You are on page 1of 10

c  



? ?
  
Absoprtion, Porosity, and Permeability
Surface Texture
Strength and Elasticity
Density and Specific Gravity
Aggregate Voids
Hardness
Particle Shape
Coatings
Undesirable Physical Components
 ?
  
Composition
Reactions with Asphalt and Cement
   
     
Compacted Aggregates
Aggregate for Hot Mix Asphalt
Aggregate for Portland Cement Concrete
Other Aggregates
c 
    
  
d  
    
    



   dd    


  
  



   
 
   
 

  

c   

 
 

  
 
   





 d 
      

   
  
  
   
   
  
      


   
d 
  !"d
? ??
d  
 
 
 
     


    


     
ABSORPTION, POROSITY, AND PERMEABILITY
d    

   
 

d 
         
    
   
    




 
     
 

  
 
  
   
    #  
$
 
    
       
$  
   
   # 
 

   

      
  
  
c 
SURFACE TEXTURE
%   
       


 

 
  %   
     
        

 
   
   

  
 
  
      
%   

     
   
  
# 
  
     # 
   
 
% 
   
   


     d 


 
   


&


  
 !  
 
  
   
 #    
 
STRENGTH AND ELASTICITY
%  

      
   
 

'
 

 (
  ( 
) 
  
  
   
 
 


d 
#  
   
    
  
    d  


    
   
     
  
 
d 

   
        
 
DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY
!
 
     

% 
 
   
  

   
  
c c
d   
 
 
 








 
  
     !"
  *+, - c
&
.+/ .* - c
& *+0* +1* - c
d  
   
   
    
 
  
  
     

   d 
   


 
2  
 
 
% 
2  
 
 
c  
2  
 
 
!  
  
 

3 

 

    
    

       
 
  


        

     
       
  
 
  
     
 
 
   
       
  d 







     

3 
 
# 

   


 d 
  
    
       
  
#      

 


 4 c   
  
 

 
  
   
    
   
   
  



    
 
    
   
 
   
  #   
     
c ,
AGGREGATE VOIDS
d   
  
   
 


 
     
 
 
 
   
     
d 


  
  
  
  

- !#$%   
  %
d 
   
    
    


  
  
   
 

d 

    
   
  
    
  
c /
HARDNESS
d   

 
      
  


      


     


    
    %  
 

 
    

 
 
      
  d 5

) 

%
#  
      


24 c     
  !"d
 
#     
 5
) 

%    


  
 



        
 

- !#&%   '  ( (  
  
   "
c +
PARTICLE SHAPE
d 
   


  


d 
   
  
  
d     
      
  
  

d  
 
 

 
 

 

      
       
  
   
d 
 

   
   

      d   

        
d 
  



 

     


 
 d %   % 
   # 


  




COATINGS
 


  

  d    
 



 
        
 


  
   
   

   
     
 
  
#    
    
2     
d      
    

    d  
  
 #      #    
#     
         
    

 

 
 !

  
  

 
  
#    
UNDESIRABLE PHYSICAL COMPONENTS
$ 
   
  
  

      

   
 
   

 
 

c .
c4    

,"  

,&    
( ??
d   
 
      
  
 
   

COMPOSITION
d  
  

    
  
   &




      
   

 
  d 

   
   
)5
 

!
    
    

 

 
 

      
!


    


 
   
d    
  
   52c
 !"d

 
 25   
   

 
   
   *c  

#     

% 
 
  
6        
  d 
 
        
 

     
    

 
 
 
 


 
 


 


 





 


       


  
 
REACTIONS WITH ASPHALT AND CEMENT
d 
 



   
  
     #  


    5

  




     
   



      d 



 
         
 
 
c 0
)-  
  



 
   
 
&
  
    #  

  
*   
 
  

  
  

   
 




 
  


 
  
  
c
 
    
 

 
 

  
  


 


COMPACTED AGGREGATES
   
        

 
 


  
       

$    
 
4

 

  
  
   
      
  

   


#     
  

 
  


    


 

   

d   
  
  

 
  
  
    
  
 3     
 


#     
  # 
  
#   


 
 
  
   

 

 

      
  

   
   
 



 
 
 
 #  
 
  


   


  
   

  
  
 
 
   
  
  
c 1
AGGREGATE FOR HOT MIX ASPHALT
 !"d

  
      


 
 

 
   # 

%       
d     
    
  
 



      
c&
 
,&  
/  
      
AGGREGATES FOR PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE
d 

      
  
% 6

 
  

  

  

 
 


  
  

 
    #   
  

  
 "  
  
   
d 
 
    
 
   

d 
       

cd    
  

,d 
   

/d  

+%  

 



.  
 
