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TURNING 1

1 TIDYNESS

- One of the first rules of centre lathe practice is to put the tools back in their proper place
after using them. Under no circumstances are they to be laid on the lathe bed or guide
ways; carelessness in this regard can easily injure you, the machine or, for that matter,
the tools as well.
- Particular care is to be taken with carbide cutting tools because of their brittle nature.
- Make sure both the machine and the tools are clean before you leave the workshop.
- Gauges, callipers and all other instruments and materials are likewise to be returned to
their proper place when you have finished with them.
- Lathes and their tools are very expensive, handle them with due respect.
- Tidiness and orderliness prevent accidents.

(Cleanliness + Tidiness = Workshop Safety)

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2 SAFETY ON THE LATHE

Modern lathes are equipped with powerful motors and are very fast. Accident occurs very
easily if forget this and become careless.

The following safety is just common sense but be aware of them:

1. Never turn on a machine until you are sure how to start it and stop it; if something is not
clear, ask!
2. Never walk away from a machine without first turning it off.
3. Never clean a running machine.
4. Never take measurement until the work-piece has come to a complete standstill.
5. Never touch either work or tool in a running machine.
6. Do not wear loose clothing. A missing sleeve button can cause a regrettable accident.
7. Do not clear away chips with your hands, use a chip rake.
8. Do not remove protective devices.
9. Do not try to change the operation of the machine until it has come to a complete stop.
10. Do not wear rings; it can cost you a finger.
11. Do not try to repair electrical faults yourself, call an electrician.
12. Do not allow chips to fly off and perhaps hit your neighbour; use a guard.
13. Do not wash your hands in the cutting solution; this can cause an infection.
14. Do not try to smooth out rough spots with your fingers, use an emery board.
15. Do not try measure the work or, especially, is to use a plug gauge without first covering
the cutting edge of the tool.
16. Remove the chuck key immediately after tightening or loosing the work-piece.
17. Remove all chips and oil spots from the floor.
18. Make sure you know how and where to shut off the machine next to you if the operator
should find himself in trouble-you cannot help him if you do not know how.

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19. Always wear goggles for all grinding and cutting operations.
20. Always make sure gears and pulleys are guarded.
21. Always wear a hair net or scarf over long hair; if your hair gets caught in the machine, it
can pull the skin off your head.
22. In the event of danger, stop the machine immediately.
23. Wear good sturdy shoes and full - length trousers; neglect may result in burns broken
toes.
24. Report machine defect at once to the shop foreman.

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3 TURNING

3.1 General

a) The type of operation is cutting.


b) The main feed motion is rotary.
c) The in feed movement is along and across the lathe axis.

The tool in use is a lathe tool. In lathe practice, wedge shaped cutting tools are moved along
the surface of the work, whereby pieces of metal known as chips are removed.

3.2 Turning operation

The turning operation is dependent upon the following variables:

a) Different lathes
b) Different tools
c) Different materials

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4 CONSTRUCTION OF THE CENTRE LATHE

1 base 4 tool carriage


2 lathe bed 5 tailstock
3 headstock 6 drive housing

4.1 Base

The base serves as a support for the lathe bed and is designed either as an enclosed frame
or with legs.

4.2 Lathe Bed

The lathe bed rests on the base. It provides the foundation to which the headstock is
attached and serves as the guide way for the tool carriage and tailstock.

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4.3 Headstock

The headstock holds the headstock spindle. It is supported at both ends and is designed as
a hollow shaft so as to accommodate bar material when required.

At the front of the headstock there is a tapered hole designed to receive the lathe center.

Main spindle noses:

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External screw and internal taper Steep Morse taper with slotted nut

Cam lock design bayonet mounting with taper

The headstock houses the back gear (with speed change mechanism for slow and fast
operation) and the reversing mechanism (designed to change the direction of feed without
changing the direction of rotation of the lathe).

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4.4 Tool Carriage

The principal components of the tool carriage are:

Two spindles are mounted on the front of the lathe bed to provide the mechanical feed* of
the tool carriage.

The apron

The lead screw 6 and the feed shaft 7 provide the longitudinal and cross-feed as well as the
feed action necessary to cut screw threads, the feed shaft being used for the first two
functions and the lead screw for the latter. The reversing lever 9, which is provided to change
the direction of movement, is attached to the apron 8 and the reverse shaft 5.

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Lathe with reversing shaft lathe with drag cable 10:

*Feed is defined as the distance in mm travelled by the tool either along or across the work
piece as this makes one complete revolution.

