i M, N. Qtlinh ThuQn) gidri thiQu

6dt drp
ortt{sbvtu*ix**oa
(Di ildng tr4nTH&TT sd qSO thdng 12 ndm2014)

G,.t,1,,."0ffio. PHr PHr (rrd N1i)

Ki hi6u c6c s6 trong c6c 6 trdn nhu 6 hinh 1. . YOi e: 16, g = 18 vd h: 17, k: 14, suy ra c * c'
= 14 : 6 + 8, d + d' : l7 : 4 + 13 : 5 + 12, a t a' :
17 : 4+ 13 : 5 + 12, b + b' : 11 + 7.K6thqp v6i
(U, (4) c6 nghiQm (e, g, h, k, c, c', d, d', a, a', b, b')
bdng (16, 18, 17, 14, 6, 8, 4, 13, 5, 12, ll,7)
(hinh 2)vd (16, 18, 17, 14, 6, 8, 5, 12, 4, 13, ll, 7).

Hinh I
Tri gi6 thi6t ta c6m: * c' +
a' + b' d':
40 (l). DAt
:
n,= q + b + c + d vd p e + g + h + k.X6t t6ng c6c
s6 n5m h6n s6u vdng trdn ta c6 3(m + 10) + 2(n + 9)
:
+ (? + 15) 50.6 hay 3m + 2n + p:237 (2). Tn (l)
vd (2) suy ra 2n -t p: ll7 (3). Tdng c6c s6 dugc Hinh2
:
tli6n ld 4 + 5 +...+ 17 + 18: 165 m * n + p + 15 . Y6i e:16, g: 18 vd h:14, k:17, suy ra d+
+ 10 + 9, krit hqp v6i (l) suy ra n + p 91. Thay : d' : 14: 6* g, c * c' : 17 : 5 + 12, a_t a, :20:
vdo (3) tim duo. c n:26 vd p :65 (4). Thay (4) vdo :
(2) duqc m + 2(a' + b' + a + b) + 2(c + c' + h) +
7 + 13, b + b' 15 = 4 + ll, kh6ng th6a m6n (1).
: . YOi e: 18, g : 16. X6t hrcrng t.u h6n thi t6n t4i
2(d + d' + k) + e + g 231 + h + k.Tri d6 c6 40 +
: hinh d6i ximg v6i hinh c6 nghiQm n6u h6n qua t4rc
2.35 + 2.31 + 2.31 + e + g 237 + h + k, t&cld e +
: : ddi ximg ld tludng thlng di qua !6m c6c 6 trdn ghi
s 3 + h + k (5).Tt (5) vd p e * g * h + k = 65 c6c s6 15, 10, 9. V4y bdi todn c6 th chb6n nghiQm.
suyra e + g:34: l8 + 16 vd h+ k:31= 17 + 14.

trnr.,.-roro
T?lI#E!,
5
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
vAN DUNc a6coE arAr
cHuir B!
OHO I{* THI
Tnur0 HQc
flfrt nruGo;{n qenDg
rxd rxOxc qRoDG rnfrq pnfrnc
Su6c GrA TRINH BA
(GV THPT chuyAn Hodng L Kha, Tdy Ninh)
Dqi tli';m
t:: c tti. httttrrttt
t lJ
tlo hun'c -\' 'int tot do ''ir'
1j/rong dd thi tuyn sinh vdo cdc trudng
U ;;;: ir"ia"ri t*d nay sei rd Ki thi i;;i
Quiic gia) co m\t cdu h6i ri Uai bdn hinh hqc tltnh ,4, B.
vQn &1ng phuong phdp tpg d0 trong mfit phdng. phin tich.
-i;
Ddy ld bdi todn tuong aai ma di rhdn tooi th! : ,;; aO aicm A tru6c.. A tit siao diilm cua
sinh; md phdn co bdn nhdt ld vid,t phaong trinh duong trung tr.uc cria doaa COvd <ludng thing A.
vidt ndy.chilltF t:: :;,;",;;6 il;;,;;1.,
ft) daonq minq
.rlo"s,bdi
drct ra mQt s6 thi du v cdc bdi todn vi4t PT
ura- *a-ducrn! thing
A vditucrng thhngOB.ViZ,pr<tucmgthingbAq.u-
dudng thdng li qua mQt dim cho tru6c vd tqo ;,*;;;mQI g6c bing g6c gfiab.a vir oK.
vdi dudng thdng cho trubc m6t gdc a.
Ldi gi'fii' (h'l)
r. co so r,.i THUyEl' K(6;6)
1) G6c gifia hai yecto a vd b kh6c 0 ilugc tinh
-l
/- :\ o.l)
qua cos(a,,
)=w.
2) G6c.gita hai <ludng thing ,cht nhau li g6c
nh6 nhat trong hai. c{p g6c ddi dinh, vfy g6c
gifia hai cluong thing ld g6c c6 sd tlo kh6ng
vugt qu6 90".
3) Neu hai cludng thing a, b c6 vecto ph5p
tuyiin (VTPQ Dn luqt ld i,,i, tti C

/ l;;l H)nh I

''\-= | ' 'l


cos(O'Dl
l;m'
| 'll 'l \.) r . on, ,
vi c thuOc A non c(4,*) tu
)
a) Nu hai dudng thhng a, b c6 vecto chi
phuong (VTCP) lin luqt ni,,i, tni trung cli6m cua do4n CO th\ ,(+,-2)
5)
l+ +t \)
lu,.url Gqi d ld <lucrng trung tryc cria do4n CO th\ d di
cos(a,b)=#. qua Mvitvu6ng g6c v6i CO: x+2y:0 n6n
l',ll",l
d: 2x-Y -6:0.
rr. MQT so THi DL;r Do AC = AO vd,4 thuQc A n6n I ld giao clim
OThi du l. (Trich Cuu - rt'rl tg dt: tlti mitr t trrt ci:a d vd A, tqa d0 clioa A ld nghiQm cria hQ
Bd GD&DT ndm 2015).T'rong mdt phdng v6'i 12*-u-6=0
l-^ lx=3">A{3:0).
" <>1"'
he truc tea clo Ox.v, cho tam gidc OAB c(t cdc
l4x+3y-12=0 [y=0
\''
clrth 4 ra lJ rhuot clrrotrg thing
.\ : 4r-t- 3.v - l2 : 0 ya ttietn K l(;6)
.:
ltr rcitn

chitrg tn)n ltittg tiitt goc O. Goi C lrt tli['m tt,tnt


Ta co cos,I6k =o-4
oA.oK
o-_r.=
- J'6t0t_L
Je JOTO
- 2
=

/r1n \ sao cho .AC = AO yd c:cic' diim C, B


: ,,,
ttuttt kltat' phiu ttltutr trt tr'r'i tlir;nt l. Bitit t'tittg
-{dk =45o )frfi =90'.

. TOAN HQC
6 'cfndiU@
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
a
Eudng th5;ng OB w6ng g6c vdi OA nn c6 PT t

ld.r=0.
eb-0 holc'1 b=aa.
Tqa d0 cua B ld nghim cira hC PT . y6i b=0, chgn a:1 thi i=(t;O), cluong

{*=o ol'=o=+r(0,+).
-- "
l, - 4- \"'
f4x+3y -12=O "'' thang cD c6 Pr te{- =!* t

OThi du 2 (Trit'h DH Khii A ntim 2014).


dA lY =-2
Trong mdl phdng t,ri'i h trut' loct tl6 Or;,, t'ho a
. Vdi b =la,chgn a=4 thi i=(+,5), dudng
hinh tttottg ABCD c'6 <jit:nt ,V lt't trutrc dicm cila 4
i{o4tnAB, ll lu diint thuit' tlrsun AC scro t:ho ft
t.._!_+4t
,4,V=3,VC. L'iOt PT tltftt'tts lhing Ct), biit thdngCDc6PTlei"-3'-'
rin,q M (l;2).,v(2: 1) lY =-2+3t
PhAn fich. SThi du 3 (Trlch-ai Oru Khdi .4 ndnt )Al2).
' Tim tga ttQ di6m P ld giao <ti6m cua MN vd CD tir Trong mcil phiing tri'i he tr.te dO O\,, t'hr, hinh
hQ thuc uN =t.w, v6i k =Y+=*=t. vttong ABCD. Goi .\,1 la trtrrr,4 tiii)rtt ,tr.t ,',lnli
NP NC BC', lV td die:m trOn cunh.CD suo thr,
' Euong thing'CD di qua tli6m P vd tpo vdi clulng
thing MN g6c =frFH vd coso. =ffi,
cr ari,, V
(',ry l.\l). Giu ttt' 14'il+.1 r

r'r./ tltr,,'rt,g iltin.1


,
ring HP, MP d6u tinh duoc / .,1N :oP.I: 2r , -l , ,l 7'int iort dr.t iii,,:nt 4
theo a (a la do dai canh cua hinh
Phdn tich.
vu6ngIBCD).
' Vi dC bdi y6u ciu tim tqa dQ diCm A trong khi de
Ldi gi,rti. (h.2) cho phucrng trinh ducmg thing AN vir t1a d.Q di6m M
Gqi P : MN O CD; Hlddidm ...-l'....-."'..N^ n6n ta nghi d6n viQc xemA= AM nAN.
D H P L 'frifr
d6i xrmg cua M qua t0m cira ' N6u ta tinh dugc g6c (g6c gita hai ducrng
hinh vu6ng ABCD. Taco Hinh 2 thing AM,IA), thi ta vi6t tluqc phuong trinh du<mg
MN AM AN . thdngAN.
NP PC NC \'' -../ '- ntl =ZtttF . ViQc tinh g6c friil c6 thri thsc hiQn b[ng cSch
ding ilinh li c6sin vi tinh dugc AM, AN, MN theo a.
Gei P(x:y), tu he thuc rrn ta .O r[],-z)')' Nhrmg trong bii ndy ta tinh dugc gOc ffiF *ro
\r / , \ tana+tanb
Ggi a li
d0 ddi canh cira hinh vudng ABCD, tir cons Inuc tatrlo+bl--
*^\* ' "/
l_tana.tanb.
hC thfc (1) ta c6:
Ldi gidi. (h.3)
=!,gp a,W =oq Ggi a ld cpnh ciia hinh vu6ng, A
6'-'- =!3-""
MH =a,PC - = "[MII2+ HPz .
3 l^ ^\
Ggi cr ld g6c gitia hai ducrng thbng CD vit MP, ta c6 tan I DAN + BAM I
\/
khid6
MP=1.
a=friH+cos0 =HP
Jto
tanfIfi + andifu
GSi i=(a;U)+O ld vecto chi phu<rng cta
1- tan 6TN .tandTfu D
t1
').+-a
ducrng thingCD,v\ Mfr =(t;-:) n6n = 1. Suv ra Hinh 3

',-13'2I
nncd: IrMwl _ la_3hl I

l;llMNl Jto JF;P Jm 6IN *6Iu = 45o


= frtrfr
= 45'.
til t

MAN ld g6c giira hai ducrng thdngAMvdAN.


=la-ZAl= Jaz +bz o 4b2 -3ab =0
Eudng thingAN c6 VTPT ld i=(z;-t).

sti ase re-zorsl z


HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON ! -3s#8[
cqi i=(a;b)*O n VTPT ctra tlucrng thing G6c 68 ld g6c gita hai tlucrng thhng AD vit
DB, 6E=6k. Gqi i =(":b)*6 a vrPr
A M thi
"orfrTN
= JL=
J5.Ja2 +b2
cos45o
cira <ludng thing BD, ta c6 VTPT. cua AD

= JI6.J7TF =zlz"-bl
e3a2 -8ab-3b2:0 (1)
,*=(t -t)non cosffi =S-=a
.{aiq,[a 6
Ni5u b=0 thitu (1) c6 a=0 (loai). e5(a-b)' =2(a'+b')
e3a2 -lUab+3bz =0.
N6u b + o thi (,)*,(;I-'(;)-r=,
*:L NOu b:0 thi
* 0 thi
a:0 (loai)

. YOi a =3b, chqn b = I > a = 3 thl |, = (Z;t), Ni5u b 3a2 -IAab+3bz =0

<ludng thingAMc6 PT le 3x+y-17 =0. .=',(g)' -\b) - - o-


" -\b) - ro[g)+: c> la =3b .
lb=3a
Tri A= AMoAN tatimduqc A(a;5). .Yot a=3b, chqn b=l=a=3, PT c'ia
. YOi b - -3a , chgn c:1=b=-3 thi |1=(t;:),
rtudng thbngBDqw u(-*;r) u rr*y=0.
tlucrng thhngAMc6 PT li -r-3y -4=0. \3 /
Gqi t h giao di6m cua AC vd BD thi tga d0 cria
Tt A= AMaAN tatimduqc A(1;-1).
1ld nghiQm cria h0 PT
o Thi dq 4. (Trich ai pa kh6i D ndm 2012). + Y= o.= I' =o
Trong mQt- ,J
phdng voi h tga dQ Oxy, cho hinh {lx = l(o:o).
\' ''
lx+3Y=g LY=Q
chir nhqt ABCD. Cdc dtrdng thl:ng AC vd AD
Tqa d0 di6m D ld nghiQm ctra hO PT
ldn laqt c6 PT ld x + 3y : 0 vd x - y + 4 : 0; ("
[3x+v=o
1-^'' -", <+]^ -.'=o(-t:3).
1

dadng thting BD di qua aiam


' ru(--I,t). n* [x-Y=-+ [Y=J
\3 )
Vi 1 le trung <ti6m ci.r. BD n6n tga d0 di6m
toa d0 cac dinh cira hinh chrt nhqt ABCD.
r(t;-:).
Phdn ttch.
. Tru6c ti6n ta tim dugc tga d0 tli6m A = AC a AD. .Ybi b:3a, a=l:)b:3, dudng thing
chQn
. Vii5t dugc phucrng trinh tluong thing BD di qua M,
BD c6 VTPT ld i:(1;:), t*O"g hqp ndy thi
t4o v6i AD mQt 96" ffi:6il (g6c gita hai
,BD song song ho{c trung v6i AC (loqi).
ducrng thingAC,AD).
. C6 phuong hinh iludng thdng BD ta tim duo. c tga OThi du s. (PA thi DH khdi B ndm 2013).
t10 t0m I =AC aBD cua hinh chii nhft ABCD vir Trong mfit phdng vdi h t7a dQ Oxy, cho hinh
tgad0tli6m D=ADaBD. thang cdn ABCD cd hai &rdng chdo vu6ng g6c
. Tri d6 6p durrg c6ng thric vdi nhau vd AD :38C. Dwdng thdng BD c6
tim tga tlQ trung tli6m tl6 phactng trinh x + 2y - 6 :0 vd tam gidc ABD
tim c6c ilinh cdn lai. c6 trac tdm ld H (- 3;2). Tim tqa do cdc dinh C
Ldi gidi. (h.a) vd D.
Tqa d0 di6m A ld
PhAn fich.
nghiQm ctra HPT . Trudc ti6n ta xem x6t tinh d4c biQt cria cilc tam
)' + a ( -: ;1 Hinh 4 gi6c IBC,BHC.
{::ur'*:oo=o . Vi6t phuonc trinh iludng thing AC di qua <li6m,I1
G6c 6k ld g6c gifia hai cludng thlngAD vit vd ru6ng g6c voi ,BD. Suy ra tga dQ dim I, C, A.
.Taxem D=ADaBD
AC,tac6 cos6;=]59 =+.
Jl+E.JI+l J5'
. Vi6t phuong trinh duong thing AD qura A tqo vbi
AC mQtg6c bang fiE =fdi = 45'.
.r TOAN
icru,ufw
HOC
E
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
Loi gi,rti. (h.5)
. Gqi -I ld giao dim cia AC [*-"-r =o *
vd BD, suy ru IB =1C. Md
lx+2,r,-6=0 {;= f =o(+:r).
f6t tu4n. Qua c6c thi du tr6n, chtng ta th6y vi6c
IB IIC n6n tam giSc IBC vi6t phuong trinh tludng thing trong m5t phSng tqa
A
w6ng cdn t4i { suy ra dQ.Oxy di qua mQt di6m cho tru6c vii tao voi rluOng
thlng cho tnr6c m6t g6c c[, c6 th6 khai th6c d6 gi6i
i&=4f . Mat kh6c Hinh 5
nhi6u bdi to6n chi cAn ta tinh rlugc g6c cr 116. ViQc
BH L AD > BH L BC , suy ra tam gi6c BHC tim toa dO m6t di6m du6i dpng ld giao rti6m cira hai
vudng cAn t4i B, suy ra I ldtrung clirim ci,- HC. tluong thing cfrng li m6t hudng gini bdi to6n rim
. Dutrng thlng AC <li qua 11, vu6ng g6c v6i di6m khri hiru ich. Sau ddy xin gi6i thieu m6t s5 bai
d ban itgc luyQn tpp.
duong thing BD, c6 phucrng tr\rth 2x-y + 8:0.
Toa clO cua I ld nghiOm cira h0 phuong trinh BAI LUYEN TAP
l2x-v+8=0.'-i lx=-2 1
L @a thi DII tcnAi O ndm 2Ol4). Trong mdt
lx+2y-6--0-- Iy=+ phing vdi hC tnlc tga d0 Oxy, cho tam gi5c
Tu 1 ld trung di6m cria dopn HC suy ra ABC co chAn du<rng phAn giSc trong cua goc A
C(-t;O); Hldtrungditim cua doanAC, suy ra ld di6m o(t;-t). Eudng thing AB c6 pT
3x +2y -9 = 0 , ti6p tuyr5n Ai A cin dudng trdn
e(-s-z). ngoai ti6p hm giitc ABC co PT x+2y -7 =0 .
GSi i=(a;O)*O ld vectcr ph6p tuyiin cria VlCt Pf ducrng thing BC.
ducrngthingAD. Hwdng ddn. . ciei hO g6m PT ducrng thlng AB
Ta c6 g6c gita hai tlucrng thhng DB vd AD lit vd PTTT tai A cua Clucrng trdn ngoai ti6p tam
gi6c ABC O6 tim toa clQ di6m A.
IDE =idi =45". Suy ra
. Vi6t PT ducrng thing AD,tinh g6c
,E^ la +2bl la +zbl I @f;7
C^c4\o =.:l-:L...'.:l:-
Js.Ja, +b, ,15..t;t;V O
-- . Vi6t PT dudng thing AC hqp v6i AD m6t g6c
. ;--.*---
+l*)3d
>z{a+2b)'z =5(a, -3U -kb=g (*) bdng IAB,AD).
+
N6u b=0 thi a=0 (loai). . Tinh goc (an,ls)=(Ce,cn).
NOu b*0 thikhid6 . Viiit PT duong thbng BC qra D, hqp v\i AC
z r2 lg-. m6t g6c Aing (ce,Cn).
a=3b
r-r *r(rs)' -s f, -:=o<+.,2=',
f

