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HI-504: Irrigation Engineering

Practices
Prof. Dr. Abdul Sattar Shakir
Dr. Noor Muhammad Khan
Course Outline
HI-504: Irrigation Engineering Practices
Soil-water-plant relationship, methods of estimating crop water
requirements
Determination of losses in irrigation system
Methods of surface, sub-surface and sprinkling irrigation, their suitability and
economics in water saving.
Economics of lined channels. Irrigation efficiencies, Project efficiency,
operation efficiency, and economic efficiency.
Irrigation distribution network: Planning and design of different components.
Layout of field channels and outlets. Land shaping and leveling.
Irrigation scheduling: Dynamic Crop response model. Modeling or irrigation
schedules. Warabandi distribution system and its constraints
Diagnostic analysis of irrigation systems.
Development Model.
System perspectives:
Interdisciplinary approach. Identification of problems. Establishment of
objectives. Allocation of responsibility. Information collection. Development of
work plans and methods.
Technical social and economic data collection. Data analysis. On-farm water
management practices, physical constraints, socio-economic problems.
Traditional practices.
Lecture Delivery Plan
Week Topic

1 Introduction of subject, Introduction of Irrigation system of Pakistan


2 Planning and design of different components. Layout of field channels and outlets. Land shaping and leveling.

3 Soil-water-plant relationship. Methods of estimating crop water requirements


4 Estimating crop water requirements using Penmann Montieth Eq.
5 Irrigation scheduling: Dynamic Crop response model. Modeling of irrigation schedules.
6 Losses in irrigation system and its determination.
Economics of lined channels.
7 Irrigation distribution network: Planning and design of different components. Layout of field channels and outlets.
Warabandi distribution system and its constraints
8 Land shaping and leveling.

Irrigation efficiencies, Project efficiency, operation efficiency, and economic efficiency.