4.5 The Tailstock

The tailstock serves to support the free end of work pieces held in a chuck, or for housing the
tailstock center, or as a tool holder for drills, reamers, etc.

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It can be moved back and forth along the lathe bed and using the clamping lever g together
with the clamping plate k, it can be locked at any point along the way. The tailstock is
composed of a base a and a main body casting b. For turning between centres the tailstock
and headstock centres must be in perfect alignment.
For purpose of setting up the machine for cylindrical or taper turning operations, the tailstock
is designed so that the main body can be adjusted transversely relative to the base by
means of adjusting screws (screw i). The main body houses the tailstock barrel c which can
be moved in the longitudinal direction with the aid of the hand wheel h and the feed screw e
to permit in feed when boring and reaming etc. The tailstock barrel is designed to receive
either the lathe centre d or a tool with a Morse taper. For turning between centres, the barrel
is secured in place by means of the forward clamping lever f.

4.6 Steadies

When long, thin work pieces are turned; the cutting pressure applied by the cutting tool
produces bending which causes the work piece to be out of round and to have a rough
surface.

This can be avoided by using a steady.

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Different types:

Fixed steady

Travelling steady

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5 DEVICES FOR CLAMPING THE WORKPIECES

Purpose of the clamping devices:

Securing the position of the work piece in relation to the spindle and the tool (with great
cutting pressure). Different methods:

a) Locating between centres (light clamping)


b) Clamping in a chuck
c) Clamping on mandrels

5.1 Locating between Centres

Used for long cylindrical parts. The work piece is located between the headstock and
tailstock centres. The faceplate, carrier and dog drive the work piece.

Centre drilled holes are made in each end of the work piece. The size and shape of the
centre drill depends upon the size of the work piece and the work to be carried out
subsequently e.g. grinding. The holes are produced using a centre drill.

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Different types of centre drillings as per DIN 332:

Shape R with curved bearing surface without counter boring or countersinking:

To suit included angle a 2 of centre

Centre drilling R 4 x 8.5 DIN 332

Shape A with straight bearing surface, without countersinking:

to suit included angle a 2 of centre

Centre drilling A 4 x 8.5 DIN 332

Shape B with straight bearing surfaces, with countersinking

Countersinking angle a 3
and bearing surface a 2 are to suit equipment used
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Centre drilling B 4 8.5 DIN 332

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Centre drilling with countersinking or counter boring is used when the centre drilling is
required for several operations and must not be damaged and is called a safe centre.

Shape C with straight bearing surfaces, with frustum-


,shaped counter bore.

Centre drilling C 4 x 8.5 DIN 332

Tailstock centre:
The two different types are dead and live centres.

Dead centre:
This centre does not rotate.

Live centre:
This centre rotates with the headstock spindle.

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Revolving live centre:
These centres are free to rotate with the work piece.

Saucer-shaped centre - to support pipes.

Work piece driven by lathe carrier:


A faceplate and a dog are mounted on the spindle.

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Work piece driven with faceplate:

The faceplate has a spring-loaded center (a) for the mounting of the work piece. The work
piece is driven by a number of hardened metal pins arranged along the circumference (b).
Plain faceplates may be used to clamp large and/or irregular work pieces using bolts.

5.2 Clamping in a Chuck

Used for short length work pieces, which project from the chuck. Three-jaw chucks; for
clamping round and regular 3, 6 or 12 sided work pieces.

Large diameter small diameter

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Four-jaw chuck; for clamping precision, round, square, octagonal work pieces.

Independent four-jaw chuck; for clamping large and irregular shaped work pieces. The jaws
operate independently.
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5.3 Clamping on Mandrels

Used when work pieces with an accurate bore have to be machined over the whole surface.

Simple mandrels:
They are slightly tapered (taper 1 : 2000), hardened and ground. They are clamped between
the centres and driven by a lathe carrier or other means.

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The mandrel has to be selected to suit the bore diameter. To increase the clamping area,
adjustable mandrels are used (e.g. spring loaded mandrels).

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6 THE TURNING TOOL

6.1 Tool Angles

(Alpha) = clearance angle


(Beta) = wedge angle
(Gamma) ! = front (top) rake angle
(Delta) " = cutting angle

Varying tool height will affect the angles as follows:


a) Tool in the middle of the work piece i.e. on centreline:
Clearance and rake angle are normal.

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b) Tool below the centreline:
Greater clearance angle, smaller rake angle.

c) Tool above centreline:


Smaller clearance angle, greater rake angle.