lb=1a 2. (DA thi.th* ndm 2015 cia Trudng THPT


lb3 Lr,rongftte fiinh - Hd NOi). Trong m6t pt ing
. v6i a:3b>n-(zt; u)=b(3; i) t) v6i hd truc toa dd Oxy cho hinh chft nh6t
=(:; ABCD c6 diOn tich bing 15. Eucrng thing AB
ld toa d6 vecto'phfp tu5r(in cria AD, ndn AD co c6 phucrng tr\nh x-2y = 0. Trgng t6m cira tam
phuong trinh 3x+y + 17 = 0.
Toa dQ cua D ld nghim cua h6 phucrng trinh si6c BCDrd di6m rim tsa d0 b6n
"(-*,+).
[3x+r'+17 =O I x=-8 D\-9:7 dinh ctra hinh cht nhft bitit ring di6m B c6 tung
lx+2y-6=0 Itr-/ .. _ _- = ). d0 lon hcrn 3.
Hunrg ddn.. Tinh dlG;ABl suy ra
-3a *i = (";-t") = o(t;_Z) _:)
. v 6i b =
= (r;
ld toa dO vecto ph6p tuy6n ctra AD, nn AD c6 alc ; enl = .afc; an1=
phuong trinh x -3"y - 1 = 0. ffi ).ayc,
oB7= ac .
. Tir di6n tich hinh cht nh6t vi dQ ddi c4th BC
Toa d6 cia D ld nghiQm cua h0 phucrng trinh suy ra d0 dei canhAB. G

*rnu.,.-roru,
T?3I#S
9
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
THuslJc rpuoc xi mu
pEs6g
(Thdi gian ldm bdi: 1 80 Philt)

Cilu 1 (2 di6m). Cho hdm s6 Cfiu 6 (1 diAd. Cho hinh ch6p S.A,BC c6 d6y
ABCliLtam giric vu6ng t4i A, AB=3a, BC =5a; mdl
!=mx3 -3mx2 +3(m-l)
phing (SAC) rudng g6c v6i mat phing (ABC). Bi6t
{mldthamsO; cO aO thi (C.).
a) Kh6o s6t s1r bi6n thi6n vd vC d6 thi (C) cira him ring SA =zali va SAC=30".Tinh,n* ?,T::l
s6 t ld'i m=1.
Cn cua kh5i ch6p S.ABC vd khodng c5ch tu di6m,
b) Chrmg minh ring dO thi (C.) lu6n c6 hai iliiim m4t phing (SBC).

cgc tri Avd B v6i moi m+O,ldti d6 tim cdc gi|tri


Cdu 7 Q diA@. Trong m{t phing vdi h0 tqa d0
qia mae Z,qn'-(O,q' +OB2)=98. Ory, cho dudng trdn (C):(x-2)2 +(y*2)2 =5 vh
duirng th6ng (A):r+y+1=0. Tu diem I thuQc
{.iu 2 (l didm).a)Cho g6c a th6aman cota=1' (A) ke hai duong thing l6n lucrt ti6p xric v6i (C) tai
Tinh gi6 tn cua bieu thuc B vir C. Tim tga d0 di6m I bi6t ring diQn tich tam
ABCbing 8 .
'_
.r 2015 gi6c
- sin2 a -sina.cosa -cos2 a Cfiu 8 0 diAd. Trong kh6ng gian v6i he toa d0
b) Tim s6 phric z c6 m6dun nh6 nh6t th6a mdn di6u Oxyz cho mdt ciu (S): "r2 +f +22 -2x+6y+k-D=0
kien liz-31=V-z-'1. vd mflt phing (a) :2x -2y - z-t2 = 0 . Chimg minh
Ciu 3 (0,5 di1@. GiniPhucrng trinh ring m{t phing (a) cit mat cdu (.$1 theo mQt dutrng
- ^-t F trdn. X6c dinh tim vd b6n kinh cria dudng tron d6.
4sin'? | - J3 cos2x =2 - sin2x.
CAu 9 (0,5 dim).Tim si5 ha.rg kh6ng chta x trong
. .12
C6u "l (1 ai6m1. ZiaihQ phuong trinh
lrs t (t"+ l8.r.+25vL
^- )
khai trien Newton ,uu(z*-]D(-)I t**ol.
l3+./9,r2-4=:l \
lt "^ - -9[* ='I'
-2Y+2 -' J (r'Ye1R1' Y2 Ciu l0 Q diAfi. Cho x. y la c6c so thuc ducrng th6a
I

f7"c +y: +3.0,(x-y) - I 2x2 +6x =1 mdn x+y S 1. Tim gie ftl nho nhAt cua bieu thuc
Ciiu 5 (1 dim). Tinhtich Phdn
.-- oc
(x' - x -2)e^ JTTT| -? +l ^ .

(x + l)J3 +2x - PHAM TRQNG THI.I


I x2
2 IGV THPT chuyin Nguyin Quang Diiu, DdngThdp\

\lAN DUNG ffi ... ttiip the o) thing EK c6 phucrng trinh ld 19x - 8y - 18 = 0. Tim
. Tt d6 tinh dugc c6sin cira g6c BAC, tl6y ld g6c toa d0 di6m C cira hinh vu6rry ABCD bi6t ring di6m
giira hai ducrng thing AB, AC. E c6 hodnh rJQ nho hcrn 3.
I vit5t pt oong- ttirftauot g thing
"
AC di qua G, tqo
tn{iF, tanfr, ding
Hutng ddn.. Tinh dusc
vcri dulng thilngABmQt g6c bilg 6k.
. thtc tan (a + u)= tirn r]ut1c
Tim tga dQ A= ABaAC, suy ra tqa d0 C (tr'r cong
fl##k
?-..''-
AC =+ AG ), trung di6m
2
/ cia AC. turiit ,oy .u "nrFD, vot ifr 1i g6c giira hai
dudng thing FE vi EK.
. Viiit
phuong trinh ctudng thtng BC qua C, ru6ng . Vi6I phuong trinh duong th5ng .El- di qua -F, hgp
g6c v6i AB, suy ra tga dQ B, suy ra tga dQ D (ddi
ximg v6i -B qua tdm 4. Cht lf gia thiCt di6m B c6 v6iEl(mQt gbcbang fit .

tung dQ lon hcrn 3.


. Tim E =FEIEK, tt d6 tinh dLrq'rc d0 dai canh
3. Trong m[t phing v6i hQ truc tga dQ Oxy, cho hinh ru6ng. Til <16 tinh duqr: cosFEC vtvi FEC ld
goc giira hai dtrtrng thirrg f/:-vd IC"
hinh vu6ng ABCD.Dicm Ff+;:'l ra trung di6m IviSt pt uorg trinh duorrg thing EC hqp vtri FZ mQt
\z )
glcbdng FEC.
cfa c4nh AD, dimE ld tmng di6m cta canh AB vit
KD = 3KC . Duong . Tim tea ttQ di6m C t* C e EC vir E(-' = FC.
di6m K thu$c cqnh DC sao cho

- ^ TOHN HOC
- ctudiga
IU 56 456 (6-2015)

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


.. ,.. t ? \rr ,\'
}IUONIG DAN GIAI OE SO B
Ciu 1. a) Bpn ilgc tg gi6i. Ciu5.DAt t=Ji t P-x+Ztdt=dx;
b) Gqi M(xo:to)ta ti6p di6m cira ti6p tuy6n.
7
x =l
= t =l,x = 4 > t =2. Ta<lugc
H6 so g6c cua ti6p tuy6n: 1, = -- - .
t =2t--!-dt =2(i+*-+)o,
(xo+2)' t'z(t +t)
I
ru --J- . [-])=
gia thi6t suy ,u, -,
(xu+2)' \ t )
Jo = - t hoic Jo = - 3; suy f&yo=- 4 holc
CAu 6.
/e = 10. Phucrng trinh tit5p tuy5n: ! = 7x + 3 ^z lt
hodcy =7x+31. Ta c6 S*. =t;".
CAu 2. a) Phucrng trinh d5 cho tuong du<rng v6i Gqi D ld trung tlim
AB, th\ OD L AB
sinx+ J3 cos* -2 erir[r*1)
\. 3,/ = r A
=A,DLAB
x = !+ k2rc (k eZ). - 16o=600.
oD = lrr='fi,
6
b) Ta co z: =5-l2i.z+i=6 3- 6
5-t2i s
14'=-=--'21 -. . lW; = A'O = Oo.tan[io =l;
6 6 ',l

Ciu 3. Ddt t =2' , (t > 0 ), ta c6 phuong trinh v*r.o,r,r, = Stac.A'o =+ (clvtt). Ta c6


ft-c cc' a(c,(ABn' a')),
1
[+-=;5 t'
<+l . 1 ; t=2e x-l= lex=2;
II
= d (AB,cc')
(ABB'A') =
t L ll=-
t) I
V^*r=.S*r.A'O= arll
1
24
l= r.r-1=-1<)x=0.
soo, =
|e'o.ea =; + o =#.u^,
ca,i+. DK: x2 +Zx*t>0<> x<-t-Ji toa"
x >-1+O. DlLt JV+2x-l =a) 0,1 -x =b, (AB,cc' o" 3?'
d
) =3v=o' So'*= 4'
b5t phucrng trinh da cho trd thdnh
2ab < a2 -4(l-b) o
(a-Z)(a+2-2b)>0 C0u 7. Ggi S - AB n DE. Theo dinh li Thales

e(J?;zxt !4 =BE =r d6 d(c,


54 AD6-#=1.ro
ta c6 \_- DE)
-z)(,17 +rx-t+z.r)> o 1t; SM 7
X6t 2 trucrng hcrn sau:
THl: x>-1+J2. Khi 65 J*2,r2*j+2x>0,
n6n (1) tuong ctuong ysl Jx'z +2x-l-2>O
= 5d(8. DE) =s.+d(M, DE)=+
Ggi cpnh hinh vu6ng ld a. Trong tam
# =ffi gi6c
Ir -1+J6
<>l > ru6ng DCE ta c6
-=x>-t+J6.
[x -1-J6
< 11113661
TH2 x<-l-J1.Khi d6 JV +2x-I+2x<0, (dc,rD)--= co'* ce'=7+ 25r,,= 25o.,
n6n (l) trothdnh JV +2x-l -2<O
5?
<+-1-J6 <x<-1+J6.
Kiit hqp di6u kiQn cira trudng hqp ndy ta dugc
=d(c, DE)=
J6r. Suv ,aE =-Y.
J6t J6l0 -o=2,11g.
x<-1-J1. ( :,:::
to-zzr\
-1-J6 < vi D e DE nan D[/: raco:
Vfy nghiCm cinbitphuong trinh d5 cho ld ).
-1-J6 <x< -r-JI ; r > -1+J6. (Xem tiip trang 27)

T?3I#S
11
"rnu.,.-roro
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
SISffiF$ frleffi cnfrr s0 xoc Dnc rRtrNE
Biitqof,nDnqwft
NGUYEN LTIU
(Gf rruPf chuyan Hd Tinh)

Oi thwc ld mAt nAi dung riiy quan trpng,trong . Hai da thtrcf vdg nguy6n td ctng nhau tuc ld
U "chwnng trinh todn hpc phii th6ng vd qat aiy (f, g):1khi vd chi khi tOn t4i hai tla thhc u, v
dagc gidng dqy trong chucsng trinh dqi s6 6 cdp sao chofu+ gr: l.
THCS. Cdc bai tudn hAn quan dn da th*c xudt hin . N6u c6c <la th(rcflx) vir g(x) nguyn ti5 cring
nhiiu trong cdc k) .thi hpc sinh gi6i Quiic gia vd nhau thi IJV)l'vd [g(x)]' s0 nguy6n t0 cring
Qu6c t. Bdi todn v da thuc ld bdi todn dgi s6 tuy nhau v6i mgi m,n nguyn ducrng.
nhiAn nhi6u bdi todn v da th*c bim chdt cila n6 lqi
. Mqi nghiQm xs cta da thric
ld bdi todn til ho". Niiu chting ta bih kiit ho. p khai
:.
thac mdi quan hQ giiia cdc tinh chdt dqi s6 vd s6 hpc .J@
: aox" +
?rt' *...ta,sx + a,(as * 0).
thi s gidi quyt duqc nhiiu bdi todn vi da thuc. tl6u th6a mdn b6t d6ng thric :

Tinh chdt s6 hgc dfic trtmg thudng s* dang d6 ld


tinh chia ht, t{nh chdn li, tinh chiit cfia cdc sd lr.l(lrrl -L)< A,A=maxlatl, k =r,...,n.
^1,:;t6, hqp s6, s6 nguyAn,...Cdc dinh ly v s6
nguy1n . Da thirc pahttna quy khi vi chi khi mgi u6c
hpc thudng s* dung d6 ld dinh li, Bezout, Fermat, cria n6 cl6u ld cta thirc bQc 0 hoic ld tla thric c6
Eisenstein,... dqng ap vdi alithing s6 kh5c kh6ng.
Tru6c h6t ta nhic lpi mQt sO tOt qui co b6n: . M6i da th1c f bAc 16n hcrn kh6ng U6t ty ACu
. Da thtc bQrc n c6 kh6ng q:oh n nghiQm th1rc. ph6n tich dugc thdnh tich cbc da thric bet khe
.Da thric c6 v6 s0 nghiQm ld da thric kh6ng. qly..Ve sp phAn tich d6 ld duy nn6t ni5u kh6ng
. Da thirc c6 bflc nho hon ho{c bing n mi nh{n k0 dn thf"t.u c6c nhAn tu vd nhdn tu bdc khdng.
ctngmQt gi5 tri tqi n + 1 gi6 tri.kh6c nhau cta . Tieu chuAn Eisenstein:
ddi s6 thi cla thric cl6 ld da thfc hing. Cho P(-r) : a,{" * a,-t{-l+ ...+ afi + aoe Zlx)
. Hai da thirc bflc nh6 hcrn ho{c bing r md nhfn
Ntiu c6 it nhil mQt c6ch chgn s5 nguyn t6 p
|
n + giltri th6a. mdn bing nhaul4i n +l giht4 th6a mdn cl6ng thoi c5c di6u kiQn:
kh6c nhau cria cl6i s6 thi cl6ng nh6t blng nhau. *) a, khdng chia h6t cho p.
. Bdc cta tdng hai <la thirc khdng lcrn hcrn bQc *) f6t cir cbc hQ s6 con 14i chia hi5t chop .
cria m5i <la thric <16. *) a6 chia h6t cho p nhmg khdng chia hi5t cho
. BQc ctra tich hai da thric kh6c kh6ng bing t6ng
p2 th\ P(x) kh6ng ph0n tich duqc thdnh tich c6c
cdc bflc ctra hai cla thfc d6.
da thuc c6 b{c thdp horl vcri c6c hp sO hiru r5i.
. Hai da thirc f vd g thuQc IR.[r] trong d6 g kh6c
NQi dung cua cac bdi toan vi da thuc thudng xoay
kh6ng (tla thric kh6ng) , khi tl6 c6 duy nh6t mQt
r
c[p cta thtc q, e IR.["r] sao cho "f qg + r : quanh viQc tim nghiQm vd xdc dinh si5 nghiQm ctia
mQt da thuc, xdc dinh m)t da thuc hofrc rdc luqng
trong d6 hoic r: 0 hoflc deg r < deg g voi r gia tri clta da thuc khi biA dq thuc thod mdn mil sd
kh6c 0. tinh chdt cho trudc hodc ld ch*ng minh cdc da thuc
. Du cia phdp chiacla thfcfix) cho x - c ldflc). biit kha quy...
. V6i b6t k! hai da thric -f, g e ZlxT bao gid Trong khu6n khd bdi vit nay , chung ta s dO cQp
ctng tdn tai IJCLN ciafvdg vd LrCtN cl6 duy diin m1t sii mi ndn didn hinh nhiim minh hea cdc
nhdt. ilnh chh s6 hp, drtc ffung thudng xuh hin 6 bdi
todn da thuc.
. N6u da thuc d h UCLN cria c5c da thtrc vit f
g, khi d6 tdn tpi hai da thitc u,v sao cho Bii to6n l. Cho cac da thttc P(x), Q(x) e Zlx)
:
fu + Sv d Nguo. c lai n6u da thirc d lit :uoc vd a e Z thod mdn P(a) : P(a +2015) : 0 ;
chung cua cbc tla thric f vi, S vir th6a mdn
QQOI4): 2016 . Chilmg minh rdng phaong
fu + Sv : d thl d le UCLN cinf vd g. trinh Q(P(x)): I kh6ng c6 nghiQm nguyAn .

