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School of Engineering and Technology

Bachelor of Technology (Honours) Degree in Industrial

& Manufacturing Engineering

COURSE TITLE: Workshop Technology II (Conventional/parallel)

COURSE CODE: EIM 125 (2 Credit)
PREPARED BY: M.T. Dzanya (Mr.)

Introduction to Tool Wear and Chip Generation

Formation of the chip depends on the type of material being machined and the cutting
conditions of the operation. Four basic types of chip can be distinguished.

Discontinuous chip
When relatively brittle materials (e.g., cast irons) are machined at low cutting speeds, the
chips often form into separate segments (sometimes the segments are loosely attached). This
tends to impart an irregular texture to the machined surface. High toolchip friction and large
feed and depth of cut promote the formation of this chip type.

Continuous chip
When ductile work materials are cut at high speeds and relatively small feeds and depths,
long continuous chips are formed. A good surface finish typically results when this chip type
is formed. A sharp cutting edge on the tool and low toolchip friction encourage the

formation of continuous chips. Long, continuous chips (as in turning) can cause problems
with regard to chip disposal and/or tangling about the tool. To solve these problems, turning
tools are often equipped with chip breakers.

Fig 1 Four types of chip formation in metal cutting: (a) discontinuous, (b) continuous, (c)
continuous with built-up edge, (d) serrated.

Continuous chip with built-up edge

When machining ductile materials at low cutting speeds, friction between tool and chip tends
to cause portions of the work material to adhere to the rake face of the tool near the cutting
edge. This formation is called a built-up edge (BUE). The formation of a BUE is cyclical; it
forms and grows, then becomes unstable and breaks off. Much of the detached BUE is
carried away with the chip, sometimes taking portions of the tool rake face with it, which
reduces the life of the cutting tool. Portions of the detached BUE that are not carried off with
the chip become imbedded in the newly created work surface, causing the surface to become

Serrated chips
(the term shear-localized is also used for this fourth chip type). These chips are semi-
continuous in the sense that they possess a saw-tooth appearance that is produced by a
cyclical chip formation of alternating high shear strain followed by low shear strain. This
fourth type of chip is most closely associated with certain difficult-to-machine metals such as
titanium alloys, nickel-base super alloys, and austenitic stainless steels when they are
machined at higher cutting speeds. However, the phenomenon is also found with more
common work metals (e.g., steels) when they are cut at high speeds.

Cutting FluidsTypes and Applications

Cutting fluids are essential in metal-cutting operations to reduce heat and friction. Centuries
ago, water was used on grindstones 100 years ago. The early 20th century saw soap added to
water and used as a cutting fluid. Soluble oils came in in 1936 and chemical cutting fluids
introduced where then introduces in 1944.

Nowadays, cutting fluids have been used extensively in machining operations to achieve the
following results:
Reduce friction and wear, thus improving tool life and the surface finish of the
Cool the cutting zone, thus improving tool life and reducing the temperature and
thermal distortion of the workpiece.
Reduce forces and energy consumption.
Flush away the chips from the cutting zone, thus preventing the chips from interfering
with the cutting process, particularly in operations such as drilling and tapping.
Protect the machined surface from environmental corrosion.

Depending on the type of machining operation, the cutting fluid needed may be a coolant, a
lubricant, or both. The effectiveness of cutting fluids depends on a number of factors, such as
the type of machining operation, tool and workpiece materials, cutting speed, and the method
of application. Water is an excellent coolant and can effectively reduce the high temperatures
developed in the cutting zone. However, water is not an effective lubricant; hence, it does not
reduce friction. Furthermore, it can cause oxidation (rusting) of workpiece and machine-tool

Economic Advantages to Using Cutting Fluids

Reduction of tool costs
Reduced tool wear, tools last longer
Increased speed of production
Reduce heat and friction hence the use of higher cutting speeds
Reduction of labour costs
Tools last longer and require less regrinding, less downtime, reducing cost per part

Reduction of power costs
Friction reduced so less power required by machining.

Characteristics of a Good Cutting Fluid

i. Good cooling capacity
ii. Good lubricating qualities
iii. Resistance to rancidity
iv. Relatively low viscosity
v. Stability (long life)
vi. Rust resistance
vii. Nontoxic
viii. Transparent
ix. Non-flammable

Types of Cutting Fluids

Briefly, four general types of cutting fluids are used in machining operations:
1. Oils (also called straight oils), including mineral, animal, vegetable, compounded, and
synthetic oils, typically are used for low-speed operations where temperature rise is
not significant.
2. Emulsions (also called soluble oils), a mixture of oil and water and additives,
generally are used for high-speed operations because the temperature rise is
significant. The presence of water makes emulsions highly effective coolants. The
presence of oil reduces or eliminates the tendency of water to cause oxidation.
3. Semi-synthetics are chemical emulsions containing little mineral oil, diluted in water,
and with additives that reduce the size of oil particles, making them more effective.
4. Synthetics are chemicals with additives, diluted in water, and containing no oil.
Because of the complex interactions among the cutting fluid, the workpiece materials,
temperature, time, and cutting-process variables, the application of fluids cannot be

The three forms of tool wear are flank, crater and notch.