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7 TURNING TOOLS

Commonly used lathe tools for outside turning:

Right-hand square nose tool right cranked side tool

The right-hand square nose tool is used for turning and facing, i.e. cutting along the length
and across the face of the work. The side tool is used for turning and corner operations.

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A = parting tool
B = pointed finishing tool
C = thread cutting tool
D = right offset tool (offset knife cutting tool)
E = parting-off tool (straight-turning tool)
F = boring tool

A right-hand tool works from right to left.


A left-hand tool works from left to right.

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7.1 Sintered Carbides

Sintered carbides are made of carbides such as W and Ti, and are sintered with 5 to 15%
cobalt. Such sintered carbides are used in the manufacture of tool tips because of their high
tensile strength (minimum 700 N/mm or about 70 kp/mm) among other advantages. The
tips are either brazed to the tool shank or held in place with special clamps. Carbides are
very brittle and break easily if struck, but they are capable of cutting speeds five times as
great as those achieved with super speed steel and cutting temperatures of up to 900 C.

Locking
Clamp

Chip
Breaker

Throw-
Away tip

Tip screw

Tip heel

Clamp

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7.2 Tool Holder

Basically there are two types of tool holder.

a) Multi-tool holders:
They can hold 4 tools simultaneously. The tools are brought into correct position each
time by turning the holder through 90.

b) Quick release holder:


The number of tools that can be clamped depends on the number of holders.
Changing the tool complete changes the tools with holder.

7.2.1 Clamping the Tool

During the turning process the cutting tool is subjected to bending pressure.

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The turning tool must be clamped as tightly and as close to the holder as possible, to prevent
the tool bending and vibrating (chattering). The surface of the work piece will be inaccurate
and rough.

7.2.2 Setting Tool Height (Centre)

On the turning lathe the tool must be adjusted to the centre of the work piece. On a quick
release holder the height is adjusted by means of a screw. On a multi-tool holder this is done
by shims.

Clamping faults:
Clamping faults may occur when shims are used which are not level with the front edge of
the tool holder or when a bent support is used.

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8 TOOL MATERIALS

8.1 Plain Carbon Tool Steel

Plain carbon tool steel has a carbon content of between 0.6 - 1.5%. Solely the C-content
determines the hardness of the tool. The cutting performance of plain carbon tool steel is
relatively low (maximum cutting temperature approximately 200C) and for this reason it is in
little demand in modern lathe practice.

8.2 Alloy-treated Tool Steel

Alloy-treated tool steel contains up to 5% alloying constituents such as Cr, W, Ni, Mo and V.
The maximum cutting temperature is approximately 400C.

8.3 High-alloy Tool Steel

High-alloy tool steel is classified as either high-speed or super speed cutting steel depending
on its composition. It contains over 5% alloying constituents such as Cr, W, Ni, Mo and V and
is suitable for a maximum cutting temperature of approximately 600C.

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9 CUTTING SPEEDS

In order to be able to work economically it is important to select the cutting speed best suited
to the job.

9.1 Selection of Proper Cutting Speed

The selection of the proper cutting speed is influenced first of all by the machine, but also by
the following factors:

a) The material to be worked (hard, soft).


b) The material from which the tool is made (tool steel, carbide).
c) The type of cutting operation (roughing, finishing).
d) The type of cooling.

The cutting speed is the distance in meters travelled by a point P on the circumference of the
work piece in one minute (rev/min).

9.2 Basic Factors

The basic factors are:


V = cutting speed in m per minute
n = speed of the work in revolutions per minute (rev/min)
d = diameter of the work piece in mm
# = 3.14

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The formula for the calculation of the cutting speed is:

V= dx#xn m / min
1000

From this one can calculate either the diameter or the speed.

d= 1000 x v mm
#xn
or

n= 1000 x v rev / min


#xd

Cutting speed diagram


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Cutting speed in m/min

Complete the diagram according to example 1 (following page).

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Examples:

1) v = 25 m/min
d = 100 mm n= 1000 x v = 1000 x 25 =
n=? dx# 100 x 3.14

= 25000 = 79.6 rev/min


3.14

2) v = 80 m/min
n = 600 rev/min d= 1000 x v = 1000 x 80 =
d=? nx# 600 x 3.14

= 80000 = 42.46 mm
1884

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10 KNURLING

In order to afford a positive surface grip, tools and vice-stock grips, etc., are either diamond
or straight knurled.

10.1 Straight Knurling

Straight knurling is done with only a single wheel whose teeth are arranged parallel to the
axis of rotation. The procedure is the same as that employed for diamond knurling.