- ^ TOnN HgC
LZ - Gfi.rdiUa-gq-r*reeggl

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


Ldi gi,rti. P(x) : (x - a)(x - a - 2015). s@) o6 trr6y e@\ - ee) chiahiit cho 13 - 1 suy ra
=P(x) chin voi Gii sir lxse ZdC
Yx e Z. Q@') - QQ) chiahiSt cho ,'+ * + 1. Tuong tu:
Q(P(xr)): 1 + Q(") = lx - P(xdl.h(x) + I P(r') - P(1) chia h6t cho x2 + x + 1. Tri (1) dsa
: vdo gi6 thi6t ta suy ra t P(1) + Q\)1chia hi5t
= QQ0l4) 12014 - P(xs)l.h(xs) + l. cho x2 *.r * I (2). Do deg (.x2 + x +1) : 2 vit
Do P(x6) chin vd h(xs)e Z, nnv6 trai chin, v6
phii m6u thu6n.
16, deg [xP(l) + g(1)] < 1 n6n tu (2) suy ra:
Ldi binh. Ddy ld bdi to6n tlon gi6n, sir dqng phucrng xP(t) + QQ) = 0 P(1) : O(1) : 0 (3).
ph6p chimg minh ph6n chimg ptr6i frqp dinh li
=
V6y 1 ld nghiCm cria P(x) yiL Q@). Theo <linh lf
Bezout cring tinh chin, 16 cria s5 nguy6n ta suy ra
tli6u ph6i chimg minh (tlpcm). Bezout ta c6: Do P(x)
Bii to6n 2. T6n tqi hay kh6ng da thtrc P(x), {59=l;_i,,X;$
deg(P(x)) : 2015 thda mdn P(*' - 2Ol4) chia vd Q@) li c6c tla thfc voi hQ st5 nguy6n n6n
hAt cho P(x)? vi R2(x) cfing li chc da thric vdi h s6
R1(x)
Ldi girti. Xdt da thric P(r) : (x + o)'o",ae IR .
r ^: +Li_.. lr{c:otsl= 2014.Rr(2015)
Khi d6 P(i - 2014) : (* + a - zot4)2ots -_.-.A-
nsuven.
-'a--J -"' Lal "^-r
-a- tnav: <
: l@+o)' - 2a(x + a) + a2 + a- 201412015. Da lee}ts)=20t4.Rz(2015)'
th6y phuong trinh o' + o - 2Ol4: 0 lu6n c6 2 suy ra P(2015) vd QQ0l5) chia hiit cho 2014.
nghiQm phdn biQt. Tric ld ta chgn dugc a sao Vi d: (P(2015), QQ0l5)), suy ra d > 2014.
cho a2 + a * 2014: 0, tu c16 suy ra p(xz - 2ol4) Ldi binh. Bdi to6n ndy k{r6 tle.p vC tinh chia hi5t cria
: (x + o)""(* - a)20rs chia h6t cho p(x). cla thric. Sri dtmg tinh ch6t 1a - b1l(P@) - P(b)) ,
Liti binh. Tri yu c6u P(x) c6 deg P(x):2015 vi vd ktit hqp gifia ttinh lf Bezout vdi tinh ch6t vd b6c
P(*' - 2014) phii chia hrit cho p(x) nen ta c6 ttr6 du cria da thric tl6 tlem l4i loi gi6i.
do6nngay P(x) c6 dpng (x +,)'0". Bii toin 5. Cho da thuc flx) : x20t7 + axz + bx
Biri toin 3. Cho & e N- . Tim dt cd cdc da thuc -t c vdi a, b, c e Z cd ba nghiQm nguyAn x1,
P(x) th6a mdn: x2,4. Chrhng minh rdng:
(x - 2015)k P(x) : (x -20t6)k P(r +1) (*) (o'0" + b2017 + c'0"
Ldi gidi. Gi6 sir P(x) ld da thric th6a m6n di6u
+ry1x1 - xz)( xz- x3)(x3 - x1)
chia hiit cho 2017.
kiQn trdn. Tri gi6 thi6t ta thdy x : 2016 liL Ldi gi,rti. X6t phuong trinh:
nghiQm bQi bflc 2 k cl0la P(x). :
x2ot7 - x + loi + (b + l)x + cl o.
Theo tlinh lf Bezout ta c6: D1t J@) : ax' + (b + l)x * c. Theo dinh li
P(x): (x -z}rc)k.Q@), Fermat bd ta c6: xz0t7 - x = 0 (mod 2017), suy
thay vdo (*) ta dugc: ta: JU) = 0 (mod 2017), i : l, 2, 3 hay
(x - 20 t 5)k .(x -20 rc)k .8@)
: (x- Zlrc)k1x-2015)k.e(x+ f(x) i2017.
1).
. N6u x2)(x2- r:)(x: - ,,) 2017 thi bdi
(x1 - j
Tt d6 suy ra Q@): Q@ + 1), hay Q@): a
to6n chimg minh xong.
hing s5.v6y p(*): a (x 2ot6)r. Tht lpi ttfng.
. N6u @1 x2)(x2- xz)(xr x1) kh6ng chia hiit
-
Ldi binh. Ddy ld bdi torin co b6n, sir dqng tinh ch6t
chia h6t, nghiQm bQi, cring tlinh lf Bezout cho ta loi cho 2017 ta c6: flx) *J@) :. 2017, suy ra
gihi.
Bii toin = (x1- xy) fa(xy +x2) + b +l I i2017
4. Cho P(x) vd Q@) ld hai da thilrc voi * axr+ axz* b+ 1 i 2017 (1).
hQ sd nguyAn. Biiit ring da thuc xP(x3) + Q@t)
Tuong \r: axza oxz+ b + 1 i2017 (2).
chia hih cho x2 * x * l. Gpi d ld UCLN cria
Tri ( 1) vir (2) suy ra: a( 4 - x) i ZAtl
P(2015) vd QQOI|). Chilmg minh rins d >2014.
hay a :.2017, + li20l7,
suy ra b
Ldi gi,fii. Ta c6: xP(x3) + Q@\: lQ@\ - QOI
+ xlP(x3)-P(1)l + kP(l) +0(i)l (l). fl*r): L axr2 + (b + 1)x1+ c] i 2017, suy ra
c :. zol7.

nu.,.-rrru,
T?ll#ff
"s
13
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
Ydy a + b + c + | :.2017.Theo cllnh ly Fermat Bdri to6n 7. Cho a, b, c td bo sd nguyn phdn
bd ta c6: o = o'\"(^od 2017), b = b2017(mod bit vd da thilrc P(x)e Zlxlsao cho P(a) : P(b)
2017), c = suy ra a-t b-r c *
: P(c) :2. Chilmg minh ring phuong trinh
"""(^od20l7), P(x) *3 :0 kh6ng co nghiQm nguyAn.
l: a2017 b2017 c201'7
+ + + 1 (mod zolT).
Tri d6 c6: a2011 + b2017 + tott + lizol7 (dpcm).
Ldi gidi. Tri gin thi6t ta suy ra cla thric P(x) -2
c6 ba nghiQm nguy6n ph6n biQt ld a, b, c. Do d6
Ldi binh.Yl2017ld sti nguy6n t6, n6n trong loi gi6i
t6n tai Q@)e ZLxT sao cho:
hr da thtc d6 cho ta th6m bort x d sir dgng dinh li
P(x) - 2:
(x - a)(x - b)(x - c)Q@).
Fermat b6 ld mQt tli6u t.u nhi6n.
Biri toin 6. Cho s6 nguyAn n > 2 vd da
Gi6 sir phucrng trinh P(x) 3 - :0 c6 nghiQm
thr.rc cd x: dngryAn. Khi d6:
cdc hQ s6 nguyAn daong 1 : P(A - 2 -- (d - a )(d - b)(d - c)Q(fl.
P(*): x' + a,-tx'-| *...* ap * l. Do d a, d b, d * c, Q@)
- - eZndn d a, -
Gid sir ak: an-k vdi mpi k: 1,2,..., n - l. d - b, d - c e {1,-1}, m6u thu6n v6i gi6 thitlt
Chtimg minh riing tin tqi vd sii cdc cdp s6 a, b, c ddi mQt ph6n bit. Tt d6 ta c6 cli6u ph6i
chimg minh.
nguyAn daong x, y sao cho xlPO) vd ylP(x).
Ldi gi,rti. nO tn6y it nhat cip (1, P(1)) th6a man
Bii torln 8. Cho da thac fu)ez(x) . Chilmg
minh rdng nu da thilrc Q@) : J@ + 12 c6 it
bdi to6n. Ta gii sir chi c6 hiru hpn c{p thoa m6n
nhiit 6 nghiQm nguyAn phdn biQt thi JU) kh6ng
dC bdi. Khi d6 chgn trong tl6 mQt cflp ft, y) md. c6 nghiQm nguyAn
y ld s6 lcm nh6t. Ta sE chirng minh ntSu c6 cflp Ldi gidi. Gi6 sir Q@) c6 6 nghiQm xt, x2 ,...,
s6 nguyn ducrng (x, y) sao cho xlP(y) vd ylP(x) xe Z suy ra Q@):JU) + 12

- (I y, vP(v))I cfrng th6a mdn tinh chet d6,


thi cip
: (x - x1)(x - x2)...(x - xu).g(x) v6i g:(x) eZlxl.
\JI \/ Gi6 sir t6n tai xs Zmdfixs):0 ta suy ra :

aQ2;r1yr 12 : Q@) : (xo- xrXxo- xz)...@o- xo) . g(xo)


nghiald
" taco: yf
'' r[401] 16o
x ' ta + 12: l*,-r,l lro -rrl ...lro *rul ls(ro)1.
\ x )' -

di6u hi6n nhiOn). Thflt vfly tu gin thi6t at : ark


Do re-x1, x0_ x2,...:q0_ xsld c6c s5 nguyen <l6i
mQt kh6c nhau nOn trong c6c s6

\ x ) -rP(v))''[-l)
ta c6: P(,IO2) lro -x,l,...,lro -rul kh6ng th6 c6 3 so trd lcn
\, )'[P6)J bing nhau, suy ra
lro -r,llxo -xrl...lxo -rul) 12.22.32 =24 ,
Po) hon
= *,r((x)' l=1r1ry1,."t'=+.)
\r0)/
/\
tv\
nta ls(xo)l> 1= vd ly.
= ,[ Y) = r (x): o(mod Y)
,Ur.,},mod
Bii to{n 9. Cho JV) ld mQt da thtbc bQc 5 vdi
hQ sri nguyAn, nhQn gid tri 2015 vd'i 4 gid.tri
(doP@) =1(mody)). nguyAn khdc nhau cila bin x. Chrng minh rdng
Mat kh6c do xl Pb),n6n (x, y): t vi n6u ngusc phuong trinh flx) :
2046 kh6ng th co nghiQm
lai (x, y) : d > 1 thi r(y)= 1 (mod d), vd ly. nguyAn.
Ldi gi,rti. Theo gi6 thii5t phuong trinh J@ -
Suy ra Hon nfta y>x
' \.x)
"f4g)=o(mody). 2Ol5 0 c6 it *6t + nghiQm nguy0n. Ta c6
^ P(v) y2 /(") - 2015 : (x- ,,)( x- x2)(x * x:Xx - xq).g@)
xx v6i x1 < xz l xt < .x+ vh g(x) ld m6t tla thric vdi
;,^
hQ so nguyen. GiA sir t6n tpi s6 nguy6n rs sao
tdn tai v6 s6 c[p sti nguy6n ducrng x, y thba mdn
dc bei. choflxs) :2046 thl:
didru then ch6t h bi6t
Ldi binh. Ddy ld bdi to6n kh6, 3l : (xo- x1)@s - x2)(xs- x3xxe - x4).g(xg),
sir dgng phuong ph6p clrc hpn, ph6i hqp vdi ph6p
v6i rs - xt) xo - xz; x0 xt ) xo - xa, Yd c6c sd
to6n <ldng du trong qu5 trinh chimg minh phdn '-.:.A^
chrmg dd tim ra loi girii. ndy ddu ld so nguyn. Vi 31 ld sd nguy6n td

L TORN
14 -cludi@
HgC

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


n6n: 31 :31.1 : (-1).1.(-31) Vi ls(O)l=1 ndn la1a2...a1,l:1 (*)
: (-1).(-31) : 31.(-1).(-1).
Do g(a;) : 0 nn Jla):0 v6i moi i:1,...,k.
Do d6 31 kh6ng thd phdn tich thdnh tich cin 4 Tri cl6 ta c6: all-t(a,+ 5) : -3.
s0 nguyOn kh6c nhau. Di6u ndy chimg t6 ring Nhdn c6c tling thr?c tr6n lai vd kilt hqp v6i (*)
phucrng trinhflx) :2046 kh6ng th6 c6 nghiQm ta dugc: l(a1 + 5)(a2 + 5) . . .(ap+ 5)l : 31 1x x)
nguyOn. Mit kh6c ta c6:
Ldi binh. C6c bdi toin 7, 8, 9 cirng m6t th6 loai. lg(-s)l :l@r+ 5)(a2+ 5)...(ap+ 5)l
Pfuong ph6p chung il6 gi6i o ddy ld chimg minh vn 3 :l-s) : g(-s)ft(-s) ncn
bdng phin chimg. Sit dqng tinh chdt nghi6m, tinh
,t ;. i i l(a1 + 5)(a2 + 5)...(a1, + 5)l bing t ho[c bing 3.
^ to,
ch6t s6 nguy6n s6 nguy6n, ph6i hqp v6i tlinh lf Di6u ndy mAu thu6n v6i (**) vl k> 1. Tt d6
Bezout.
suy ra dpcm.
Blri to6n 10. Chilmg minh riing da ththc
P(r): (r-1)(x -2)...(* -201s) - 1 Bii to6n 12 (VMO 2013-20t4). Cho da thac
P(x) : ( - 7x + 6)2' + 13, ne N..Chbng
biit khd quy trn Zlx), "'
minh riing P(x) kh6ng th phdn tich thdnh tich
Ldi gidi. Gi6 sir da thric P(x) khdng Uat nra
cila n + I da thuc khdc hting s,i vdi h sti
quy, suy ra P(x): F(x).G(;r) trong tl6 F(x) vd
nguyAn.
G(x) le circ dathric bQc nguy6n ducmg v6i hQ s6 Ldi gidi. n5 thay deg P(r) : 4n vdP(.x) khdng
nguy0n. Kh6ng gi6m t6ng qrilt giir su c5c hQ sO c6 nghiCm thuc. Tam thirc xz - 7x + 6 c6 hai
bfc cao nh6t cira F(x) vd G(r) bing 1. nghiQm li 1 vd 6;vi 13 ld s0 nguy6n t6.
Videg P(x):2015n6ndegG(x) < 2014. Gi6 su P(*): Pk)...Pn*r(x), thi P;(x) c6 b{c
Ta c6: ch8n. Vi t6ng c5c bfc cira cbc Pi(x) Ld 4n n}n
-i : F(x)G(x).
, i. ^ -
P(x): (x -1)(-r- 2)...(x-20t5) phdi c6 it nhAt 2 da thfic c6 b{c ld 2 gii su ld
Do F(k).G(k): -1 hay F(k): - G(k): t 1,
<16 P1(x) vd P2(x). Do hQ s5 cao nh6t cira P(x) ld 1
Vk,l<k<20l5.Suy ra F(fr) + G(k) 0, n6n clflt Pr(x) : x2 + ax + b > O, Pdx): +
"' "":
+ d > 0 Vr. Ta c6 13 : Pr(l).Pr(l)...P,*r(l)
Vk,I< k <2015 . Ddt Q@) : F(x) + G(x) thi P{6).Pz$)...P*r(6). Tu d6 suy ra trong hai sd
des Q@) < 2014 vd Q(k) : 0Y k,l < k < 2015. Pr(l) c6 it nh6t m6t sti bing 1. Khdng
P1(1) vd
gi6m tong qudt gi6 su P1(1) : 1 suy ra a: -b .
,,.
Suy ra: Q@) = 0 hay F(x) : - G(x), Vx e IR..
Khi d6 P,(6) : 36 - 5b > 0 vd P{6) + 13, suy
Khi d6 c6c hQ sO tac cao nhAt cin F(x) vd G(x)
ra36 -5b: lhay b :7, a:-7 vdkhid6
cl5i nhau, m0u thu6n v6i gi6 thiCt 0 tr6n. Vfy ila
Pr(x) : x' -7x + 7 c6 nghiCm thuc , m6u thuin!
thr?c P(x) U5t mra quy tr}n Zfx).
Ldi binh. Ca 3 bdi to6n 10, 11, 12 vA da thric b6t
Biri toin ll (tMo-1s93). Chilmg minh riing da
Lh6 quy d5 n6u <ldu c6 chung m6t hu6ng gi6i ld:
thilrc flx) : xn + 5l-t + 3 vbi n eN. bh khd chimg minh bing ph6n chimg. Tuy nhi6n bdi to6n 10
quy ffAn Zlxl. thi d mric trung binh vd kinh tli6n, chi stl dUng tinh
Ldi gi,fii. OO th6y vbi n:2 thi flx): y2 + Jy -r ctrAt vC bflc cria da thirc ld cho k6t qu6. Bdi to6n I I d

