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Engineering Analysis

Fall 2005

Homework Assignment #1

EEL 3420 Engineering Analysis

Error Analysis

1. Use zero through third order Taylor series expansions to predict f (3) for

f ( x) = 25 x 3 6 x 2 + 7 x 88

using a base point of x = 2. Compute the percent relative error and the number of significant digits

for each approximation.

2. Use zero through fourth order Taylor series expansions to predict f (3) for

f ( x) = e x

using a base point of x = 1. Compute the percent relative error and the number of significant digits

for each approximation.

c

gm t

v= (1 e m )

c

Use a first-order error analysis to estimate the error of v at

t=7

g = 9 .8

m = 68.1 0.5

c = 12.5 2

4. Let x = 37.5678 and y = 37.5318. If our computer can only store 4 digits, what is the relative error for

x and y when we represent the numbers using our computer. Compute z = (x - y) + 0.01946. What is

the relative error of z. How many digits of significance does z have.

5. What is the rate of convergence for f(n). f(n) converges to 0 but at what rate O(?). Recall

n converges to with rate n if n n . k for some constant k

(n 2). ( n 4)

f( n )

3

n

Homework Assignment #2

EEL 3420 Engineering Analysis

3 2

f( x) x 3.5. x 21.0. x 67.5.

Use a bracket method first to find an initial approximation then use Newton's method to further

improve your estimate to 2 digits of accuracy.

1000

f( x ) 0 0

1000

10 0 10

x

1

f ( x) = 5.

x5

4. Using a computer language of your choice implement Newton's method to find the roots of arbitrary

polynomials to 4 significant digits. The function will have as its inputs the coefficients of the input

function and its degree, the coefficients of the derivative function and an initial guess of the root. In

'

each iteration, the function is to compute the values of f ( p k ) and f ( p k ) using Horner's method

as discussed in class. Recall that Newton's method uses

f ( pk )

p k +1 = p k

f ' ( pk )

p( x) = a 0 x n + a1 x n 1 + L + a n

p( x) = (((a 0 c + a1 )c + a 2 )c + a3 )c + L

Using the following algorithm:

Ans = A[0];

For (x = 0; x < N; x++)

Ans = Ans *c + A[x];

Homework Assignment #3

EEL 3420 Engineering Analysis

Matrices

1. Given

1 3 2 1

A= and B =

2 0 1 2

show that

( A + B)( A B) A 2 B 2

2 1 2 1 3 0 2 0 0

.A A . .A

3 2 3 2 5 0 1 0 0

3 1 1 2 3 1

1 3 1 1 4 3

1 1 3 1 2 0

4. Prove that

AB = A B

for any 2 square matrices. Assume the matrices are 2x2. Note this is true for all square matrices of size

nxn.

1 2 3

A 1 3 5

1 5 12

6. Find the left multiplicative inverse, if it exist, of

1 1

3 4

0 0

Show that the right inverse does not exist.

0 2 4 6

3 1 4 2

6 1 10 1

2x + z

x+ y

2y z

9. Find the characteristic equation, the eigenvalues, and a set of eigenvectors for the given 4 matrices.

3 0 2

5 3 1 2 2 0

, , , 0 1 2

2 4 4 3 0 0

2 2 2

3

A

for the matrix

2 4

A

1 1

Homework Assignment #4

EEL 3420 Engineering Analysis

Systems of Equations

x1 + x 2 x3 = 3

2 x1 x 2 3 x3 = 0

x1 2 x 2 + x3 = 5

2. Write a MATLAB program to solve the following linear systems using all three Gaussian algorithms

and the Gauss-Jordan algorithm.

3. Use the Gaussian-Jordan method, by hand, to find the inverse of the following matrix.

10 3 6

1 8 2

2 4 9

4. Modify the MATLAB Gaussian-Jordan program that you implemented so that it can be used to find

the inverse of the matrix in the previous problem.

5. Find the fixed points for the following system of nonlinear equations. You may use MATLAB as a tool

for the matrix manipulation.

x = g1 ( x, y, z ) = 9 x 2 + 36 y 2 + 4 z 2 36

y = g 2 ( x, y, z ) = x 2 2 y 2 20 z

z = g 3 ( x, y, z ) = 16 x x 3 2 y 2 16 z 2

Homework Assignment #5

EEL 3420 Engineering Analysis

Curve fitting

1. Given the following 3 sets of data, for each set, use regression to find a polynomial

that best fits the data. For each set determine what percentage of the variation can be

explained for. Try 1st order, 2nd order until you get a good fit. Hint: put the data

into two matrices so that you can easily manipulate them using MATLAB and

generate

n n

2

xi xi

i= 1 i= 1

y g( y ) y f( y ) y g2( y )

10 351.962 10 355 10 148.038

9 242.464 9 237.1 9 85.586

8 139.437 8 145.4 8 65.363

7 81.543 7 76.9 7 38.507

6 26.771 6 28.6 6 38.029

5 4.074 5 2.5 5 35.324

4 14.929 4 19.4 4 27.729

3 31.028 3 25.1 3 35.078

2 17.122 2 22.6 2 17.922

1 18.164 1 14.9 1 18.214

0 5 0 5 0 5

1 7.364 1 4.1 1 7.314

2 3.922 2 9.4 2 3.122

3 13.828 3 7.9 3 9.778

4 7.871 4 3.4 4 20.671

5 25.926 5 27.5 5 57.176

6 65.571 6 67.4 6 130.371

7 130.743 7 126.1 7 250.793

8 200.637 8 206.6 8 405.437

9 317.264 9 311.9 9 645.314

10 441.962 10 445 10 941.962

2. For the set of data points, find an interpolating polynomial that fits the data. You may

use either Newton's or Lagrange interpolating polynomial. Do this by hand. Estimate

the value at x = 1.5 and find the error.