10.2 Cross Knurling

For cross knurling, two wheels with a 90 offset pitch are used.

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10.3 Diamond Knurling

For diamond knurling, it is common practice to use floating holders with two rollers designed
with opposite tooth arrangement. The holder is clamped in the tool post and forced by the
cross-slide against the revolving work piece. As the rollers turn they leave their teeth marks
on the work. The diameter is knurled smaller by 1/2 the pitch of the knurling roll (for example:
diam.= 29 mm, t = 1 mm, turn diameter to 28,5). The saddle speed (s) should be 2/3 to 3/4 of
the knurling pitch (for example: t = 1 mm, s = 0,7 mm).

Workpiece Tool

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11 THREAD CUTTING

The simplest way to produce screw threads is with thread cutting tools such as a tap or a die.

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11.1 Lathe Method

In lathe practice, screws are usually cut with the aid of a thread cutting tool, which is shaped
for the desired thread (V-thread, flat, acme, buttress, or round). A grinding gauge (setting
gauge) assists the operator in determining accuracy when sharpening the cutting edge of the
tool, and setting the tool.

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11.1.1 Setting

Before starting to cut, the grinding (or setting) gauge is set against the work as a guide for
the setting of the threading cutting tool so that the thread flanks will have the correct angle to
the work axis. Once the machine has been set, the operator tests the correctness of the pitch
by running the tool lightly along the work.

11.1.2 Thread Cutting (Plunge Method)

To machine to the depth of the thread, the cross-slide and compound slide rest scales are
set to zero. Since feeding the cutting tool at right angles to the work piece axis results in poor
thread flanks and excessive wear on the cutting edge of the tool, radial-axial feed method is
preferable.

Plunge method radial-axial method

11.1.3 Radial-axial Feed Method

The radial-axial feed method is used for each cut, i.e., from two directions, radial with the
cross-slide, with the top slide set forwards and to the left.

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The left-hand edge of the tool does most of the cutting. The right-hand edge makes only a
light cut. The correctness of the cut is checked before reaching the prescribed depth of
thread. On male screws this check is made with a thread ring or gap gauge, and on female
screws, with a thread plug gauge.

11.1.4 Thread Dimension

The most important measurements in thread cutting are:

p = pitch
t = thread depth
d = outside diameter (major diameter)
d1 = root diameter (minor diameter)
d2 = pitch diameter (effective diameter)
= thread angle

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12 SCREW THREAD CLASSIFICATION
Screws are classified according to the following criteria:
THREADING

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13 TAPER TURNING

The production of conical shapes on the lathe is known as taper turning. Three principal
methods are employed:

Using the compound slide.


With the taper turning attachment.
By setting over the tailstock.

The following dimensions are of significance for taper turning calculations and settings:

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erstellen.

l = taper length
D = large diameter
d = small diameter
= taper angle
/2 = setting angle
1:K = taper ratio (radial)
1 : 2K = taper ratio (linear)

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The setting angle is /2 equal to 1/2 the taper included angle . A taper ratio of 1: K means
that in the distance K along the length of the cone, the diameter tapers by 1 mm. The taper
ratio is calculated from the following formula:

1: K; 1 = D - d
K l

Example 1: Example 2:
D = 20 mm D = 35 mm
d = 10 mm d = 16 mm
l = 50 mm l = 76 mm
1:K =1:5 1:K =1:4

The setting angle /2 is worked out of using the trigonomic function.

tan = D-d
2 2L

The value calculated from the above formula is that of the corresponding angle, which can be
taken from tables of tangents (see book of tables).

Example:

D = 80 mm
d = 60 mm
L = 160 mm
/2 = 330 min

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13.1 Using the Compound Slide

By using the compound slide it is possible to produce highly accurate conical shapes with
any taper angle. The distance travelled by the slide, however, is limited. This means that only
short tapers can be turned by this method. The compound slide is turned to the setting angle
/2 in such a way that it is parallel to the line of the taper to be turned. Whether the
compound slide is turned to the left or to the right depends on the direction of the taper. The
correct angle is set with the aid of the graduated dial on the slide.

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13.2 The Taper Turning Attachment

Using the taper turning attachment, tapers can be turned with a setting angle of up to 15.
The length of the taper is limited, however, by the length of the taper turning attachment or
taper bar (approximately 500 mm). The taper turning attachment is offset by one half of the
taper and the guide bar is connected rigidly to the lathe bed.

The nut clamping the cross-feed is then loosened and the cross-slide is connected to the
taper turning attachment. The saddle acts on the taper turning attachment causing the
positive movement of the cross-slide in the direction of the taper. The setting angle for this
operation is worked out using the same formula as for the compound slide method.