f U6t nra quy tr6n Zlxl. vOi n ) 3, gii su mric d0 cao hon, ta d6 sir dung tinh ctr6t ve b6c cria
da thric, tinh ch6t cira st5 nguy6n t6, s6 nguy6n, k6t
J@: s@).h(x) v6i g(x), fr(x) thuQc Z[x] vit c6 hqp v6i dinh l)? Bezout. Bdi to6n 12 cing d mirc tlQ
b6c ) 1. Vi deg g + deg h: n> 3 n6n suy ra nhu bdi 11, tuy nhi6n tl6y ld bdi to6n m6i trong kj,
trong hai s6 deg g vd deg h co mQt sO > t. tr,tpt thi hqc sinh gi6i Qu6c gia ndm qua, gAy kh6ng it
iirrilcfQ): 3 ld s6 nguyCn td ndn ls(0ll= t ho{c kh6 khln cho nhi6u hgc sinh. Bdi to6n ndy c6 vdi
c6ch gi6i tuy nhi6n d6u chimg minh bing phuong
lrtol:l. Gie sir g(x) : *u + alxk-l +...1 ar, ph6p ph6n chimg ph6p phin chimg. C6ch gi6i tr6n
dAy dga vdo viQc khai th6c b6c cta da thfc, tinh ch6t
(fr > 1) va ls(o)l:1. Gei at, a2,..., aL ld" cdc
nghiQm ctng tinh ch6t cira s6 nguydn tii.
nghiQm cira g(x) ta c6:
D6 luyQn tfp phin ndy c6c bpn hdy ldm mQt sd
g(x) (x ar)(x: - - or)...(* - ou).
bdi tpp sau: (Xem fiAp fiung 26\

T?8I#EE
=,,
nr.,.-rorr, 15
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
- -lr cAc IqIp THPT
fl{ B*i'fb/456. Giai hC phuong trinh

#i4 fx+v+z=3
lx2y+y2z+z2x=4
ff{; t^
|.*'*]' + z2 =5
$M\,, TR.AN QUOC LUAT
(GY THPT chcryAn Hd TInh)
Bei T71456" Cho hinh ch6p SABCD c6 d6y
cac r,op TI{CS ABCD le hinh chir nh4t, Sl vu6ng g6c v6i mflt
phang @BCD). Goi G ld trong t6m tam giSc
Bli Ti1455 il,rirp 6')" Tim t5t ci c6c b0 sd ,SBC vd kho6ng c6ch tu G d6n mpt phing (SBD)
nguyOn t5 sao cho tich cria chimg bing 10 Dn ln d. Ddt SB : a, BD : b, SD : c. Chimg minh
t6ng cira chring. ring: a? +b2 +c2 >-162d2.
TRIIONG QUANG AN lt eua,Nc nAo
(GV THPT chuyn Huinh Mdn Eqt, Kin Giang)
(GV THCS Ngh\a Thdng, Qudng Ngdi)
Bdri T8/,455. Chimg minh ring phuong trinh
Eni I"21456 (Lop 7). Cho tam gi6c ABC cdn tai
11
Ac6 BAC =800.C6cdi6mD, Etheothf t.u
(x+1)'*t =1;
thuQc c6c cqnh tsC, C4 sao cho : c6 nghiOm duy nh5t.
NGUYfN vAN xA
BAD = ABE = 300. Tinh sO ilo BED.
(GV THPT YAn Phong 2, Yn Phong, Bdc Ninh)
NGUYEN MINH HA
(GV THPT chuyAn EHSP Hd NQi) TIdN TOI oI,YMPIC TOAN
BAi T31456. Gi6i phuong trinh BAi T9/456. Cho a,ar,...,ar, ldc6c s5 nguyn
l_ I _R( | _ 1 ) duong th6a m6n:
Jx J2x-t -"-( J6x1' J9x4 )
'
a) at<a, 1...1ary
LAI THI HOA b) Vdi m6i sO nguy6n duong k, k: 1,..., 15,
(GV THPT L Quj,D6n, Thdi Binh) n6u ki hiQu b.li udc sO tcrn nhSt cria ao sao cho
Bei T4/4S{i" Cho hinh vudng ABCD cqnh a. bo 1an,th\ bt > b2> ...) br,
TrOn c4nh AB, BC l6n luqt l6y cbc dim M, N
Chimg minh ring a,r>2015.
sao cho MDN = 450. Tim vi tri cua M, N de d0 TRi,N NGQC THtur\rG
ddi tlopn thing MN ngin nh6t. {GV THFT chry,,6n l/inh Philc)
uilr vAN cHr BSi 'f lEi456. Cho rla thric
(GV THCS LA Lqi, TP. Quy Nhon, Binh Dinh) +3x2 +6x+1975.
lQ)=x3
Eei Tg1456. Tim c6c s6 nguydn duong x, y thoh Hdi trong dopn cd tAr cA bao nhi0u s6
[1;3201s ]
mdn'. xa +yz +l3y+lS(y-2)x2 +8;.1.
nguyn a sao cho./(a) chia h6t cho 3r0rs ?
NUT UAI QUANG TRAN xUAN DANG
(GV TNCS Ydn Lang, Vit Tri, Phri Thp) (GV THPT chuyAn LO H6ng Phong:, Nam Dlnh)

* -- TOHN F.IQC
t cfu66q_9eggq
I6 -zotl) _
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
Bir; "il 456. Tim t6t cd chc hdm clcrn 6nh
n 1i [*ai g,lil4$tl" Thi nghiQm giao thoa s6ng trdn
/: IR -+ R. th6a mdn mdt nu6c vdi hai nguOn dao <lQng t?i Sr vd Sz:

f(x')+ f(y') = ("+y)[/o(x)- fr(x)f(y) ttr: uz: acoso/. Coi ning lugng truyn s6ng
kh6ng dOi, bu6c s6ng tlo duoc l" :4 cm,SrSz :
+f'(x)f'(y)-f (x)f3 (y) + /*0)] 8 cm. Di6m M trn m{t nu6c thuQc dudng cong
v6i mqi 'r'Y e R cyc d4i kC tu ducrng trung tryc cira,SlS2, M dao
KIru oixu M,NH cl6ng c6 phucmg tr\nh uy :
(GV THPT chuyn Hilng Yaong, Phti Thp)
2acos(at -*).
'2

"E'nlii'4iifl.
}*:ii Cho tam gi6c ABC virdidm M Di6m M' nim tr0n dudng trung tryc Sr,Sz vd
nim trong tam gi6c kh6ng trung v6i trgng t6m dao clQng t1i ctng pha voi M. Di6m M giln
M
G. N6i AM, BM, CMldnluqt cit BC, CA,AB Sr nh6t. Tinh khoing crlch tu M dtSn M nhb
t1i A,r,Bu,C'. Ke A0A1 llCA, AoA2llABvoi nh6t.
A,,d thu6c BuCo . Tucrng tg, ta c6 8,82, r,t rAN nr
Ct,C2. Goi G,,G, lAn lucrt ld trong t6m tam (GV TIIPT Hu)nh Thuc Khdc, TP. Ui Chi Uinnl
gi6c A,B.C' A2BzCz. Chimg minh rdng $;.]i Lli'$56. Cho mpch diQn nhu hinh b0n. Bi6t
a) ArB,ll Bp,llCi2. Rr :Rz :.R: : 1 () ; Rs :
3 O i /i+ : 2 Q.Tirn
b) MG di qua trung cliiim cua G,Gr. rliqn tr& tuong iluong cua dopn mqchAB.

PHAN VAN NAM


DINH THAT QUVNH
(.GV THPT chuyn DHSP LId iVQi) (Hd N1i)

pffi&ffi&ffiffiffi &ffi ffiffi Kffiffiwffi


F.$R. $EiC GI BAK V SC M{.}CIL
-N andy such that

Froirlem'i'$1456 1$'or 6tr'gr*rle)" Find all finite x4 +y2 +13y+ 1"'-(y-Z)x2 +8.ry.
sets of primes such that for each set, the product FOR IIf G t.} 5CX-I{ }{-}{,
of its elements is l0 times the sum of its
Protrriern'f 61,1.56. Solve the following systern
elements.
of equations
Prrrlrle&! 'X214*6 (F or T'i' gradc). Let ABC be r
an isosceles triangle with the vertex angle lx+y+z=3
6ii l*'y* y2z+z2x=4.
=800. Choose D and E on the sicles BC l,-
and CA respectively such that l*'*y'tz2 =5
6iD=GE=300. Find theangte 6Ei. Frohelemr T7i;$${r. Given a quadrilateral
pyramid S.ABCD with the following
:'r'riirl;rn 'gJ1456. Solve the equatiorr
properties: the base ABCD is a rectangle anrl SA
rr-(r
' -'-[J6r-t '
r)
- -/\
I _r__ ___ !
is perpendiculal to the plane (ABCD). Suppose
\ti Jzx-t
-r_ ien-T) that G is the centroid of the triangle ^!BC and let
dbe the distance from G to the plane (SBD).
Frolrleru '84i45#. Let ABCD be a square and
Let SB : a. BD: b. and SD: c. Prove that
let abe the length each side. On the sides lB
a2 +ltz +c2 ) l62ct2 .
and BC, choose M and N respectively such that 'l'1t1"[56.
Ilrohicm Prove that the following
frnN = 450. Find the positions of Mand l/ so 1l
that the length MN is minimal. equation: (x + 1)'*t = xi has a unique solution.

Froi:leru 'l'51456. Find all positive integers x tXr:rrc tiitt trwng 2l)

T0ffiru Hsfl * *
Sti ase (6-2015) q /
-:gfrffiffie
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
(c.g.c), suy ra AM: BP (l) vd AM ll BP. Mdt
kh6c theo c6ch dlmg vd giri thi6t ta c6 Ol/ ld
.| trung tryc cua MP, nln MN : PN (2).
6rnx
tsKX
xY rnuoc

Bii T1/452. Cho -r, y ld t'oc s6 tu nhiAn khdc'0, ret irqp (1) vd (2) ta c6
tirrt giti tri trhtt tthit ,rtrt hieu thirc.4 - 36' - 5' '. AM + BN = BP + BN > NP = MN. YQ'y 1u6n c6
Ldi gidi. n6 tnay ring 36' lu6n c6 cht s6 tQn AM + BN > MN. DAu bing xity ru khi N, B, P
cung bAng 6, cdn 5/ lu6n c6 cht s6 tdn ctng th[ng hdng (B nim gita N vd P), tuc ld khi
bing 5, do d6 nr5u 36* > 5v thi 36' - 5/ c6 chft AM II BN. J
s6 tfln cirng bing 1, n6u 36' < 5v thi 5r - 36' c6 YNhQn xit.
Day ld bdi to6n d5, mQt s6 bpn sri dung
chir so tin cung bdng 9. Vdi x : I, ! : 2 thi A
i .^ . , J
tinh ch5t cua duong trung binh trong tam gi6c nhrmg
:36 - 52: 11. Ta chi cdn xdt xem A c6 th6 6y kh6ng chimg minh. C6c bpn s.au c6 ldi gi6i t6t:
NghQ An: Nguydn Dinh Tuiin,7C, THPT L)t Nhat
grhtrib[ng t ho{c t hay khdng.
. Gi6 sir co 36* - 5v : t hay 36' - I : 5v thi v6 Quang, Dd Lucrng; Quing Ngfli: Zd Thdnh Hy,7A,
THCS Hanh Trung; Nguyn Thi Kiu Mdn, 78,
trdi chiahrit cho 36 - 1 : 35 : 5.7 n6n chia h6t THPT Nguy6n Kim Yang; Bili Thi LA Giang,7C,
cho 7, trong khi vti ph6i 5r kh6ng chia h6t cho D6 fhi Mi Lan, Nguyn LA Hodng DuyAn, 74,
7, do d6 khdng t6n tai c6c s6 r, y nhu th6. THCS Ph4m V5n D6ng, Nghia Hdnh; Hu)nh Dqng
. Gi6 su c6 5/ - 3:9 hay 3 + 9 : 5Y thi v6 DiQu Huyn, 7C, VA Thi.H6ng Kiu, 7A, THCS
Nghia M!, Tu Nghia; CAn Thtr: Nguyn Hodng
tr6i chia h6t cho 3, trong khi v6 phbi 5v kh6ng Nhi,1A6, THCS Th6tN6t, Q. Th6tN6t.
chia h5t cho 3, do d6 kh6ng tdn tai cic s6 x, y NGUYEN XUAN BINH
nhu th6. BitiT3l452. Giai hC bdt phtrong trinh
VQy giltri nh6 nh6t cira bi6u thfc A ld fl. A f 1 frl,...,.+\j
I.l I <(.r+y)r (l)
l-v..
1--
.
YNhQn xdt. MQt vdi b4n kh6ng x6t trudng hqp
5! 36". C6c bpn sau c6 ldi giii tltng: Vinh Phtic:
- IJt-t.r*r')r =l-.r' \21
Nguy1n Th! Ngpc Mai,6A4, THCS Y6n Lpc; Qu.ang Loi gidi.DK: lx+yl< 1 vd x < 1.
Ngfli:-Zd Tudn KiQt,6A, THCS Ph4m VIn D6ng,
|tlguyn Hodng Kim.Anh, 6A, THCS }Iirnh Trung, Ta xdt hai trudng hqp:
Nghia Hdnh; TP. CAn Tha: NguyAn Hodng Octnh, o Voi .t + ) :0, thay vdo (2) ta dugc x: 0, suy ra
6A7' THCS ThotN6t' y:0. Cap s6 (*, y):
(0, 0) th6a m6n (1) n6n ld
HAI
'IET
BdiTZl452. Goi O li trung tlieim ctru tloatr rhdng
nghiQm cira hQ b6t phucrng trinh.