10

7.524391 x x

f( x) e e

x f( x)

f( x ) 5

0 2

1 3.086

2 7.524

2 0

0 1 2

0 x 2

3. Write a program to generate 10 evenly spaced points from 0 to 2 using f(x) above and

find a 9th order interpolating polynomial using these 10 points. Hint: Newton's

algorithm produces the b's. Use this polynomial to estimate the value at x = 1.5 and

find the error.

355 10 1

237.1 9 1

145.4 8 1

76.9 7 1

28.6 6 1

2.5 5 1

19.4 4 1

25.1 3 1

22.6 2 1

14.9 1 1

Y 5 X 0 O 1

4.1 1 1

Z augment( O , X ) 9.4 2 1

7.9 3 1

1

T .ZT .Y

A Z .Z 3.4 4 1

n rows( Y )

27.5 5 1 n = 21

19.667

A= 67.4 6 1 m cols( Z )

22.9 m =2

126.1 7 1

L( x ) A0 A1 .x i 0 , 1 .. n 1

206.6 8 1

k 0 , 1 .. n 1 311.9 9 1 j 0 , 1 .. m 1

445 10 1 2

sr Yi Aj .Zi , j

i j

First Order

600

5

sr = 1.593 10 Yi

400 i

ybar

n

2

Yk

200 st Yi ybar

L( x ) i

0 5

st = 5.631 10

200 st sr

rsquare

st

400

10 5 0 5 10

X ,x

k

rsquare = 0.717

2 0 1 2

X2i Xi

0 1 -10 100

Z augment( O , X ) 1 1 -9 81

2 1 -8 64

Z augment( Z , X2 )

3 1 -7 49

1 4 1 -6 36

T .ZT .Y

A Z .Z

5 1 -5 25

5 6 1 -4 16

Z=

A = 22.9 7 1 -3 9

n rows( Y )

0.4 8 1 -2 4 n = 21

9 1 -1 1 m cols( Z )

A1 .x A2 .x

2

L( x ) A0 10 1 0 0 m =3

11 1 1 1 i 0 , 1 .. n 1

12 1 2 4

j 0 , 1 .. m 1

13 1 3 9

2

14 1 4 16 sr Yi Aj .Zi , j

i 0 , 1 .. 20 i j

Second Order

5

600 sr = 1.557 10 Yi

i

ybar

400 n

2

st Yi ybar

200

Yi i

L( x ) 5

0

st = 5.631 10

st sr

200 rsquare

st

400

10 5 0 5 10

rsquare = 0.723

X ,x

i

3

0 1 2 3

X3i Xi

3

0 1 -10 100 -1 10

Z augment( O , X ) 1 1 -9 81 -729

Z augment( Z , X2 ) 2 1 -8 64 -512

3 1 -7 49 -343

Z augment( Z , X3 )

4 1 -6 36 -216

5 1 -5 25 -125

1

T .ZT .Y

A Z .Z Z= 6 1 -4 16 -64

5 7 1 -3 9 -27

n rows( Y )

8 1 -2 4 -8 n = 21

10

A= 9 1 -1 1 -1 m cols( Z )

0.4 m =4

10 1 0 0 0

0.5

11 1 1 1 1 i 0 , 1 .. n 1

L( x ) A0 A1 .x A2 .x

2

A3 .x

3 12 1 2 4 8 j 0 , 1 .. m 1

13 1 3 9 27

2

14 1 4 16 64 sr Yi Aj .Zi , j

i 0 , 1 .. 20 i j

Third Order

600 sr = 0 Yi

i

ybar

400 n

2

st Yi ybar

200

Yi i

L( x ) 5

0

st = 5.631 10

st sr

200 rsquare

st

400

10 5 0 5 10

rsquare = 1

X ,x

i

7.524

p( x ) (x 1 ) .( x 2) x .( x 2 ) .3.086 x .( x 1).

2 x x

f( x ) e e

1.676 .x

2

.59 .x 2. 0 2

y 1 F 3.086

i 0 , 1 .. 2 2 7.524

Second Order

10

p( x ) 6

f( x )

Fi

4

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x, x, y

i

f( 1.5 ) p ( 1.5 )

Er

f( 1.5 ) Er = 0.039

Homework Assignment #6

EEL 3420 Engineering Analysis

1. The following function corresponds to the normal distribution. There does not exist a

closed form expression of the integral for this function so one must use numerical

integration to find the probabilities. Use Simpson's 1/3 and 3/8 rule to integrate f(x)

from 0 to 3. Partition the integrating interval into 10 evenly spaced segments and use

the multiple application formula. You may use a computer if you like. Show all work

or show the program listing.

0 1

2

(x )

1 2 .

2 Note

f( x) .e

2. .

2 3

f( x) d x = 0.499

0

0.4

f( x )

0.2

0

0

x

xe

2x

2. Use Romberg integration to evaluate dx to an accuracy of 0.1%. Present your

0

3. For the function y = sin x compute the first derivative at x =

using the forward

3

difference approximation of O(h 2 ) and the centered difference approximations of

O(h 4 ) and using a value of h = .

12

4. The following data was collected for the distance traveled versus time for a rocket.

T 0 1 2 3 4 5

Y 0 2.1 7.8 18.2 31.9 50.3

Use numerical differentiation to estimate the rockets speed and acceleration at time T = 3.

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