Flank wear develops on the flank of the main cutting edge over the length that equals the
chip width and also on the tool tip and on the minor cutting edge, all along the part of the tool
edge that is engaged in cutting. Flank wear, occurs on the flank, or relief face, of the tool. It
results from rubbing between the newly generated work surface and the flank face adjacent to
the cutting edge. Flank wear is measured by the width of the wear band, FW.

Crater wear develops on the rake face of the tool and can be expressed by measuring the
crater depth. Crater develops only in some cutting operations, depending on the
tool/workpiece material combinations and on the cutting speeds used. It consists of a cavity
in the rake face of the tool that forms and grows from the action of the chip sliding against
the surface. High stresses and temperatures characterize the toolchip contact interface,
contributing to the wearing action.

FIG 2 Diagram of worn cutting tool, showing the principal locations and types of wear that

At both sides of the cutting edge engagement, but not in all cases, a notch develops. It is
primarily an oxidation phenomenon, and this is why it is generated at a point of the edge that
is rather hot but not protected from the access of air by the chip and by the machined surface.

Any of the three forms of wear (flank, crater, and notch) may grow so much as to become the
limiting factor of the particular cutting operation, that is, to determine the end of tool life. The
criteria for tool life as expressed may differ depending on the type of the tool and type of the

High speed steel tools are reground after tool life ends. If any form of wear is too great, too
much of the tool material on the tool flank or on its rake face or both must be ground away.

There are several different causes and mechanisms of tool wear. Friction on the rake face and
on the flank of the tool occurs under intimate contact of freshly created surfaces of the
workpiece material with practically no presence of air. The coolant penetrates into this
contact only at very low cutting speeds. The pressure in the contact is at least equal to the
yield stress of the workpiece material. The temperatures in the contact are high and may
reach the melting temperature of one of the materials in contact, most often that of the
workpiece material.

The various mechanisms that contribute to the wear process are:

1. Mechanical over-load causing micro-breakages (Attrition)

2. Abrasion
3. Adhesion
4. Diffusion
5. Oxidation


The grains of the various components of the tool material hold together at grain boundaries.
Those on the rake face and on the flank are supported on at least half of their surface and can
therefore be rather easily broken out, embedded in the machined surface and in the underside
of the chip, and dragged over the tool surface. Some of them may break out other grains and
produce a kind of a chain effect.


Abrasion is the commonly known wear process in which a harder material scratches a softer
material over which it is sliding under normal pressure. This mechanism is significant for tool
wear only in those instances where the workpiece material is very hard or contains hard
particles: cast iron with grains of cementite, various metals containing hard inclusions like
hypereutectic aluminium with SiC grains, steel killed with aluminium and containing Al2O3,
and so on. The machined surface is cooler than the tool flank, and it may happen that the tool
material is softened more than some of the constituents of the workpiece materials, which
creates the conditions for abrasion.


In the conditions of intimate contact between the tool and the freshly created surfaces on the
workpiece and on the underside of the chip, welding of the workpiece surface and the chip to
the tool can often be observed. The extreme case is built-up edge, which is formed I the low
to middle speed range. Layers of the workpiece material welded to the tool are found in
ductile materials like ferritic and austenitic steels, titanium alloys, and nickel-based alloys.
The welded layers and points are periodically sheared. The mechanism contributes to flank
wear as well as the formation of the crater.


Diffusion is an important mechanism and plays a significant role at higher cutting speeds in
some workpiece/tool material combinations. The diffusion rate, that is, the amount of atoms
of a material penetrating into another material depends on the affinity of the two, very
strongly on temperature, and on the gradient of concentration of the penetrating atoms in the
solvent material. The latter aspect is very special in cutting, because the chip material that
absorbs the atoms of the tool material is continuously being carried away, and all the time
new, virgin unsaturated material is always arriving.

The diffusion rate is highest at the point of highest temperature. This is about in the middle of
the chip contact length, and that is where the crater becomes deepest. Diffusion is the most
significant factor in crater wear, but it also participates in flank wear. Diffusion rate increases

with cutting speed as the temperature at the contacts on the rake face and on the flank

In cutting steel diffusion occurs between the chip and the iron in the HSS ad Co in the SC, as
well as between carbon-hungry steel in carbides.


The atoms in the cutting tool/or work material form new molecules at the contact boundary
where the area is exposed to the air (i.e. oxygen). Tungsten and cobalt in the cutting tool are
oxidized close to the work surface-cutting tool flank, which leads to a notch wear on the
cutting tool. Depending on the tool-work materials, tool geometry, and cutting conditions,
one wear mechanism may be dominant, but all of them occur simultaneously but at different
rates. The wear of the tool localises at two regions where the tool is contact with the work
material. The chip moves over the rake face until it leaves the contact area, where crater wear
occurs. The freshly cut surface contacts the flank face of the tool, where the flank wear is

Recommended Reading

JAIN R.K (2002): Production Technology, Khanna Publishers, Delhi. India

Chandola S.P (2002) Workshop Technology 3 Advanced Techniques, New Delhi, India.

Groover M.P. (2010), Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4th addition, John Wiley
and Sons, Inc.

Tlusty, G. (2000), Manufacturing Processes and Equipment, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey.

Kalpakjian, S., (2006), Manufacturing Engineering and technology 6th addition.

Printice Hall, New Jersey.

Oberg, E. (2008), Machinery Handbook 28th edition, Industrial Press, New York.

Internet Sources