AB. TrAn mdt ru,ra mdt phdng bd AB, vi hai tia


o voi -r*) r 0, thi lr*yl ,0. Ta c6:
r
Or, Wo vtt6ng goc vo'i nhau. Trtn Ox, Oy ldn luot
x' - -ry t y' :4tx + l)'.,+ 3. - l)').,
tatt hai ditn M, I'l kh6ng trirng vo'i O. Chimg |(x
minh rcing: AM + BN > MN .
.)tr+y)2
4'
>0
Ldi gi,rti. TrCn tia d6i cta tia Ox 16y di6m P sao
cho OP : OM. X6t hai tam gi6c OAM vd OBP,
)2,[x'-xy+y'>lr*yl
c6 OA : OB (gt), OM : CP (c6ch dlmg), * (x+y)2 t lr*yl (theo (1))
AOM = BOP (ddi dinh), do d6 LOAM = LOBP
= lr+yl(lr+yl-1)
>o
= lr+yl > t.
-^
l8';4i,iiEry
TOAN HOC

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


f6t hqp v6i DK suy ra Slty TaAIDE ld hinh thang cin, ddn t6i
l;r+yl= 1
AE: rD: MD (4)
= x *y: t ho[c x + !: -1. Thay vdo (2) ta Tt (3) vd (a) suy ra ADME ld hinh binh hdnh.
tim dugc (x,y): (1, 0) ho[c (*,y): (1, -2), cl6u
Do cl6 A, N, Mthdng hdng. tr
kh6ng th6a mdn (1).
YNhQn xdr M$ sO ba, ngQ nh{n khi kt5t lufn viQc
Vfly h0 b6t phuong trinh c6 nghiQm duy nh6t
chimg minh ME ll AB vd chimg nxtu MD ll AC ld
(x;y): (0;0). tr tuong tir nhau _C6c bpn du6'i tldy c6 lcri gi6i t6t :
Y NhQn xit. Mqt s6 bpn ldm bdi thi6u thpn trqng Hi NQi: Nguyn Vdn Cao, Ngry? Thdnh Long, DSng
n6n dd xdt thi6u truong hqp ho4c kh6ng thr.rc hiQn Thanh Tilng,gB, THCS Nguy6n Thugng Hi6n, Ung
bu6c thir lai n6n kh6ng lo4i dugc nghiQm kh6ng Hod; Bic Ninh: Nguydn Thi Bich Hdng,9A,.THCS
th6a min. Cilc ban c6 loi giii dirng ld: NghQ An: YOn Phong, Y6n Phong; Phrfi Thg: Trdn Qu6c LQp,
Nguyn Dinh Tudn,7c, THCS Lti Nhat Quang, D6 8A3, THCS Ldm Thao; Vinh Phrflc: NguyOn Minh
Lucrng; Vinh Phric: Nguyn Minh Hiu,9D, THCS HiA,t,gD, Hodng Vdn Hidu,gE, THCS Vinh YOq TP.
Vinh Yn, TP. VTnh Y6n; Hii Duong: D6ng Xudn Hd Chi Minh: Nguydn Dinh Duy,9A6, THPT chuy6n
Ludn, 98, THCS H-qp Ti6n, Nam S6ch; Hi NQi: TranD4iNgtr'a
Nguydn Vdn Cao,gB, THCS Nguy6n Thugng Hi6n, NGUYEN THANH HoNG
Ung Hda. Bii T5/452. Tim .so ngtn'itr rn tli phtrttrrg trinh
NGUYEN ANH QUAN -rr +(ir+ l).r) -(2m-l)r-(2nt) +rr+4):0 (l )
Bili T41452. Cho tctm gidc ABC c:iin toti A, noi t'6 nghiAm ngul:1p.
ilAp dr.rc)ttg trt)n (O), AK ta tludng kinh, I ta
tliint bit ki trOn rtmg nhd AB (t khac.1, B). KI
Ldi gidi. Cach l. Ta c6
t'tit c'ttnh BC' toi llt. Dud'ng lrung lnrc cttu J,U,
(1) e x3 + (1n+l)x2 - (Zm-l)x -
(2m-l)m-(2m-1)-5=0
t'dt t:cit' cqnh AB, AC' thir try ttti I), E. i{ la tnng
cliint r'ila DE. C'hintg minh rdng ba cliem ..1, M,
o x2 (x + m + l) - (2m - l)(x + m a' 7) -5: 0
l,l thong hctng. e (x+m+l)(x2 -2m+ 1) = 5 (2)

Loi gi,rti. Do m, x ld cics6 nguy6n n0n x * m +l vd


A x' -2m +1 ld udc ctra 5.
Ta c6 5 : 1.5:(-1).(-5). NhQn thiy x + m +1 vit
f - Zm +1 phdi ta so le n6n r vd z ld s6 ch8n,
suy ra x' - 2m +l chia cho 4 du 1, nn x2- 2m + 1

bing t hodc 5. Do tl6 tu (2) xhy ra hai kh6


ndng:
{*+mll'=l lm=-x
'' < -2m+l =5 <>{
l) -
[*, ltx+t)2 =5 (*)
K Vi -rre Znn (x + l)2 le s6 chinh phuong, vi v6y
Gqi F ld giao tli6m cta DE vit BI. PT (*) kh6ng c6 nghiQm nguy6n.
Ti DE L MI (vl DE ld trung tryc cua lrfi) vit 2t
-'<lr+**l =5 I <)< ' lm=-x+4
AI L MI (do AK ld cluong kinh), sluy raAI ll DE. r' -2m+ 1=
f [(x+ li'z = 9 (**)
Tac6 IFE=180o-FIA=ACB:ABC (1) PT (**) c6 hai nghiCm nguy6n x : 2 vit x : - 4.
Met kh6c, do EF ld tmng tryc cria IMnn
Tucrng img m:2 vit m: 8.
tim dugc
VQy khi m:2ho{c m:8 th\ PT (1) c6 nghiQm
IFE = EFM (2)
nguyOn.
Tt (l) vd(2)tac6 DFM = DBM ,nnDFBM Cdch 2. Viet pr (1) thdnh d4ng PT b$chai dn m
,.,{
^. nep.
la tu glac nQl (coi x ld tham s6):
Suy ra 6fr8 =iFi:frE = MD tt AC (3) 2m2 -(x2 -2x -l)m-(x3 + x2 + x -4) = 0 (3)

- IAC : AED .
: Ta c6 A = (x2 -2x-1)2 +8(r3 + x2 + x -4)
lMdtI&6C IDE = EDM IBC =I80"

T?ll,.,HS
.e nr.,.-roru, 19
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
:(x2 +2x+3)2 -40.
= c(ab+1)>c(a+b) (1).
De PT (3) c6 nghiQm nguy6n thi A phni h sd Ding thr?c xhy rakhi c : 0 hoac a : I hodc b : l.
chinh phucrng.
+b+ca)'
Edt (x2 +2x+3)2 -40= ft'z (k e N) Laic6 (a+bc)'z +(t+ca)' r(a+bc (2).
e (xz +2x +3 + k)(x2 +2x +3 - k) = 40 (4)
Ap dung U6t Oing thirc Cauchy cho hai si5 khong
Do xe keNn6n i + 2x + 3 + kvdx2 + 2x +
Z, 6m, ta dugc
3 - klilu6c sii cria 40. Hon nfta, do
(i * u+ 3 + tr) - (i + 2x + 3 - k) : Zktd s6 (a+bc+b+ca)z
+(c + ab)'
chin, vi I + 2x + 3 + k> o, nen f + x + 3 + k 2

vd x2 + 2x + 3 - kld cbc si5 nguy6n du<rng chin.


> Jl.(a+bc +b+ ca\(c + ab)

Ta c6 40 : 10. 4 :20.2. Do d6 tu (4) x6y ra hai (a+bc+b+ca\' . + ab)'.a


khi ning: e \---Z--------!- +
lc

t) lx2 +2x+3+k=10 lk=3


otfr+l)z > J2.(a+ u)(c +t)(c + ab) f:1.
fx, +2x+3-k=4 =51r';
PT (*) kh6ng c6 nghiQm nguy6n n6n khdng xiy Tt (2), (3) suy ra
ra trulng hqp ndy.
(a + bc)' + (u + ca)' + (c + ab)'
- <(x2+2x+3+k=2O
.-5 I
lk=9
>$.(a+u)(c+t)(c+ab)
''
Zl
l*, +2x+3-k =Z -
l1x+ l)2 = 9 1**;
f+t
Ding thfc xity rakhi vi chi khi
PT 1*x) c6 hai nghiQm nguyOn x :2 vd x: - 4,
tuong img tim dugc m : 2 vd m : 8. J fa+bc = b+ ca
YNhQn xit. l) Bdi to6n thuQc d4ng giii phucrng \a+Ac+b+ca=J2.(c+aO)
trinh tim nghiQm nguy6n, n6n.viQc nh6n,xdt cdng
nhi6u tinh ch6t cira c6c thrla s6 nguy6n vC trSi cria e a+bc =b+ca=#
(2) hoac (4) thi xdt.cang it trudng hqp. Da s6 c6c ban
tham gia gi6i bdi du ldm theo hai c6ch tr6n. Ta chimg minh ring
2) Tuy6n duong cic b?n sau c6 loi gi6i t6t: (c +t)(c + ab)>(b+ c)(c + a) (s).
Hn NQi: Dfing Thanh Tilng, 98, THCS Nguy6n
Thuqng Hi6n, tlng Hoa; Phri Thgz Nguydn Thiry Thflt v{y (5) ec2 + abc + c + ab> bc + ab + cz + ac
Duong,7A3, THCS Ldm Thao; YinhPhic: Phqm eabc+c)bc+ac
Xudn Cudng,6A4, Bili Thi Lidu Duong,8A4, THCS
Y6n Lpc; Nguyn Minh Hiu,9D, THCS VTnh YOn;
e c(ab+I)>-c(a+b).
Thanh H6r: Efing Quang Anh,8A, THCS Nguy6n n6t ding thric thing, do (1). Tt (4), (5) suy ra
Chich, D6ng Scm; NghQ An: Thdi Bd Bdo,7C, Trin U6t Aang thric trong tlAu bdi tlugc chimg minh.
L HiQp, 8A, Nguyn Thai Hip,8C, Bili Thi Nhdt
Ding thr?c xhy rakhi vd chi khi
Linh, Einh Vit 74, 8D, THCS Li Nhat Quang;
Quflng Ngni: Nguyn L Hodng Duyn,8A, THCS [c=0
Phqm VEn Ddng, Ngh?a Hdnh.
I vd
c+ab (6)
a+bc=b+ca=T .-
la=l
PHAM THI BACH NGQC It =t
BitiT61452. Cho ba sO khdrrg dm a, b, c . Chimg
minh ring
(a + bc)' +(b + ca)' +lc + ab). vl
u)(t + c)(c + a).
Didu ndy kh6ng xity ra bc > 0
= a+I .

,- J1.(o + Tucrng Wc6 b*1.


Ldi gi,fii.O y ring trong ba s6 o - \ b * \ c - t
N6u c=o: (6)=a:b=o'=o[o= ?=9
1u6n c6 hai sd kh6ng trbidilt v6i nhau. JZ la=b=0
Gi6 su (a*t)(U-t)> o = ab+l> a+b Vpy dSng thric xdy ra khi vd chi khi

^^
20 ';4"3i@
TOAN HOC

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


a-b-c-O ho{c a=b=J1; c=0 vd chc AEll BH+OHLBH. GqiKligiaodi6mcira
hoSn vi tucrng img ctra chring. D BH voi tluong trdn (O) (f * n) thi Il ld trung
)Nh$n *(r:.??v to6n tuons d6i kh6. Hdu h6t dirim cria
Jdbdi ^BK. Tt ctdy, k6t hqp v6i AE ll BK ta
c6c ban gui bei v6 tda so4n ldm theo c6ch tr6n. Di6u + . . ,,Drrht
then ch5t cra bdi to6n rd gia sr (a-rXa-r)'; ; H::#rHX',fl;;ir$T# flHliffii}l')
suy ra b6t d5ng thirc (5). C6c bpn sau dAy c6 bdi gi6i
th6y tir gi6c EBFK ld tu gidc AiCu trOa. Do d6
t6t:
Hn NQi: Vfi Drbc Vdn, l0 Toiln l, THPT chuy6"
tjl, tuy6n.t4i B', K cila dudng trdn (o) vd EF
DHSr He N6i; vinh pni", iri"ia"'uii uiZr,'gi-, ddng quy (l). Ctng ti EBFKId tu gi6c rli6u hda
THCS Vinh YCn, TP. Vinh Y6n; HungYiln:,Nguydn . , KA BE KE BA ----. _.
iii" uri"i i;;;i" vit E*c, Duong H6r; iry:, tac6 urv=ffi= KF-= BC: "uv raABCKlitttr
10A9, THPT Duong Quing Hlim, Vdn Giang; BIc *.r
girlc tliu hda' do vfy ti6p tuy6n t4i B' K clfi;a
Ninh: rd Huy cuong,ll To6n, Turr cnuycn IIJ
Ninh; Thanh H6a: Efing euang ern, gA,, iHCi ducrng trdn (O) vd AC d6ng quy (2). Tt (1), (2)
Nguy6n Chich, D6ng Son; Hi finh: Nguydn Vdn vd gi6 thi$t G =EFaAC ta co GB ld tip
!d: ti,v:"Jryhg Nhat' ttrl' THPT chuYcn,Hd tuytin
--'J --- cua
- rluong trdn (o) (dpcm). D
Tinh; Binh Dinhz Trdn Vdn ThiAn, 10 To6n, THPT
chuy6n LC Quf D6n, TP. Quy Nhcrn; Quflng Binh: YNhQn xit. S6loi gi6i gui ve toa sopn kh6 nhi6u
Hodng Thanh ViQt,.ll To6n, THPT chuy6n V6 theoc6chu6ng: Sridungtinh:Ptclia-hiqi6:qieu
NguyEn Gi6p, TP. D6ng Hdi; Long An: Nguydn LQc hda, hdng.dii5m -. chtm tli6u hda, tinh chAt duong
pi,ii, plrq* Qudc Thdig,l0T1, THPT chuy6n Long tt6i trung ho{c bi6n ddi g6c, ... Xin n6u t6n nhirng
An. b4n c61<ri gi6i ggn hcrn c6:
NGUYEN ANH D TNG Hn NQi: Hodng LA NhQt Titng, 11 ToSn 2, THPT
chuy6n KHTN, DHQG Hd NQi, Vil Dtic Vdn, 10
BiliT71452. Cho tam gidc ABC cdn tai A, n6i To6n 1, Phgm Nggc Khdnh, l0 Toan 2,_THPT
ti6p &.rdng trdn (O). D ld trung didm AB, tia chuyCn EHSP He NQi; Phri Thgz Nguyn Dric
CD cdt drdng trdn (O) tqi E. Kd CF // AE vdi F ThuQn, l0 To6n, THPT chuy6n Hing Vuong; Vinh
thu6c (O), tia EF ch AC qi G. Chtrng minh Phircz Hodng Vdn Hiu,gE, THCS Vinh Y6n, Dd
Vdn Quyt, Hd Hftu Linh,l0Al, THPT chuydn Vinh
rdng BG ld tip tuyn cua dadng trdn (O).
Phirc; BIc Ninhz NguyAn Vdn Tdm,10 To5n, THPT
Loi gidi. chuyCn Bic Ninh; Hii Duong: Hd Minh Hodng, L0
Torlrr, THPT chuy6n Nguy6n TrSi; Hung YCn: TriQu
Ninh Ngdn,10A9, THPT Duong Qudng Hdm; Thii
Blnhz Trdn Quang Minh,l0Al, THPT D6ng Thpy
Anh, Th6i Thlry; Thanh H6a: Vfi Duy Mqnh,l0T,
THPT chuy6n Lam Son; NghQ An: Nguyn H6ng
Qu6c Khanh, 10A1, THPT chuy6n Phan B6i Chdu,
TP. Vinh, Nguydn Philng Thdi Crdng,l0Al, THPT
Th6i Hoa, TX. Th6i Hoa; Hdr Tinh: Phan NhQt Duy,
NS"yAn Quang Dilng, l0 To6n 1, Nguydn Vdn Thi|,
LA Vdn Trudng Nhqt,I/d Duy Khanh,llTl, THPT
chuy6n Hd finh; Quing Blnhz Trdn Nam Quang
Trung,l l To6n, THPT chuy6n V6 Nguyn Gi6p; Dn
G Ning: L!, Phudc C6ng, Trin Nhdn Trung,.10A2,
THPT chuy6n LC Quf Edn; Binh Dinh: Trdn Vdn
Gqi H ld giao tlitim ctra AF vd CE. Ta thi'y ThiAn, 10 To6n, THPT chuy6n LC Quf D6n; Kon
AEFC ld hinh thang c6n, suy ra ba dim O, H, Tum: Nguydn Hodng Lan, llAl, THPT chuy6n
G thdng hing vd OG L AE. Nguy6n Tdt Thinh; Long An: Phqm Qudc Thdng,
10T1, THPT chuy6n Long An; CAn Tho: Nguydn
M[t khSc AB : AC: EF, nn BE ll AF. Tn d6 Trdn H{bu Thinh, l0Al, Trin Minh Nghia, 1141,
MDE = LADH (g.c.g) BE = AH, d6n d6n THPT chuy6n L;f Ty Trgng; Ddng Nai: Cao Dinh
= Huy,ll To6n, THPT chuy6n Lucrng Th6 Vinh; TP.
tft gi6c BEAHId hinh binh hinh, suy ra
HO Chi Minh: Nguyn Dinh Duy, 9,{6, THPT

or rr.,.-roru,
T?3I#S
21
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
chuyOn TrAn Epi Nghia; Ci Mau: Trin Xudn Sdc, t4
10 Todn l, THPT chuy6n Phan Ng-oc Hi6n.
HO QUANG VINH
D6u bing xby rakhi a=b=
T rhc (2) vd (3)
vio f'(x)>4-2O hay
(1), ta thu duoc
Bii T8/452. II[i1' xtit' ciinh giit tri nhd nhat c't)a
fQ)>-Ji-iE. Ki5t ludn: min.f(;r) =J41O
hittn s6 ,f (.r) :
-: so cric bqn)
,(rn -,-+ ta, "r + Jcos -r + crltr .

