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502

Formulas for Stress and Strain

[CHAP. 11

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for flat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness

NOTATION: The notation for Table 11.2 applies with the following modifications: a and b refer to plate dimensions, and when used as subscripts for stress, they refer to the stresses in directions parallel to the sides a and b, respectively. s is a bending stress which is positive when tensile on the bottom and compressive on the top if loadings are considered vertically downward. R is the

reaction force per unit ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi length normal to the plate surface exerted by the boundary support on the edge of the plate. r o 0 is the equivalent radius of contact for a load concentrated on a very small area

and is given by r 0 o ¼

p

1:6r

2

o

þ t 2 0:675t if r o < 0:5t and r o 0 ¼ r o if r o 5 0:5t

Case no., shape, and supports

1. Rectangular plate; all edges simply supported

1. Rectangular plate; all edges simply supported
supports 1. Rectangular plate; all edges simply supported Case no., loading 1a. Uniform over entire plate

Case no., loading

1a. Uniform over entire plate

1b. Uniform over small concentric circle of radius r o (note

definition of r 0 o )

Formulas and tabulated specific values

(At center of long sides) R max ¼ gqb

a=b

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

1

b

0.2874

0.3762

0.4530

0.5172

0.5688

0.6102

0.7134

0.7410

0.7476

0.7500

a

0.0444

0.0616

0.0770

0.0906

0.1017

0.1110

0.1335

0.1400

0.1417

0.1421

g

0.420

0.455

0.478

0.491

0.499

0.503

0.505

0.502

0.501

0.500

(Ref. 21 for n ¼ 0:3)

 

s max ¼ 3W

2pt 2

 

2b

 

(At center)

ð1 þ nÞ ln

pr

0

o

þ b

y max ¼ aWb 2 Et 3

a=b

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

1

b

0.435

0.650

0.789

0.875

0.927

0.958

1.000

a

0.1267

0.1478

0.1621

0.1715

0.1770

0.1805

0.1851

(Ref. 21 for n ¼ 0:3)

(At center)

s max ¼ s b ¼ bqb 2

t

2

(At center) s m a x ¼ s b ¼ b q b 2 t 2

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

Et 3

SEC. 11.14]

Flat Plates

503

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for flat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

1c. Uniform over central rectangular area

1c. Uniform over central rectangular area

1d. Uniformly

increasing along

length

1d. Uniformly increasing along length

1e. Uniformly

increasing along

width

1e. Uniformly increasing along width
a 1 =b b 1 =b
a 1 =b
b 1 =b
 

a

¼ b

 

a ¼ 1:4b

   

a ¼ 2b

 

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

0

0.2

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.4

0

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

2.0

0

 

1.82

1.38

1.12

0.93

0.76

 

2.0

1.55

1.12

0.84

0.75

 

1.64

1.20

0.97

0.78

0.64

0.2

1.82

1.28

1.08

0.90

0.76

0.63

1.78

1.43

1.23

0.95

0.74

0.64

1.73

1.31

1.03

0.84

0.68

0.57

0.4

1.39

1.07

0.84

0.72

0.62

0.52

1.39

1.13

1.00

0.80

0.62

0.55

1.32

1.08

0.88

0.74

0.60

0.50

0.6

1.12

0.90

0.72

0.60

0.52

0.43

1.10

0.91

0.82

0.68

0.53

0.47

1.04

0.90

0.76

0.64

0.54

0.44

0.8

0.92

0.76

0.62

0.51

0.42

0.36

0.90

0.76

0.68

0.57

0.45

0.40

0.87

0.76

0.63

0.54

0.44

0.38

1.0

0.76

0.63

0.52

0.42

0.35

0.30

0.75

0.62

0.57

0.47

0.38

0.33

0.71

0.61

0.53

0.45

0.38

0.30

(Values from charts of Ref. 8; n ¼ 0:3.)

a=b

1

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

b

0.16

0.26

0.34

0.38

0.43

0.47

0.49

a

0.022

0.043

0.060

0.070

0.078

0.086

0.091

(Values from charts of Ref. 8; n ¼ 0:3.)

a=b

1

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

b

0.16

0.26

0.32

0.35

0.37

0.38

0.38

a

0.022

0.042

0.056

0.063

0.067

0.069

0.070

(Values from charts of Ref. 8; n ¼ 0:3.)