OTHER AGGREGATES
d  

 
  
  d # 


     
  


 3 



  
  
  





&
  d




   c        


 

   
 ‘

This test method covers the determination of the particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates by
sieving. ‘

  !c "   # $


  %


This test method covers three procedures in testing aggregates to determine their resistance to disintegration by
freezing and thawing. It furnishes information helpful in judging the soundness of aggregates subjected to
weathering, particularly when adequate information is not available from service records of the behavior of the
aggregate.

   &&  !' "   # (   


") "  
")
"

This test method covers the procedure to be followed in testing aggregates to determine their resistance to
disintegration by saturated solutions of sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate.

   c  *      


+  ,
  )-
$
   # #
  .) +
  /  +
‘

This test method covers a procedure for testing sizes of coarse aggregate smaller than 37.5 mm (1 1/2 in.) for
resistance to degradation using the Los Angeles testing machine.‘

     &0       +



+ 1
  #  
   
‘

This test method covers the determination of specific gravity and absorption of coarse aggregate. The bulk
specific gravity (SSD) and absorption are based on aggregate after 24 hour soaking in water. ‘

   '!      


+ .) "



   +‘

This test method covers procedures for an approximate determination of the presence of injurious organic
impurities in fine aggregates that are to be used in hydraulic cement mortar or concrete.‘

   c        


 

   
 ‘

This test method covers the determination of the particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates by
sieving. A sample of dry aggregate of known mass is separated through a series of sieves of progressively smaller
openings for determination of particle size distribution.

‘
   *  *      2"3 ,
 45(
 6
57  8


 

This test method covers the determination of bulk density ("unit weight") of aggregate in a compacted or loose
condition, and calculated voids between particles in fine, coarse, or mixed aggregates based on the same
determination. This test method is applicable to aggregates not exceeding 5 in. (125 mm) in nominal maximum
size.‘

‘
&
  d




   c        


 

     ‘

This test method covers the determination of the particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates by sieving. ‘

  !c "   # $


  %


This test method covers three procedures in testing aggregates to determine their resistance to disintegration by freezing and
thawing. It furnishes information helpful in judging the soundness of aggregates subjected to weathering, particularly when
adequate information is not available from service records of the behavior of the aggregate.

   &&  !' "   # (   


") "  
") "

This test method covers the procedure to be followed in testing aggregates to determine their resistance to disintegration by
saturated solutions of sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate.

   c  *      


+  ,
  )-
$  
 # #
  .) +
  /  +
‘

This test method covers a procedure for testing sizes of coarse aggregate smaller than 37.5 mm (1 1/2 in.) for resistance to
degradation using the Los Angeles testing machine.‘

     &0       +



+ 1
  #  
    ‘

This test method covers the determination of specific gravity and absorption of coarse aggregate. The bulk specific gravity
(SSD) and absorption are based on aggregate after 24 hour soaking in water. ‘

   '!      


+ .) "



   +‘

This test method covers procedures for an approximate determination of the presence of injurious organic impurities in fine
aggregates that are to be used in hydraulic cement mortar or concrete.‘

   c        


 

     ‘

This test method covers the determination of the particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates by sieving. A sample
of dry aggregate of known mass is separated through a series of sieves of progressively smaller openings for determination of
particle size distribution.

   *  *      2"3 ,


 45(
 6
57  8

  

This test method covers the determination of bulk density ("unit weight") of aggregate in a compacted or loose condition, and
calculated voids between particles in fine, coarse, or mixed aggregates based on the same determination. This test method is
applicable to aggregates not exceeding 5 in. (125 mm) in nominal maximum size.‘

‘
Additional properties for aggregates:

SOUNDNESS- quality of resisting weathering.