d4t ilugc 14ri


, a.hay
q=b=1, sin.r =msl
o
Loi gioi. (Theo da z 2'
Di6u kiQn dd cdc bitfu thtc ciaflx) c6 nghia ld
sinx, cosx kh5c 0 vd ctng d6u. Nh6n x6t ring nrc ld x =!!4 *21rn. k eZ. tl
khi sinx, cosx kh6c 0 vd cirng d6u thi DNhQn xit.Da s6 c6c b4n chi x6t trudng hgp
f (x) =fian x(1 + cos r) + Jcot.xtt + sinxl sinn > 0, cosx > 0 n6n chi nhQn dugc d5p s6

>
Jlt*E(l -F;4 + J[*t {n j.i-,]i. min/(x) =J4iJT.
Cdcbal sau d6y c6 loi gi6i clung.
Viftr) ld hdm tuAn hodn chu kj, 2t kh6ng m6t Vinh Phrfic: Od fan Quyt, 10A1, THPT chuyOn
tinh t6ng qu5t, <16 tim gi6 tri nh6 nh6t cira hdm VInh Phric; Hung YGn: Vfi Minh Thdnh, llTl,
! . ( :n)
sd ta x6t x el t| j. Eat sinx : - a, cosx: - b THPT chuy6n Hrmg Ydn; Nam Dinh: Dodn Thi
\ o) Nhdi, l0Tl, THPT chuy6n L H6ng Phong, Th6i
* b: m thi a,b e (0,1) vd 1< m<$ Oau
vd a Binh: Trdn Quang Minh,l0Al, THPT D6ng Tlrty
Anh, Th6i Thuy; Hi frnh: LA Vdn Trudng NhQt,
1J " rr. a=D=
DangxayraKnl ,.-"rZ,^,,.--5n
nay x=
.r
laco I lT1, THPT chuy6n Hd Tinh; Quing Binh: Hodng
2 4. Thanh Vit, llT, THPT chuy6n Vd Nguy6n Gi5p;
/(,)= Binh D!nh: Trdn Vdn ThiAn, I I To6n, THPT
w-q.E(,-,). chuy6n LC Quli D6n; S6c Tring: Vaong Hodi
1
Thanh, 11T2, THPT chuy6n Nguy6n Thi Minh
f'- tx) =,-l-
at)
- <a + b) +2,!t + ab - A + b1 Khai; B6n Trez Trdn Thanh Ducrng, 10T, THPT

- I, -(a+b\+2l1la+b-r)2
-ti- chuy6n B6n Tre.
NGUYEN VAN MAU
1

=J;-\a+b)+Jl@+b-t) Bii "t91452. TrOn ntat phang tQa dO Ox1t, a61


al) tap ho'p M c'ac dirn c6 t()a d0 $; 1t) v6'i
.)
=-4,*(e-r)m-A ,r..)'e N'' r'd .r ( 12,-v ( 12. Moi dirn trong lll
m, _I \
fo dvo'c: lo bo'i mot lrong ba mdu'. ntdu dr), mdu
=l -2*(2"D
lm'-l '
-2)tm+tt trcing hoat' mdu ranh. Chu'ng minh rdng tort ttti
mot hinh c'hti' nhdt co cac' c'anh song ,song vo'i
+(zO +z)@-rt]-(:JZ +r)m++-nD rg. cdc lruc tr2o dQ mit tdt c'a cac' dinh c'tia n6 thuoc
Ap dr,rng U6t Oing thric Cauchy cho ba s6 tro.rg M vd dtrct'c 16 cilng mdu.
m6c vudng, ta dugc Ldi gidi. M gdm 12 x 12: 144 dii5m vd tlugc
I .).
t6 b6i ba miru nen tdn tpi it nhAt 48 di6m tluoc
-4,
m'-1
+(zl1-2)trz+ l)+( zJi +z\ m -tt
t6 ctng mdu, ching han mdu tl6. Chgn 48 di6m
*t;l't i\l2 -2) w + tt(zl1 +z) <,t -L) = g 121
clla M dugc td boi mdu do vd trong c6c di6m
ndy ki hiQu a, U sO dim t6 mdu il6 c6 hodnh
t;
D6u ding thuc xdy ra khi a = O = lf 12

I (, :
.
dO 1,.. .,12). Ta co la =48. 56 c[p
M{t kh5c, do 1< m< J, nn i=1

a,(a, -l)
-(:J7+ t\m+a-Jz > -(:J2+t) ,[1+a-JT di,3m mdu d6 c6 hodnh dq , ie C; _
2
= -2-2J2 (3)
Chiu c6c ili6m mdu tl6 l6n tryc tung thi m5i
- diem
c{p -.;. mdu tlo c6 hoinh d0 I sC thinh mQt

ZZ -crua@
^ ^ TORN HQC

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


clo4n thing [x, y] v6i ,r,ye N., x1l2,y<12. = x? - x; + xl - xl v6i x, =10.2065671,
Sti c6c dopn thing [.r,y] (x,y e N*.x <12. y <12)
x2= -10.2065671, x, = 4.206567t , x+ =-2065671.
YAy t:4 ld s6 nh6 nhet cAn tim. E
ld C?2 =66. T6ng s6 c6c c[p di6m mdu cl6 dugc
YNhQn xit. Bitito6n kh6 o ch6 cAn chi ra s1r t6n tai
c6c s6 nguyCn x1,x2,...,x. th6a mdn tling thtc (1).
chi6u rd =**,,' -+2,, =iL": -ro
Ze Chi c6 hai b4n tham gia gidi bdi ndy vd ddu c6 loi
/ t2 \) gi6i dring. T6n cria hai bpn ld: Hir NQi: Zfi Bd Sang,
lF" I
l1 To6n l, THPT chuy6n Nguy6n Hu6. HA finh:
finh
,t\A-'' ) _24=, .o&.t _r4=rr. NguyAn Vdn Th,11T1, THPT chuy6n I{d
-2 12 2 12 TRAN HIIU NAM
12 Bii 'tl 11452. C'ho u ld so ngtr.t'tn tltro'ng vu dcil'
Vi IC; >72>66 n6n t6n tpi hai cflp clopn
.t,i ( t ) rtic dinh bd'i .r,: I lr)
thing, mQt c[p c6 hodnh dQ i, mQt c{p c6 hodnh +2u+l
dO j Q <7) rluoc chiiiu 1n cirng m6t tlo4n thing

fk, tl trdn tryc tung. Khi d6 hinh cht nhat - l'\' --u1 +')ir + l' vri e \1"'
ABCD v6i A =(i,k), B =(i,D,C =(j,l), D --(.i,k)
Xac tlinh u de dd.v s, 1-r,,) t:o gkii lrun hfitr hun.
ddu duoc t6 mdu d6. tr
YNhQn xit.
Trong s6 c6c b4n tham gia giai bdi ndy Ldi girti. (Theo bqn Nguydn rui Uinn Phudc,
chi c6 mQt b4n gi6i kh6ng dirng. Cbcb4n sau dAy c6 11T1, THPT chuy6n QuOc Hqc Hu6).
loi gi6i t6t. Ta c6 x, = ^{4o a2 -.12, *r' -2o*, +2a +l> 0
Hn NQi: Vfi Ba Sang, 11 ToSn 1, THPT chuy6n
Nguy6n HuQ; Hung Ydn Vil Minh Thdnh,l I To6n 1, e I,l+a + z - Ji)' -2{JTi +2 - O) a + 2a + r> 0
THPT chuy6n Hrmg Y6n; Phri Thqz LA Bao Anh,10
To5n, TIIPT chuy6n Hr)ng Vuong. Vinh Phric: Dd e 4a+2-2J1.'f{a +z +Z
Vdn Quy\4 10T, THPT chuy6n Vinh Phirc; Nam -2a.[4a +2 +2Ji.a +2a+ 1 > 0
Dinh: Phqm H6ng Trudng, l0T, THPT chuy6n LC
Hdng Phong; Quing Tri: Nguydn Vdn Tu'dng,1lT, o F = 2a(J4a +z -z - "D)+ 4J2o 4-5 < 0.
THPT chuyCn L6 Quf D6n; Binh Dinhz Trdn Vdn 'N6u a>5 thi
Thin,l0 To6n, THPT chuy6n L6 Qujr D6n.
DANG HUNG THANG JAiA -3-J-2>Jn-z-J2 > 4,s-3-1,5 =o
vd 4J2a.+l *5> 4Jn -5 > 0. Suy ra F > 0.
Bni T10/452. Xtic tlinh si ngut'Ort duottg t nho
.N6u a =4, F = s(Jts-: -J1)++.{o -s
nhat .sao cho rin tai t so ngttl'An ,rr ,.r,,...,11
lhicundrt ; .rf -! + r] - ...+(-l)'*'-q :1)65:(i1-1 (l). =rco-17 >t6.1,4-17 >0.
.N6u a =3, F =a(Ju -z-Jl)++J1 -s
Ldi gidi. O6 th6y: ;3 = 0, +1 (mod 9), Yx eZ .

Mar khec: =zJ1(tJ1+z)-zz-60


20652011 : 42011 (mod g) :43.611+t (mod g) - 23 - 6.1,5
> 2.2, 6.(3.I, 4 + 2)

=4"64671(mod 9)= 4 (mod 9). =5,2"6,2-32=A,24>0.


Do d6 vbt t : l, 2, 3 <ldu khdng thoa min (1). Nhu vfly vti a e N*, d ) 3, x, kh6ng x6c dinh.
V6i r - 4, ta co: 2065 = 103 + 103 + 43 + 13 Xet ae {1,2}. Tac6
= 20652014 = (206567 )3 .2065
1
x2 -Zax+2aa1=(x-a)2 +Za+l-i >2a+l-a2 >0.
=(2065671)3.(103 +103 +43 +13) Ki hieu
= (10'2065671)3 + (10'2065671)3 f (x) = ^t7 + rax +2a + | - ^l-7 -rax + ra+ |
+ (4.2065a" y + (1.206561 |
)3 = "!(* + af +2a +l- a2 -.,!u - of +2a +l- a-

.
s6 456(6-2015)
TOflN HQC
& GTudiVil
..
Z5
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
Ta thdy ngay f (x) > 0 Vx e R* (1R.. lA tap hqp xwng cila A, qua AB, AC. A"ld trung di1m cua
tdt ch cdc sO thuc ducrng) vd AoA,.. Cac didm Bo, C, dactc xac dinh tLrong tl,t.
x+a nhu dim Ao. Ch*ng minh ring cac
f'(x)= diem
,l@+o)'+2n+l-az Ao,Bb,C, thdng hang.
x-a >0 V;elR*
r-------.-----' Lai girti.
,lQ-a)'+2a+l-a2
tl
,re IR* lir
V1
17 +r;+G .l*-__.._
2a +l- a2

hdm s6 tdng.
M[t kh6c Vx e ]R*

f (x) : ^{?;za:t + 2a + | -,1"? -2ax + 2a + |


4a;
,lx2 +Zax+2a+l+^lx2 *20ca2a+l '
1-=4a.
x
Hinh 1

Ta cAn c6 m6t bd de.


Ap dpng ta c6 xr=l<L.=^[4oa2-"12 @e{1,21),
g6 06. Cho hai bQ ba di0m thing hdng Ar, Az,
J@) li, hdm s6 ting (do f'(x)> 0 Vx e IR.* ), suy
ra f(xr) < f(xr) > x2 < x3 ... A3Yd.81, Bz, Bssao cho 4o' =14=fr. N6u Cr,
Nhuv{y 1:x, ( xzlxz<...<4a. 44
8,4
Cz, Cz theo thir tu ld trung <litim cria A1By, A282,
Tri d6 suy ra lx,li=, h day s6 c6 gi6i hpn hiru han.
K6t luan: C6 hai s6 nguydn ducrng th6a m5n bii Al83th\ Ct, Cz, Qthinghdng vd 9=n.
CrC.
to5nld aell,2l. t.
Phdp chimg minh b6 dO trn rat ocrn glan,
Chf 1f: DEt c = lim -x,. Ta c6
kh6ng trinh bdy 6 ddy.
oJTlz**zo+t-,[f Tro lai gi6i bdi toinTl2l452 (h.1,h.2).
f (r)=t -2or+2sq =, Goi As, Bo, Co theo thf tU ld hinh chi6u cira l,
4ac
-L
B, C trn BC, CA, AB; B', C' theo thir ql ld
,l c2 +! + rf c' -Zac +2a +l
+Zac +2a diem dOi ximg ctra B, C quaAC,AB.
e J7;2ot +2a +r +,[7 -zo, +zo +r : 4o Vi phdp dOi xung tryc b6o todn su thing hdng
12^[] a2oc a2" a1 = c + 4a * 3cz = l6a2 -8a - 4 ;. _ nen A^B A,B A^B'
^ ===!
/.----=- Va tl SO OOn =* =
= c - *tl4a- -2a-1. J AOC' A'C A,C
VJ A

YNhQn xit.Ddy ld bdi to6n gi6i hpn ddy s6 lp, hay.


Ngoii bpn Phudc, hai bpn hoc sinh sau cfrng c6 ldi
giii t6t:
Hi finh: L Vdn Trudng NhQt, Nguydn Vdn Th,
11T1, THPT chuy6n Hi TInh.
NGUYEN MINH DIIC
BdiTl2l452. Cho tam giac ABC. Dudng thdng
Hinh 2
A kh6ng di qua A, B, C cdt BC, CA, AB tha tw
Tri d6, 6p dsng bO eC tr6n cho hai bd ba cli6m
tqi At,Bt,Ct. Ab,A,theo thn tw ld dim diii Ab B, C' vd A", B' , C, chtr ;f ring A,, Bo, C6 theo
thir t.u ld trung di6m cta AtA,, BR', CC',

^ . ;*"3i[a se
24
TORN HOC
"'CI-"'o
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
o Bo ArB l6n trong 6rg) . Vi lgc k6o rj'lQ v6i dQ cao h
suy ra A, e BnCni
" LA,Co=+=.
ArC
cira cQt nu6c n6n luc k6o trung binh li:
T,o =01,P =*. uA, c6ng thgc hin <luoc khi
'o22"
Tuong W BueCoeo; W=4 ,a kdo cQt nu6c c6 chiu cao ft ld:
Bu1{ BrA D1

C, eAnBn;4=Y
A,
z =ld
' =!-.h 2' .S.h.h

c,Bo
c,B =
1

:-. 10000. 0,01 . l0' l0 = 5000 (J).