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13.3 Setting over the Tailstock

With this method long, narrow tapers are turned between centres. The tailstock centre is set
over out of line with the work axis.

To avoid undue wear on the centres, more than 1/50 th of the length of the work should not
offset the tailstock.

After completion of the turning operation, the line of the taper lies parallel with the lathe bed.
Special ball-end centres should be used.

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If the taper extends the entire length of the work piece, offset of the tailstock is equal to half
the diameter difference.

VR = D-d= mm
2

Example:

D = 50 mm
d = 45 mm
VR = 2.5 mm

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If the taper is only over a portion of the actual work piece length, the previous calculation is
modified.
If the headstock and tailstock centres had been at the ends of the taper, the tailstock offset
would have been D - d
2
Because the centres are now further apart, the tailstock offset must be increased by a factor
of Total length = L
Length of taper I

VR = D-d x L = mm
2 l

Example:

L = 1400 mm Dd L 50 45 1400
l = 800 mm 2 l 2 800
D = 50 mm 5 x 1400 7000
d = 45 mm 2 x 800 1600

VR =4.375 mm

1 : K = 1 : 160 Dd 50 45 5 1 1 : 160
l 800 800 160

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13.4 Measuring and Testing for Trueness of Taper

The diameters may be assessed and the lengths measured with a vernier calliper or
micrometer. The taper itself is tested with a taper ring gauge or, for internal tapers, a taper
plug gauge.

Marking the work or the testing apparatus with chalk tests the taper. The apparatus and the
work are rotated while fitted together. If the chalk mark has then been entirely rubbed away,
the taper may be regarded as true. If the mark is still to be seen, the setting angle must be
adjusted until the test rubs off the mark along the entire length of the work. Only then may
the taper be regarded as true.

When measuring the diameter, it is very important to be sure that the edges of the calliper or
the micrometer are at a 90 angle to the work axis.

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ME 033
Turning 1

Theoretical Test

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Turning 1
Test 1

Indicate the correct answer or answers:

1. Chips may be removed from the lathe only with:


a) the hand
b) the chip rake
c) the fingers
d) a screw driver
e) a brush.

2. The function of the reverse mechanism is to:


a) change the speed of the lathe
b) change the direction of rotation of the headstock spindle
c) change the direction of feed without changing the direction of rotation
d) adjust the power feed.

3. The movements performed by the tool carriage are to:


a) move the saddle across the turning axis
b) move the cross-slide across the turning axis
c) traverse the compound slide at an angle to the turning axis
d) traverse the cross-slide along the turning axis
e) traverse the saddle along the turning axis.

4. The tailstock is used to:


a) carry tools
b) from the opposite end support for turning between centres
c) hold the work
d) taper turn
e) carry the steady rest.

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5. The picture shows:
a) independent four-jaw chuck
b) a driving plate
c) a three-jaw chuck.

6. The right cranked side tool is shown in picture:

7. The selection of the cutting speed depends on:


a) the stability of the machine
b) the material being machined
c) the coolant
d) the work process (roughing, finishing)
e) the material from which the tool is made.

8. Diamond knurling roller teeth are arranged so that:


a) they are set in the same direction on both rollers
b) they run parallel to the tool axis
c) their direction is opposite on the two rollers.

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9. With reference to their intended use, screws are classified as:
a) running screws
b) clamping screws
c) profile screws
d) pipe threads
e) scroll.

10. The flank angle of the acme thread is:


a) 14
b) 55
c) 60
d) 30
e) 45

11. In cutting a left-hand thread the directions of rotation of the work and the tool are:
a) the work moves clockwise, the tool moves from the tailstock to the headstock
b) the work moves anti-clockwise, the tool moves from the tailstock to the headstock
spindle
c) the work moves anti-clockwise, the tool moves from the headstock to the tailstock
d) the work moves clockwise, the tool moves from the headstock to the tailstock.

12. With reference to the direction of rotation screws are classified as:
a) single-thread screws
b) right-hand screws
c) multi-thread screws
d) left-hand screws.

13. The formula for the calculation of the compound slide setting is:

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14. In adjusting the position of the tailstock for taper turning the main body:
a) moves forward towards the headstock
b) moves backwards away from the headstock
c) moves transversely out of line with the work axis
d) moves not at all, is locked in place.

15. Inside tapers are checked with:


a) a taper ring gauge
b) a screw plug gauge
c) an inside calliper
d) a taper plug gauge.

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