9 Comparison of surface, sub-surface and sprinkling irrigation, their suitability and economics in water saving

10 Diagnostic analysis of Irrigation systems.


11 Development Model.
12 System perspectives:
13 Interdisciplinary approach. Identification of problems. Establishment of objectives. Allocation of responsibility.
Information collection. Development of work plans and methods.
14 Technical social and economic data collection. Data analysis. On-farm water management practices, physical
constraints, socio-economic problems. Traditional practices.
Reference Material
Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water
requirements, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No 56 by Food
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1998) (available
on http://www.fao.org/docrep/X0490E/X0490E00.htm, or
www.kimberly.uidaho.edu/ref-et/fao56.pdf )
Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Santosh Kumar
Garg (1999)
Irrigation Management, Volume II, by B.L. Darra, and C.S.
Raghuvanshi (1999)
Irrigation Water management: Principles and Practice by Dilip
Kumar Majumdar (2000)
Irrigation Engineering by G.L. Asawa (1993)
Fundamental principles of Irrigation Engineering by VB Priyani
(1979)
Irrigation and drainage papers by FAO
IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE PAPERS
1 Irrigation practice and water management, 1971 (Ar* E* F*
21. Groundwater models, 1973 (E*)
S*) 22. Water for agriculture - index, 1973 (E/F/S*)
1 Rev. 1 Irrigation practice and water management, 1984
23. Simulation methods in water development, 1974
(E*) (E* F* S*)
2. Irrigation canal lining (New edition, 1977, available in E, F 24. Crop water requirements (rev.) 1977 (C* E F
and S in the FAO Land and Water Development S)
Series, No. 1) 25. Effective rainfall, 1974 (C* E* F* S*)
3. Design criteria for basin irrigation systems, 1971 (E*) 26/1. Small hydraulic structures - Vol. 1, 1975 (E* F*
4. Village irrigation programmes - a new approach in water S*)
economy, 1971 (E* F*) 26/2. Small hydraulic structures - Vol. 2, 1975 (E* F*
5. Automated irrigation, 1971 (E* F* S*) S*)
6. Drainage of heavy soils, 1971 (E* F* S*) 27. Agro-meteorological field stations, 1976 (E* F*
7. Salinity seminar, Baghdad, 1971 (E* F) S*)
8. Water and the environment, 1971 (E* F* S*) 28. Drainage testing, 1976 (E* F* S*)
9. Drainage materials, 1972 (E* F* S*)
29. Water quality for agriculture, 1976 (E* F* S*)
10. Integrated farm water management, 1971 (E* F* S*)
29. Rev. 1 Water quality for agriculture, 1985 (C* E*
F* S*)
11. Planning methodology seminar, Bucharest, 1972 (E* F*) 30. Self-help wells, 1977 (E*)
12. Farm water management seminar, Manila 1972 (E*) 31. Groundwater pollution, 1979 (C* E* S)
13. Water use seminar, Damascus, 1972 (E* F*) 32. Deterministic models in hydrology, 1979 (E*)
14. Trickle irrigation, 1973 (E* F* S*) 33. Yield response to water, 1979 (C* E F S)
15. Drainage machinery, 1973 (E* F*) 34. Corrosion and encrustation in water wells, 1980
16. Drainage of salty soils, 1973 (C* E* F* S*) (E*)
17. Man's influence on the hydrological cycle, 1973 (E* F* 35. Mechanized sprinkler irrigation, 1982 (C E* F S*)
S*) 36. Localized irrigation, 1980 (Ar* C E* F S*)
18. Groundwater seminar, Granada, 1973 (E* F* S*) 37. Arid zone hydrology, 1980 (E*)
19. Mathematical models in hydrology, 1978 (E*) 38. Drainage design factors, 1980 (Ar C E F S)
20/1. Water laws in Moslem countries - Vol. 1, 1973 (E* 39. Lysimeters, 1982 (C E* F* S*)
F*) 40. Organization, operation and maintenance of
20/2. Water laws in Moslem countries - Vol. 2, 1978 (E F) irrigation schemes, 1982 (C** E* F S*)
Ref: http://www.fao.org/Ag/agl/public.stm#aglwbu
Irrigation and drainage papers by FAO
41. Environmental management for vector control in rice fields, 1984 (E* F* S*)
42. Consultation on irrigation in Africa, 1986 (E F)
43. Water lifting devices, 1986 (E F)
44. Design and optimization of irrigation distribution networks, 1988 (E F)
45. Guidelines for designing and evaluating surface irrigation systems, 1989 (E*)
46. CROPWAT - a computer program for irrigation planning and management, 1992 (E F* S*)
47. Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture, 1992 (E*)
48. The use of saline waters for crop production, 1993 (E)
49. CLIMWAT for CROPWAT, 1993 (E)
50. Le pompage olien, 1993 (F)
51. Prospects for the drainage of clay soils, 1995 (E)
52. Reforming water resources policy, 1995 (E)
53. Environmental impact assessment of irrigation and drainage projects,1995 (E)
54. Crues et apports, 1996 (F)
55. Control of water pollution from agriculture, 1996 (E* S)
55. Lucha contra la contaminacin agrcola de los recursos hdricos, 1997 (E* S)
56. Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements, 1998 (E)
57. Soil salinity assessment: methods and interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements, 1999 (E)
58. Transfer of irrigation management services: guidelines. 1999 (E F S)
58. Transferencia de la gestin des riego - Directrices, 2001 (E F S)
58. Transfert des Services de Gestion de l 'Irrigation - Directives, 2001, (E F S)
59. Performance analysis of on-demand pressurized irrigation systems,2000 (E)
60. Materials for subsurface land drainage systems, 2000 (E)
61. Agricultural drainage water management in arid and semi-arid areas, 2002 (E)

Ref: http://www.fao.org/Ag/agl/public.stm#aglwbu
Introduction
Definition of Irrigation
Artificial application of water on an
agricultural land for the assured growth of
plant life (Priyani 1979).
Rainfed Agriculture vs. Irrigated Agriculture?

Why Irrigation?
WHY IRRIGATION?
Population Explosion (Global Scenario)

Population is increasing very fast

1-12-2010 Estimated Population = 6.88792 Billion Ref: http://www.worldometers.info/population/


WHY IRRIGATION? (Contd..)
Problem with less developed countries

The increase is more severe for less developed countries


How food requirements are being fulfilled

Is food demand being fulfilled by More CROPPED


AREA?

During 1910-1995 in the World


Population raised by 251%
Cropped area per capita reduced by 50%

Yet World is fulfilling the food and fiber needs of 6-7


billion of population.

HOW the raised population is being taken care off?