Z
Chf )i ringA6 Br Ct thing hdng vd theo dinh li
Khi pittdng d?t khdi cQt nudc thi lUc kdo ltc
Menelaus, ta c6
ndy cdn bdng v6i 6p lgc ctra khi quy6n t6c dpng
48" !{" 9e=48.!t-.2=r. l6n m{t tr6n cira pittdng. C6ng thgc hi6n trong
giai do4n ndy ld:
A,Co BbA\ C,Bo Ap BlA Cp
Tri tl6, lpi theo dinh li Menelaus, suy ra Au, Ba, 4 = po.S(H - h) = 105.0,01(15 - 10) = 5000 (J)
Vfy cong thgc hien tdng cdng ld:
C"thbnghing. O
A= 4+ 4.=5000+5000 = 10000 (J) = 10 (kJ) il
YNhQn xit.
Ddy ld bdi to6n hay nhrmg kh6ng kh6,
)NhQn xit C6c ban c6 loi gi6i dirng:
tuy nhi6n rdt itb4n tham gia gi6i, xin n6u t6n c6c
Quing Ninh: I/# Hodng Yn, LlA7, THPT U6ng
bpn c6 ldi gini dfng: Hi NQi: Hodng Anh Qudn, Bi; Thii Binh: l/96 Vdn Khoa, I lA2, THPT B[c
10T1, THPT chuy6n EHSP Ha N6i; Hrmg YGn: D6ng Quan, H. D6ng Hrmg; Bic Ninh: Nguydn Ddc
Dmtng H6ng Son, 10A9, THPT Ducrng Qu6ng Hdm, Nam,ll L)r, THPT chuy6n Bic Ninh.
Vdn Giang; Thanh IJo6: Vil Duy Mgnh,l0T, THPT NGUYEN XUAN QUANG
chuy6n Lam Son; CAn Tho: Nguydn Trdn Hibu
BitiL2l452. Cho doqn mqch diQn xoay chiiu
Thinh,l0Al, THPT chuy6n Lf Tp Trsng. gim din trd thudn R, cuQn cam thudn cd dQ ta
NGUYEN MINH HA cdm L va tq diQn c6 diQn dung C *ii" ndi ti6p.
Biti Lll452. M6t xylanh ddt thdng dtmg, ddu Trong d6.cdc dai lagng.(R, C. a\ kh6ng doi cdn
dadi" chim trongnrdc, ddu ftAn th6ng vcti khi L thay d6i duqc. Bit rdng khi L : Lr vd L : Lz
quy6, Trong xylanh c6 mQt pitting dfu nAm th! thiiy diQn ap giira hai ddu cu6n cdm thudn U
tuAn mfit nadc. Kdo chQm pittdng ln dQ cao du nhu nhau. Xdc dinh L theo Ll vd L2 d din
: 15m. Tim c6ng kdo pitt6ng. Cho diQn tich . -;
11 dp hai ddu cuQn cam dgt cqrc dgi.
pittdng ld S 1dm2, dp sudt khi quyn Ldi gi,rti. DiQn 6p gita hai diu cuQn cim thuAn
po: 105 Pa. Bo qua khiii lwong pitt6ng.
Ldi gi,rti. Ggi D, ld kh6i lugng ri6ng cira nu6c, Uy: IZl : (chia ci tu vir
P ld trqng lugng cira cQt nu6c trong 6ng khi k6o
pitt6ng tu ngang mit tho6ng cta nu6c ln tdi c16 mSucho Zy).Tac6:UL: ,=, y:' = -
cao liL H: 75m.
Khi k6o pittpng ln tr6n, do t6c dpng ctra 5p U
suSt khi quy6n nudc sE d6ng l6n trong 6ng theo
pittdng cho tdi khi 5p su6t do cQt nu6c gdy ra 6 )UL^*= .,;'
tai <liOm ngang m{t thoSng cdn bing v6i 5p khi
;. ., .
quy6n thi ngimg. Ta c6: po=pr (p,ld 6p su6t R2 +Z? 22..-1.
f,i f,:
do cQt nu6c gdy ra) 'ZiZc,,=.-
) po : d,,.h t = 1o (m) ,:
t= *ffi +
h= Ntiu dat thi hdm y co dpng tam thric b4c
'zz
YSy ta c6 th6 chi hirt dugc cQt nu6c c6 chidu hai y : ax2 + bx * c c6h9 s6 a : Rz + ZZ > 0
cao t6i da hbing I\m.
Do cQt nu6c tbng dAu ndn lyc k6o cfing tlng i _l-in khi -ro =-;.b Khi tl6:
ddu tu 0 d6n P (P ld trqng lugng cQt nudc ding

T?3I#S
te nr.,.-roro 25
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
R2 +ZA lirZ rzc - zZlrz rrzc + Z?(?z
=---=:+
Z,.2, Z;.Zs: R2 +Zf
: Zizzrzc -z12zLpc + Z?{?z
Khi Urr : Urz IlZy: I2Zp
U.2,,
o 7?fl1 - 2trZrz : 7?rz, - zZlzzu
^,lxz
+27 - 2ZrrZr+ z2r, e zr(zf1 - tr) = 2271272(zLr - zL2)
U.2,, o Zr(Zs + Z7) =2Zy1Zy2.
- 2ZrrZ, + Z2r,
e (J1^* *,, tC.+)=+=r=ffi a
2",
Rz +Zl. - 2Z,Zr. + Z2r, YNhQn xdt,}/rgt s6 ban c6 loi gi6i dring vi ch[t
chE:Bic Ninh: Nguydn Ddc Nam, 11 Lli, THPT
2", (2) chuy6n Bic Ninh; Nam D!nh: Phqm Ngsc Nam,
R2 +22, - zzr_2zc * Z'r, ll Ly, THPT chuy6n L6 H6ng Phong; Th6i
2", Binh: Ng6 Vdn Khoa, 11A2, THPT Bic E6ng
Thay (1) vdo (2)
= 2,.2" -2Zr.rZr+22r, Quan, huyQn E6ng Hrmg; Bic Giang: fti Thanh
Titng, Ng6 Tudn Hitng,12 A6, THPT Tdn Y6n Sfi
2", 1; NghQ An Hi Thanh Titng, Hodng Nghia
ZrZ, -LZL2Z,*Zr, Vuctng, 12 Cl, THPT Kim Li6n, Nam Dhn.

DrNH rHAr QUi'Xn

TINII CH/4T SO HQ{ ". lTiep !ltcr; lruqg t,:\ P,(x) = C] + Clx + Clx2 + ...+ C3k+2xk ,

tt^l I \P voi n ld mot so 1u nhi6n ,U r =l *)


l " Tim tAt cA cics6 nguyOn n LJ]
'+ ducrng m, saocho da
thric flx) : ,' - nJ *, - ni c6 t6t ch cic a) Chimg minh ring
,;.
ngnlem oeu nguyen. P *t@) : 3 P,*2(x) - + (x+ I )P,(x).
3 P
"*1@)
2. Cho da thfc Q@): x3 + l9x2 + 99x + a, aeZ. b) Tim tdt cit cdc srl t.u nhi6n a sao cho P,(a3) chia
Chrmg minh ring: V6i mqi s6 nguy6n t6p > 5, trong f,-tl
h6t cho 3'Tlvoi moi n>2.
c6c s6 nguy6n QQ), Q0), QQ),....,Q@ -1) kh6ng
8. Tim tdt ci cilc gi6 tri cira n sao cho da thirc:
th6 c6 hcrn 3 s6 chia hi5t chop.
3. X5c dinh c5c tla thfc P(r) c6 bpc nh6 nh6t v6i c6c
{ + 4 c6 th6 phdn tich thdnh tich cua hai da thirc
khSc hing s6 v6i hQ s6 nguy6n.
hQ s6 nguy6n kh6ng 6m sao cho v6i m6i s6 nguy6n
9. Cho p ld sO nguy6n t6. Chtng minh ring da thtc:
ducrng r th\ 4' + P(n) chia h6t cho 27 .
4. Cho pt, pz, pt,pa Id b6n s6 nguyOn t6 ph6n biQt. fr(r): f -t + f -2 +...+ x + I b6t khi quy trdn

Chrmg minh ring ktr6ng t6n t4i da thric Q@) bdc 3


zlx).
,,^
co ne so^ nguyen tnoa man: LOI KET
lQ(p,)l
: lQ(dl : 1Q(pt)l : I Q(p il : 3. Bdi todn hAn quan diin da thilrc v6 cilng phong phu
5. Cho n eZ*. Tim s6 tu nhin kb6 nhdt sao cho vd hiip ddn, ngodi bdn chtit sii hpc, da thuc cdn
t6n tpi da thirc dang P(x): xk + a,,xt-l + . ..*ar fi t mang bdn chiit hinh hqc vd dqi sii thudn tuy cila n6.
at eZlxlchia hi5t cho z v6i mgi x eZ. Stb dung tinh dctn diQu , gi6i hqn, dqo hdm vd di

6. Cho da thric P(r) : ax3 + bx2 * cx * d eZlxl thi... ta c6 th gidi quyt dugc nhiiu bdi todn vi da
trong d6 a, b, c, d eZ, a chia h6t cho 3, b chia h,5t thac. Tuy nhin trong phqm vi bdi ndy ta chi di theo
cho 3 vd c khdng chia h6t cho 3. Chimg minh ring mQt huong nhu dd trinh bdy, mong bgn dpc trao dtii.
,. i. t Xin chdn thimh cdm on GS.TSKH Phirng HO Hdi
voi mdi so tq nhien n 1u6n lu6n t6n tai s6 nguyCn a,
sao cho P(a,) chia h6t cho 3'. TS Trdn Htru Nam dd gdp y aA ni hodn chinh bdi
7. X6t da thric: vidt nay.

-/0- TOnN
- HQC
sli,ldiuc s6 456(q-2o15)

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


Pfr{}#LEM,$ .""lfiip r hea trang. 17} f (x')+ f (y') = (x+y)[,f o(x)- fr(x)f (y)
r-()1l', \RnS \t.\THEM \ |'!CAI + f' (x) f' (y) * f (x) f' (y) + /a g)] for
( }I,Y\,I PtrAt} alt x,ye R.
Prerbtrern l'ql4s$. Given positive integers Frohlern Tl2/456. Given a triangle ABC and
a1,a2,... t a15 satisffing: let G be its centroid. Clhoose a point M,which
a) ar < a, 1...1arr) is different from G, inside the triangle. Suppose
that AM, BM, and CM intersect BC, CA, and AB
b) for each k (k : 1 if we denote bn the
,.. . , 1 5), at ,4o,Bo,C, respectively. Choose A*A, on
largest divisor of ao such that bn<a* then BoCo such that AoA, ll CA and AoA2 ll AB.We
b, > b, > ... ) br, . Prove that ar, > 2015 .
choose four points Bt,B2, C,,C, similarly. Let
Pmlrlem 'f l$/456. Given the following G,G, be the centroids of the triangles AB.C*
polynomial f (x)= x3 +3x2 +6x +19:75 .
respectively. Prove that
4BrC,
In the interval [l;3,0,,], trow many are there a) A,B, ll BS2 ll Cl2.
integers a such thxfla) is divisible by 320ts ?
b) MG goes through the midpoint af GtG2.
Problem 'f l ll{56" Find all injections
Translated by NGUYEN PHU HOANG LAN
/:1R -+ IR. satisfizing :
(College oJ science-Vietnam Nation al Lln iversi ty, Hanoi)

{fi'{;.\{;D,1.\'{.;1,41 l}1. -S/lI { f iri1, 1111,,t !ttttt! ll\ Suy ra sO phAn ff cila A ld 4r.+2.31 =36. Do cl6
36
DNP = DA2 + AW=50 <+( r+3)' +.[f)' =so x6c sudt cin tinh le P: 300
=0.12.
('Su t 0. Ta c6 b4 + 16 > 8b2 . Suy ra
It=2 o u(- tf \ t a(- #\ :*-['
o( tP)
e6l0l +440,r-3320=0<)l t66 (I-oar).
* [' *
-y - -a.,J
I
u +16: 16[ *,u.,J
Lr=- O, .,i

Suy ra D(2:-4). tUonStUtaCo


. b b( l-- c2\l.
C6u 8. Dim A e A, n6n A(2 + t;2 + t;3 +
t'a+16 16[ 8)
2t).
*.-:c )-:ic(-l-->-l
a') Suyra
lor + ol
d(A.e))=r=. a(e,1r1)=6 <> t=2 aa+76- 16( 8)i.
ho{c r = -4.VAy A(4;4;7) hodc A(-2; -2; -5). A.+-*(ab2
16 128 +bc2 +ca2) (l)
Ciu 9 Sd c6c s6 thuQc M co 3 cht sd ld Khdng m6t tinh tdng quSt ta gi6 su b nim gita
A3 = 60. Sri c6c s6 thuQc M c6 4 cht s6 ld avdc. Khi d6 tac6 a(b-a)(b-c) < 0, hay
A! =120. Si5 c5c sti thuOc M c6 5 cht s6 ld ab2 +bcz +ca2 1a2b+bc2 +abc =b(az +c2 +ac)

A! = 120. Suy ra sd phAn ft cta Mlit 3b(a+c)2 =b(3-b)2.


Xdt hdm sO /(f) = b(3 - b)2 ,0 < b < 3 ta duoc
60+120+120=300.
Circ tltp con cira E c6 t6ng c6c phAn ttr bing 10 t
t2 32'
J'@)<l(1)= 4 (D.Tn(l)vd (2)taco -

gdm E, = {1,2,3,4}, E, = t2,3,5L 8, = {1,4,5} .


Khi a =0, b=!, c=2 taco d6u ding thfc xiy
Gqi,4 ld tAp con cin M md m6i s6 thudc,4 c6
5
tdng c6c cht s5 bing 10. Tir Er lflp cluqc s6 c6c
32
s6 thuQc Ald 4l tumSi tdp E, vd E l4p rluqc
PHANvA.{ rHAr
s5 c6c s6 thuQc Alit 3l (GV THPT chuyAn Phan B)i Chdu, Ngh An)

se nu. r.-,orur ZZ
--St##S
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
r- J7
4
Ta c6
r+ Jj
4

Ta c6:
Suyra:
sin2a -3
tanlo:-=-
' cos'Za J1'
(. 1 (1)
So sdnh k6t qu6, E6ng vit Xudn tlm mdi kh6ng
]srna+cosa=7 bi6t vi sao lpi c6 hai k6t qui kh6c nhau, sai d
l.z 2a=l. 2
a=l (2) d6u? R6t may bpn Thanh- c6y toSn cria 16p t6i
lsrn 4+Cos
cho loi gi6i.
(2) e <=) cosd = Y{
2cos' a-coso-1= 0"--""* . Ldi gidi cila Thanh:
4 4'
vi cosa < o nen =t-fr SSma-r-cosa
I Tu gi6 thi6t: sina+*.r=*'2\4
=(sina+cos
o\' =!
"o"o= 4
I
^l =
1> sin2a = -:.3
+sin 2a
=1_l-fi=l*fi
-r- 4 - 4 ''qt .r^., = 44
Tir si6 thi6t: fI < o < n-3n <2a <2n
sin2a=2sinacosa
''4'4- .1-J1 = 4'
=).1*Jj 2
t-
( | - lr\' = cos}a > 0
=cos2a =.,/l -sin'
,o =td
a-t =z-1.
cos2a= 2cos'
4 ) -1=-f4 ^ sin2a -3
)tanlo=-=-
^ sin2a 3 cosZa J7'
=tan)O=-=-
cos2a J1' Thanh vd Xudn vui mfng, khing dinh loi gi6i
cira minh ching vi ilimg vdi d6p s6 cira sSch gi6o
. Ldi giai cua Xudn:Tt gi6 tniet <a <n
f khoa. B4n D6ngkhing d6ng 1i.
lsina>O 3n lsin2a<O Cilcbany6u to6n, hay girip mQt y kitin cho bi6t
zTc) ai thing? ai sai? Vi sao?
={*ro.o 'u 4 'z'< {cos2a > o' PHAM CONG MINH
(TP. Hdi Duong)

DQC LAI CHO DaNG. Trn Tpp chi TH&TT s5 455, th6ng 5 nim 2015 trong mgc Di ra ki ndy
. Xin dgc lai dC bdi T61455 nhu sau: Phuong trinh thf ba cira hQld: 323 + x3 = 4x2 -5x+92+8.
. BdiT61454 d6t:lh sO tai tnann Bdi T61455, BiLiT71454 thenh Bai T71455,BiLiTl2l454 thdnh Bai
T12t455.
Thanh that xin l5i ban <Ipc.
TH&TT