TESTS- continues thawing and freezing

         "    # (    


")  "   
")  " 

1. 1 Thi s t est m et h od c ov er s t he t est i ng of agg r eg at es t o est i m at e t h ei r s ound n ess w h en su bj ec t ed t o w eat h eri n g


ac t i on i n c onc r et e or ot h er appl i c at i on s. Thi s i s ac c om pl i sh ed by r ep eat ed i m m ersi on i n s at ur at ed s ol ut i on s of
s odi um or m agn esi um sul f at e f ol l ow ed b y ov en dr yi ng t o p art i al l y or c om pl et el y d eh ydr at e t h e s al t pr ec i pi t at ed i n
p erm eabl e p or e sp ac es. Th e i nt ern al exp an si v e f orc e, d eri v ed fr om t he r eh ydr at i on of t h e s al t up on r e-i m m ersi on,
si m ul at es t h e exp an si on of w at er on fr eezi n g. Thi s t est m et hod fur ni sh es i n f orm at i on h el pf ul i n j udgi ng t h e
s oun dn ess of agg r eg at es w h en ad equ at e i n f orm at i on i s n ot av ai l abl e f r om servi c e r ec or ds of t he m at eri al exp os ed t o
ac t u al w eat h eri ng c ondi t i on s.
In this study, the mechanisms of damage to aggregate particles by sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate solutions were
investigated. By using glass and aluminum containers to represent aggregate pore space and confining walls, test results
showed that during soaking cycles crystal growth occurred that applied some bearing pressure on the container. This
bearing pressure, however, was secondary to more damaging pressure that occurred during the oven drying cycles. During
soaking cycles, mirabilite (Na2 SO4 10H 2O) applied bearing pressures up to about 0.6 MPa. During oven drying cycles,
thenardite applied bearing pressures up to about 2.0 MPa. Magnesium sulfate salts produced bearing pressures about the
same magnitude as that of the sodium sulfate salts. Copyright 2005 by ASTM International.

-rost weathering or     is the collective name for several processes where ice is

present. This processes include frost shattering, frost-wedging and freeze-thaw weathering. This type of weathering
is common in mountain areas where the temperature is around the freezing point of water. Certain frost-susceptible
soils expand or heave upon freezing as a result of water migrating via capillary action to grow ice lenses near the
freezing front.[3] This same phenomena occurs within pore spaces of rocks. The ice accumulations grow larger as
they attract liquid water from the surrounding pores. The ice crystal growth weakens the rocks which, in time, break
up.[4] It is caused by the expansion of ice when water freezes, so putting considerable stress on the walls of
containment.

-reeze induced weathering action occurs mainly in environments where there is a lot of moisture, and temperatures
frequently fluctuate above and below freezing point²that is, mainly alpine and periglacial areas. An example of rocks
susceptible to frost action is chalk, which has many pore spaces for the growth of ice crystals. This process can be
seen in Dartmoor where it results in the formation of tors. When water that has entered the joints freezes, the ice
formed strains the walls of the joints and causes the joints to deepen and widen. When the ice thaws, water can flow
further into the rock. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles weaken the rocks which, over time, break up along the joints into
angular pieces. The angular rock fragments gather at the foot of the slope to form a talus slope (or scree slope). The
splitting of rocks along the joints into blocks is called block disintegration. The blocks of rocks that are detached are of
various shapes depending on rock structure.
TERMAL EXPANSION-
Because aggregates constitute a large portion of
the concrete volume, the coefficient of thermal expansion
(CTE) of concrete is closely related to that of the aggregates.

Thermal expansion can lead to cracking, faulting of joints, etc.

AAshto T-161(testing) rapid freezing and thawing

This method covers the determination of the resistance of concrete specimens to rapidly repeated cycles
of freezing and thawing in the laboratory by two different procedures: Procedure A, Rapid -reezing and
Thawing in Water, and Procedure B, Rapid -reezing in Air and Thawing in Water. Both procedures are
intended for use in determining the effects of variations in the properties of concrete on the resistance of
the concrete to the freezing and thawing cycles specified in the particular procedure. Neither procedure is
intended to provide a quantitative measure of the length of service that may be expected from a specific
type of concrete.

© 



    ‘ ‘‘‘‘
 ‘ 
 
‘

‘ ‘‘ ‘ ‘‘

‘
‘
‘‘‘‘‘ ‘‘

‘
‘
‘‘ 
‘ ‘
‘‘ ‘‘‘

‘
‘
‘‘
‘‘

 ‘ ‘
‘ ‘ ‘
 ‘‘ ‘‘


‘

‘ ‘
‘

 ‘
‘
‘
‘

‘‘
‘‘ ‘‘  ‘

‘ ‘
‘  ‘
‘  ‘‘

‘‘
‘ 
‘