Increased population and Irrigation
(Continued)

This was solved by:


An increase in reservoirs storage capacity by 116
times (from 114 km3 to 13,152 km3)

Which lead to an increased Irrigated Area by 435%

which is

an increase of 50% in Irrigated Area per capita


Which lead to increased food protections.
Increase in Storage Capacity and
Irrigated area in the World
120 Global Reservoir Storage (1910=1) 12
Global Irrigated Land (1910 =1)
100 10
Reservoir Storage (1910=1)

Irrigated Area w.r.t. 1910


80 8

60 6

40 4

20 2

0 0
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Irrigated area in USA

During 1910-1995 in USA


Population raised 184%
Cropped area per capita reduced by 70%
Cropped area reduced by 7%

Yet USA is largest manipulator of Worlds corn


market (largest exporter of corns),

HOW the raised population of USA is being


taken care off?
Irrigated area in USA (continued)

One major factor is


An increased reservoirs storage capacity in
USA by 90 times (from 37km3 to 3,335 km3)

Which lead to
An increased Irrigated area by 353%.

Which lead to
Increased food protection
Increase in Storage Capacity and
Irrigated area in USA
100 US Reservoir Storage (1910=1) 10
90 US Irrigated Land (1910 =1) 9
8
Reservoir Storage w.r.t. 1910

80

Irrigated Area w.r.t. 1910


70 7
60 6
50 5
40 4
30 3
20 2
10 1
0 0
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Scarce WATER:
Water Stress: withdrawal-to-availability ratio

Severe
Water
Stress

Growth of demand and competition


per capita per year freshwater availability

Fresh water is a limited resource


WHY IRRIGATION? (Contd.)
To mitigate effects of water shortage
Reliable Irrigation is necessary

Drought

Temporal and spatial variability of water


WATER USE FOR IRRIGATION NEED TO BE
RATIONALIZED
Current IRRIGATION WITHDRAWLS ARE not sustainable

High-Income Global Low and Medium


Countries Income Countries

11% 8% 8%
30% 10%
23%

69%
59% 82%

Agricultural Use

Domestic Use
Variation in Sectoral water demand
Industrial Use
Forecast of Demands by sectors

Sectoral demands increasing and new demands emerging


such as for environmental and river maintenance
Soil-water-plant relationship, methods
of estimating crop water requirements
Soil as a porous media
Provides
Physical support
Nutrients and
Water
Water (or moisture) in Soil
Hygroscopic Moisture
Capillary Moisture
Gravitational (or free) Moisture
Moisture Contents
Oven dry soil = zero moisture
Air dry soil = Hygroscopic moisture
Wilting Coefficient
The moisture content (%) in soil above which
the water is available for the plant for growth.
If m.c. > (Hyg. m.c.)x1.5 then water is
available to plant
Max. Capillary Capacity: The m.c. above
which the water will start flowing under gravity.
Important Moisture Contents
Type of Hygrosco Wilting Max. Available Total
Soil pic m.c. Coefficient Capillary Capacity Capacity
(%) (%) Capacity (%) (Voids) %
(%)

1 2 3 4 5=4-3 6
Coarse 1 1.5 13 11.5 33
Sand
Fine Sand 2.1 3.3 14 10.7 34
Loam 9.1 13.4 18 4.6 38
Clay 13.2 16.5 20 3.5 42

Priyani, 1979, p-275


Soil Water

Saturation point

Gravitational moisture
Max. Capillary Cap.
Moisture (%)
Capillary moisture
Wilting point (or Coeff.)
Air dry soil
Hygroscopic moisture
0 (%) Oven dry soil
Definitions
Crop Period (days, Sowing to Harvesting)
Base Period (B days, First watering to last watering)
Delta (, Total quantity in units of depth)
Water Allowance: Discharge in cusecs required to
irrigate 1,000 acres land.
Duty (of water, D): Area (hectares) irrigated by a unit
discharge (may be cumecs) provided over whole base
period (B days)
In SI Units: 1*(B*86400) / (Dx10,000)=Delta (m)
Or = 864 B/D centimeters
Find Delta of a crop if its duty is 864 hectares/cumecs on a field, the
base period is 120 days.
Ans: 120cm
Crops
Kharif (April-Sep)
Rice, Sorghum (Jawar), Millet (Bajra), Cotton
Rabi (Oct.- March)
Wheat, Gram (Channa), Barlay (Jau)
Other
Sugercane (Prennial), Vegetables (potato, onions,
etc.)
Land use of Pakistan (2003-04)
Area
No. Type Million Hactares
1 Geographical Area 79.61