^,-
Zd -clirdiU@
TORN HoC

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


[}['IIFI *}t*,lt\[

n//iru qua, b6o din tu Vietnamnet c6 tl[ng bdi


Brollachain. Dii
t3b
nh6 nhdt, c6 th) anh dy
:
y to6n do m$t gi6o vi6n 0 huyQn B6o LOc c
tinh L0m DOng ra trong dd 6n tfp lcrp 3: dd cho b:2, c : l. Tir dd ta duqc
Diin chin sii ttr nhiAn fu I ddng vdo cac 6 trbng: oh
a+ d - f +26+ l2e+* =87 hay
I
oh
a+d-f+lZe+6"
"i =61.
VQy cdc iin sd c.dn tqi sd ttr 3 ddn 9, trong d6 c6
3,5,7 ld cdc s6 nguyAn fi. Nha Brollachain.lQp.
luQn thi loqi b6 chilng cdng sdm cdng t6t dO
khdng ldm phtc tqp thAm cdc s6 khdc.
Bii to5n dd lan sang tfln Chdu Au. Td bilo The Cho a : 3, d: 5 vaf :7, ta c6
Guardian cira Anh, trong muc Khoa hqc ggi d6 oh oh
*Bdi todn con rdn", dd tl6ng bdi ci'n Alex + 12e + *it = 61 hoy l2e + e- = 60.
ld, 3+5 -7
Bellos_vA cilch giti bii to6n ndy. Bdi vii5t tlugc
Cdc s6 cdn lqi ld 4,6,8,9. Lilc ndy ta thu cdc
Nguydn Thdo dich tr6n Vietnamnet nhu sau: ;:.,/
an s6 vcti cac so tren thi ductc mQt kt qud hqp
"Bdi todn ndy gi6ng nhu mQt bdi todn d6 ddnh
cho Khoa hqc mdy t{nh nhiiu hcrn ld ddnh cho
li ld e : 4, g : 9, h : 8, i : 6 vd c6
7)
Todn h7c. 48+-1=48+ 12=60.
6
Tuy nhi1n, vbi hdu hAt chung ta - nhirng ngudi C6 nhfrng bdi todn yAu cdu bqn phdi soi xdt thQt
cfia thdi dqi gidy vd bilt chi, tdi sd vid lqi bdi
todn dubi dang phurmg trinh nha sau: ki, nhang cilng c6 nhftng bdi toan nhu bdi todn
13h +l)c_ _ I l+ oh _ l0= 66. ndy, chdng c6 cdch gidi ndo khdc ngodi viQc
tt *L+tl [ ^_ thu, sai, lqi thir lqi.
CI
Cd hai dqng bdi toan diu cd thA khiiin cho
Trudc khi gidi phrong trinh ndy, hdy xem tiing
ngudi ta th6a mdn khi gidi xong."
sA aap dn.cfia bdi todn ndy: co tdi 362880 t6
hqp cdc s6 tb I dAn 9 cd th din vdo 6 trdng. cAcu GrAr DAY ou "sAr roAN coN RAN"
Quay lqi vbi bdi toan, cfuing ta co thii rtit gc2n Nhirng nguoi y6u thich lap lu{n chflt che ch6c
phuong trinh thdnh kh6ng th6a mdn v6i loi giii tr6n, vi t16 chi ld
l3b+d+l2e-.f +a:87.
olr mQt d5p s6 chri chua phii tdt cd cbc cl5p s6. Vd
a+'""
CI viQc cho b:2, c: l, a:3, d: 5,"f :7 mang
tinh rlp cl4t.
Ti ddy ta c6 thii gid dinh ring ! ,a 4 td cac Ta di tim lcri gini d6y dt cho bdi to6n tr6n, tric
cl
; :l3b
li tim tdt ci c6c giir t4 nguyn khdc nhau tu I
^
s6 nguydn vd chung ta khong muon qud lctn. <l6n 9 cta a, b, c, d, e,.f, E, h, i th6a mdn
f
C6 nhiiu hon m\t ldi gidi nAn c6 nhiiu &t dodn o*l3b *d+12e-.f +4=87 (l).
khac nhau ddn bi kiit qud dilng. Ldi gidi md t6i
c"i
Tru6c frtit, ae chq bii to6n dd phjrc t4p,.ta bd
cho ld tnTc quan nhdt thuQc vi dQc gid sung th6m vdo dC bdi mQt y6u c6u ld k6t qu6

T?8I#EE
te nr.,.-roro 29
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
c6c ph6p tinh trung gian cfrng ld so nguydn tl6 oh
l3b v' *=13-a-d+.f <13-3-5+9=14. Lqi xet
di d6n nhfn xdt
CI
4 46., ld sd nguyn, I
ba trudng hqp cira i:
do d6 kh6ng phAi xdt c5c trudng hqp nhu: oh
l3b sh=--;-T--
l3.l
5.2 -. - xet l:3 thi sJ c6 the ld:
, C ,I J O
6'5-rA+-r
Kh6ng mit -T=l-
tinh t6ng qudt, gi6 str a < d vd h < g. ,, a+ ds-r-
= - I
c5c cht nh0n gi5 tri
- =3,
l3b 3
Do ld s6 nguy6n, mdr (13, c): I nln b : c.
7, 8, g loAi; >
C
,h :
4J =14 a+d - l'= -1, c6c cht
Neu > 5 thi c: l, e>2. YOi e > 3 thi vO tr6i
C
cira (1) l6n hcrn 87. Vdi e:2 th\
nh4n gid tri 5, 8, 9 loqi; *JJ = l6;T = l8;
4) 2l = fi;T - zt;T= 24 dou loai.
o
c"i *ru - r +
*73b * d 3 + 13.5 +4+ tz.z*9 +t =88.
oh
.b
Vay gia tri cura : chi co the ld 2, 3. 4. - Xet l:6 thi 46 co thd li:
C
,.
":
9;7=+)a+d-f =9,c6c cht nh6n gi6 tri 5,
A" Xet
c
2. Khi d6 ( I ) ffo thdnl 6"
a+ d +12e - J' * 4 =87 - 26 = 6l (2).
7, 9 loqi; 46 = r, ) a+d - f =1, c1ccht nhfn
gi6tri 3,5,7 th6a mdn voi a:3, d: 5 vdf :7.
I

^. . A "*""D "'"' lb=2 lh=4 lh=6 lb=B Ta tim dugc mQt tl6p sti, d6 1d d6p sd trong bdi
lc=l lr:2 lc=3 lr=4. vi6t trdn td b6o cria Anh:
I. Xet h:2, r: l^Do e*l,e*2 vd kh6ng 9'8
th() e>6 n6n eel3;4;51.
3 *13'2 *s +12.4
t6 -i+ = 87.

e:3. Khi d6 (2) tr6 thdnh


Xdt
1)
oh - xdt,:9 *=9=2=a+d-t'=ll,
99 thi
a + d - f +{: = 6l-36 =25. Chc cht nhfln gi6 c5c chfr nhfn gi6 ti 5,7,8 loai.
l,
tri 4, 5,6,7,8,9. Ta chri y rdng 3) Xdt e : 5. Kh6ng c6 cl6p s6, bp, dqc t.u gi6i.
oh
*i
=25 - a - d + f >25 -8-9 +4 = 12.
c: 2. Khi d6
II. X6t b - 4,
oh
Lai x6t ba trudng hqp cria l: a+d-f+lZe+6:=61
I
(3). Do e*2,e*4
- Xdt i: 444,t' the ld: $=l6.loai; vd kh6ng th c6 e> 6 n}n e e 1I;3;51.
4 thi
l) xdt e : 1. Khi d6 (3) tfo thanh
*4" =rr= a+d -f =13, cac cht nhpn gi6 tri oh
a+d-f"i+*=61-12=49. Cdc chtnh4ngi6
5,7,g loai; Y =A>a+d-J'=11, c6c chfr tri3,5,6,'7,8,9. Ta chf y rdng
4
nhdn gid tri 5, 6. 9 lo4i: T=,t +a+d - f =7.
4=49-a-d+ f>49-8 -9+3=35. Lai xdt
I
4 ba trudng hgrp cta l:
c6c cht nhfn gi6 tri 5,6,7 loai.
oh .,
Xdt l:6 thi !- c6 the ld: j-
AA
=6. lo?i; - xdr i:3 thi 4.
J.'
2.3 =24.roai.
66
T=tr=>a+d-f
6" =13, cac chir nhAn gi6 tri xdtl:
.666 6thi 4 c6 th6 la: I =4, T=12,
4, 5,7 loai. cl6u lo4i.

- xet ,: g rhi
g!, - xet , : 9 thi 8!' =!i=z toai.
88=9!= 3. loai.
e:3.Khi
99
4 Xa e: 4.Khi d6 (2) h0 thanh 2) Xdt d6 (3) trdr thdnh
lrh oh
a+d - f +!-I = 61-48 = 13. C6c chti nh6n gi6 a+d - "if +T =61-36 =25. Cdc chfi' nhQn gi6
tri 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Ta chri y rdng: tri 1,5, 6,7,8,9. Tachirljrring

- ^ TORN
Jt,
t-{OC
' cT udigA_s(i 4scj6-2ors)
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
oh 9'8
*=25-a-d
I
+f <25- 1-5+9 =28. L?i xdt 5*13'3 * i +12.2-6+
l4 =87.
hai trulng hqp cria l: VOi b : 9, c : 3, e : 2, i: 4, chgng : 8, h : 7,
Xet l: I thi 4,
6'5
= 30. Ioai. ta dugc a: 5, d - 6,"f : I vh c6:
ll _ l3.g . a1
5 + :;: + 6 + 12.2- I +',' = 37.
- Xet l:6 thi 4=ry=12+a+d-f
66 =13, ->4
c6c cht nhfn gi6 tri 1, 5, 7 loai. C. X6t ?- 4. Khi d6 (1) trO thdnh
:
3) Xdt e 5. Kh6ng c6 d5p sd, b4n dqc t.u gi6i. C
==

c:
III" X6t b 6. : 3. Khi d6 oh
oh
a+d+lZe- f +*4 = 81-52=35 (6).
a+d+l2e-.f **=61 (4). Do e*3 vd

kh6ng th e>
I
6 nOn eell;2;4;51. C6 haj truong hqp
. lb=A fn:z
{ I
i: 4, i:8. L('= t l('= z
-Yoi e: 1, lQn lucrt xdt i:2,
-Ybi e:Z,ldn lugt xdt i: l, i: 4. - V6i b -- 4, c: 1 do kh6ng thti e > 4 nn
*Y6i e: 4, lAn lugt xdt i: l, i:2. e e {2;3 }. V6i e : Z,ldnlugt xdt i : 3, i : 6,

-Y6i e: 5, lin lugt xdt i : l, i : 2, i - 4, i : 8. i:9.Yoi e:3, xet i:2.


GiAi theo c6ch tu<rng t.u nhu tr6n, kh6ng c6
- Vdi b:8, c:2 do khdng th c6 e>4 nn
e eIt;3). V6i e - 1,b,nlugt x6t i : 3, i : 6,
thdm drip s5 m6i.
l\'. X6t & : 8" t' : 4:khdng c6 d6p s6, bpn dgc
tU girii. , : 9. V6i e:3,1dn luqt xdt i: l, i: 6.
Gi6i theo ciich tucrng tu nhu trn, ta c6 thm
\et " - -1 Khi do ( l) tro thdnh
h
mot ddp s6 rnoi trong truong hqp b : 4, c:
B. i ,.
C
l,
oh e : 2, i : 6, g : 8, h :3, do d6 a - 5, d : 9,
a+d+lze-f+*=87-39=48 (5).
13'4
(r.=3 lb=6 lb=g l'-'l
"16 vitco: 5+ +9+12.2-7*ti=37.
Cobatn.rcrnghqp, ]"-l
l ]"-: z 1"-:.
J
[('= [('= L('=
KET LI.AN
-Yoi b : 3, c : 1, do kh6ng thd e >5 n6n Ta dugc ndm d5p 16 trCn v6i gih srt a < d vit
e e{2;4} . Vdi e:2,ldnlucrt xdt i: 4, i: 6, /r < g. Ni5u COI gia tri cira a vd d, cua h vdg thi tir

, : 8. V6i e : 4,Tirn lugt xdt i :2, i: 6.


mQt.d6p s6 c6 th6m ba diry s6 nfia. Do d6 bdi to6n

- V6i b : 6, c : 2, do kh6ng th e25 nOn


c6 tAt c6 hai muoi d6p s6.
Loi giii d6y dt.cta bdi torin nhu trinh bdy d tr6n
e e{l;3;4]r.
tuy phAi x6t.nhidu trudng hqp nhtmg c6 ducrng l6i
Yoi e : 1, lAn lugt xet i : 3, i : 4. rb rdng. MAu ch6t ctra c5ch gidi ld ph6t hiQn ra
Yoi e:3, lAn lugt xet i: l, i:4. bic vir g/zii.Saukhix6t c(pgiittri cria bvdc,
Yoi e:4, lAn lugt xet i: l, i:3.
tax6t e tl6 gi6m s6 trudng hqp cAn x6t, r6i x6t ; dti
-Vdi b:9,c:3,dokh6ngth6c6 e>5 n6n chon g vd /2, cu6i cing xric dinh a, d,f.
e e ll:'2;4\.
RO rdng biri to6n ndy vdn thich hqp cho m6n To6n
Yoi e - 1, lAn luot xet i : 2, i : 4, i : 8. chu khdng phdi chi ddnh cho m6n Khoa hgc m6y
Yoi e:2, lAn luCI xet i: l, i: 4, i:8. tinh.
Yoi e:4, lAn luort xet i: l, i:2. B4n dgc niro c6 himg thri v6i bdi to6n d4ng ndy c6
Gi6i theo c6ch tuong t.u nhu tr6n, ta c6 th6m ba th6 thu suc v6i "Bdi toltn con
! ,...
d6p sd trong c6c trudng hqp sau: ran mot :
Ybi b: 3, c: l, e:2, i: 4, chgn Diin cdc s6 U nhin tir 1 dn
:
g:8, h:7,ta dugc a : 6, d:9,f : 5, chgn 6 vdo cdc o trong (cac k,!r qua
g:9, h: 8, ta dugc a : 5, d:7,.f : 6 vd c6: trung gian cilng ld si| nt
nhin).
I 3'3 8',7
6* * 9 + 12.2-5 + = 87: Bdi to6n ndy tlcrn gi6n hcrn "Bii con rin" vit
l4 c6 tat ca b6n <l5p s6.

TOAN HQ( *
JI
O
Sti ase (6-2015) I trudiffA
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
xufr nAr,t rtJ uo+
lqprhi Iffit H0(vuIUdl Tni Tia soan : I 878,
0I
sd 456 (6.2015)
ilo' Giens U0, Ha
BiCn tap: 04.35121607
iloi

0T - Fax Ph6t hAnh, I1! su:04.35121606


*luthemttic md Youth ffiugurine Email: l0anh0clu0ilreuietnam@gmail.c0m

BAN CO VAN KHOA HOC IHIU rnAcu Nrururu xuAr n,4.N


GS. T sKH.NcuvEN cAmi roaN Chri tich HOi d6ng Thinh vi6n
NXB Gi6o duc Vi0t Nam
GS. TSKH. TRAN VAN NHTING
MACVANTItrEN
TS.NGTI\NVANVONG
Tdng Gi6m rl6c ki6m Tdng bin tap
cs.ooaNeuirrr NXB Gi6o duc Vict Nam
PGS.TS. TR]{]{VANIII{O cs. rs. r,uvaN ulrNc

nQr odxc nfiN r$e


Tdng bian Qp : TS. rnAN ntlu Nllr ThukiTda soan: ThS. ffd QUaNC VfNft
rs. rn AN oNn cnAu, ras. NcrrvEN aNn ofNG, rs. IRAN Neu DLTNG, rs. NcuvEN rrarNu ot]c, rs. Ncuv6,N rrarNn
HA, rS. NGUYEN VIET HAI, PGS. rS. LE QUOC HAN, fl,S. PHAM VAN HU{G, PGS. rS. VU THANH KHIET,
GS.TSKH. NGL|\.EN vAN uAu, 6ng NGtryEN rHAc urNg, rs. PHAM THr BACH NGoc, pcs. zs. NcuyEN oANc psAr,
pcs, rs. TA DUy pHrfNG, rns. NcuvEN rid rnecn, GS.TSKH. DANG HtrNG rHANc, pcs. zs. pnaN ooAN THoAI,
rirs. vO rlrra ruuy, pcs. rs. vO oUONc rHUy, GS. TSKH. Nco vmr TRUNG.

TRONG SO NAY
@ oarrf, cho Trung hgc Co sd @ uro,rg d6n giAi - Dd s6'8.
For Louer Secondary School
@ Oii5n din phttong ph6p giii to6n
Hodng Thudt - Linh hoqt dd dria bii to6n
Nguy,n Lxu - Tinh chdt sd hoc ddc tning
v6'sii dung hO thiic Vidte.
trong bdi to6n da thitc.
HuOrrg dAn giii DO'thi tuydn sinh vdo l6p 10
@
chuy6n To6n Trrrdng DHSP TP. Hd Chi
@ ,A ra ki niy
Problems in This Issue
T1/456, ..., T721456, LL/456, L21456.
@ ri" tfic to6n hgc
Thdm Ngoc KhuA - L6 Tdng kdt vd trao gi6i
@ ciai bai ki trtidc
Solutions to Preuious Problems
thrl6ng thi HOMC 2015, HOi ddng thi Hd
N0i. @ s"i ldrn & dAu
,U thi tuydn sinh vio l6p 10 Trtrdng THPT Phqm C6ng Minh - Ai drlng? Ai sai?
@
chuy6n LO Quf DOn, Ninh Thu4n, n6m hoc Vi sao?
2074 - 2015.
Oii5r, din d4y hoc to5.n
Giai tri to6n hgc
@
Vfi. Hilu Binh - V6"'Bei to6n con r6n".
Phi Phi - Giai d6p: Di6n so vi.o hinh hoa.
Anh Bia 1: GS.TSKH Nguydn Van Md.u.
@ Cfr.rd" bi cho ki thi THPT Qudc gia
Chil tich HQi Tod.n hoc Hd. N6i ud.dng Ch*
Trinh Ba V4n dung g6c dd gi6ri c6c bdi Xud.n Dfrng. Ph6 Gidm ddb Sd GD - DT
-
toan toa d6 trong mdt phing. Hd N1i (Tht nhdt ud tht mtili mQt tt phd.i
qua trdi) tai L6 Tdng hdt ki thi Todn hoc
@ ffrrf srlc tni6c ki thi - Dd sd9. Hd Ni,i rn6 r6ng ldn tht 12 nd.m 2015.

HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !


HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !
HY T MUA TC TH&TT TI BU CC HOC VI TO SON !

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