2 Area Reported 59.47

3 Not Available for Cultivation 24.20

4=2-3 Agricultural Land 35.27

5 Forest Land 4.04

6=4-5 Arable Land 31.23

7 Culturable Waste 9.10

8=6-7 Cultivated Area 22.13

9 Current Fallows 6.05

10=8-9 Net Area Sown 16.08

11 Area Sown more than Once 6.40

12=10+11 Total Cropped Area 22.48

Ref: Pakistan Statistical Year Book, 2005, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Govt. of Pakistan (FPS-381/1200).
Crops, Area and Yield in Pakistan
Cropped Area Under various crops (000, hactare), Total cropped area= 22.48 million hactare
%age of
Total
Area
Sown
Average (16.08Mill
Major Crop 1994-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 2000-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 1994-2004 ion Ha)

Wheat 8169.8 8376.5 8109.1 8354.6 8229.9 8463 8180.8 8057.5 8033.9 8216.2 8,219 51.11

Cotton 2652.8 2997.3 3148.6 2959.7 2922.8 2983.1 2927.5 3115.8 2793.6 2989.3 2,949 18.34

Rice 2124.6 2161.8 2251.1 2317.3 2423.6 2515.4 2376.6 2114.2 2225.2 2460.6 2,297 14.29

Sugarcane 1009 963.1 964.5 1056.2 1155.1 1009.8 960.8 999.7 1099.6 1074.5 1,029 6.40

Gram 1064.5 1118.9 1100.2 1102.3 1076.9 971.8 905 933.9 963 982.3 1,022 6.35
Maize 889.5 938.7 927.7 932.6 962.2 961.7 944 941.6 935.5 947.1 938 5.83
Bajra (millet) 508.5 406.8 302.9 460 462.5 313 389.6 417.1 349.3 539.3 415 2.58
Jowar (Sorghum) 438.2 417.8 369.6 390.3 382.7 357.4 353.6 357.6 338.1 342.5 375 2.33
Oil Seeds(sunflower) 68.3 86.2 98.5 98.4 144.1 114.2 59 65.1 110 258 110 0.69
Ref: Pakistan Statistical Year Book, 2005, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Govt. of Pakistan (FPS-
381/1200).
Yield of Important Crops in Pakistan (Kg/hactare)

Average
Major Crops 1994-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 2000-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 1994-2004
Wheat 2081 2018 2053 2238 2169 2490 2325 2262 2388 2373 2,240
Cotton 558 601 506 528 512 641 624 579 622 572 574
Rice 1622 1835 1912 1870 1928 2050 2021 1836 2013 1970 1,906
Sugarcane 47000 44000 50000 48000 46000 45000 48000 47000 47000 50000 47,200
Gram 525 607 540 696 648 581 439 388 701 622 575
Maize 1482 1602 1607 1627 1730 1718 1741 1768 1857 2003 1,714
Bajra (millet) 449 397 481 459 460 497 511 519 542 508 482
Jowar (Sorghum) 601 610 593 593 595 617 618 620 599 607 605
Oil Seeds(sunflower) 1253 1270 1307 1317 1302 1311 1163 1174 1199 1403 1,270
Ref: Pakistan Statistical Year Book, 2005, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Govt. of Pakistan (FPS-381/1200).
Salient details of some crops
Crop Sowing Harvesting Crop Yield Delta (mm)
duration (100 Kg /ha)
(days)
Rice June-July Oct. -Nov. 120-160 20-40 1500-2000,
1200*
Maize June-July Sep.-Oct. 100-125 15-30 150-200
Sorghum June-July Oct.-Nov. 100-120 15-30 150-200
(Jawar)
Millet (Bajra) July Oct.-Nov. 90-110 15-30 150-200

Cotton April-May Nov.-Jan. 150-180 2-5 (with 500-700


seeds)
Wheat Nov-Dec. April-May 125-150 20-40 300-400
Sugercane Oct.-Nov. and Oct.-April 300-325 8000-10000
Virtual 1500-2000,
Feb-March Water?? 1200*

Ref. Asawa, 1993 /p25


* Other