(At center)

s max ¼ s b ¼ bW

t

2

(At center) s m a x ¼ s b ¼ b W t 2 where W

where

W ¼ qa 1 b 1

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

s max ¼ b q b 2 t 2 and y m a x ¼ a

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

Et

3

s max ¼ b q b 2 t 2 and y m a x ¼ a
s max ¼ b q b 2 t 2 and y m a x ¼ a

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

s max ¼ b q b 2 t 2 and y m a x ¼ a

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

Et

3

s max ¼ b q b 2 t 2 and y m a x ¼ a
s max ¼ b q b 2 t 2 and y m a x ¼ a

504

Formulas for Stress and Strain

[CHAP. 11

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for flat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

Case no., shape, and supports

Case no., shape, and supports Case no., loading 1f. Uniform over entire plate plus uniform tension

Case no., loading

1f. Uniform over entire plate plus uniform tension or compression P lb=linear in applied to short edges

1f. Uniform over entire plate plus uniform tension or compression P lb = linear in applied

Formulas and tabulated specific values

qb

4

ðs a Þ max ¼ b x

qb

2 qb 2

: Here a; b x ; and b y depend on ratios a

b

and

P P E ; where P E ¼

p 2 Et 2 Þb 2 ; and have

3

Et

3

t

2 ðs b Þ max ¼ b y

t 2

3ð1 n

y max ¼ a

the following values:

Coef.

P=P E a=b
P=P E
a=b

0

0.15

0.25

0.50

0.75

1

2

3

4

5

P, Tension

 

1

0.044

0.039

0.030

0.023

0.015

0.011

0.008

0.0075

1

1

2

0.084

0.075

0.060

0.045

0.0305

0.024

0.019

0.0170

a

2

0.110

0.100

0.084

0.067

0.0475

0.0375

0.030

0.0260

3

0.133

0.125

0.1135

0.100

0.081

0.066

0.057

0.0490

4

0.140

0.136

0.1280

0.118

0.102

0.089

0.080

0.072

 

1

0.287

   

0.135

0.096

0.072

0.054

0.045

1

1

2

0.300

0.150

0.105

0.078

0.066

0.048

b

x

2

0.278

0.162

0.117

0.093

0.075

0.069

 

3

0.246

0.180

0.150

0.126

0.105

0.093

4

0.222

0.192

0.168

0.156

0.138

0.124

 

1

0.287

   

0.132

0.084

0.054

0.036

0.030

1

2

1

0.487

0.610

0.240

0.360

0.156

0.258

0.114

0.198

0.090

0.162

0.072

0.138

b

y

2

 

3

0.713

0.510

0.414

0.348

0.294

0.258

4

0.741

0.624

0.540

0.480

0.420

0.372

P, Compression

 

1

0.044

0.060

0.094

0.180

1

1

2

0.084

0.109

0.155

0.237

a

2

0.110

0.139

0.161

0.181

3

0.131

0.145

0.150

0.150

4

0.140

0.142

0.142

0.138

 

1

0.287

0.372

0.606

1.236

1

1

2

0.300

0.372

0.522

0.846

b

x

2

0.278

0.330

0.390

0.450

 

3

0.246

0.228

0.228

0.210

4

0.222

0.225

0.225

0.225

 

1

0.287

0.420

0.600

1.260

1

2

1

0.487

0.610

0.624

0.720

0.786

0.900

1.380

1.020

b

y

2

 

3

0.713

0.750

0.792

0.750

4

0.741

0.750

0.750

0.750

In the above formulas s a and s b are stresses due to bending only; add direct stress P=t to s a

(Ref. 41)

SEC. 11.14]

Flat Plates

505

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for flat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

2. Rectangular plate; three edges simply supported, one edge ( b ) free 1g. Uniform

2. Rectangular plate; three edges simply supported, one edge (b) free

2. Rectangular plate; three edges simply supported, one edge ( b ) free
plate; three edges simply supported, one edge ( b ) free 1g. Uniform over entire plate

1g. Uniform over entire plate plus uniform tension P lb=linear in applied to all edges

1g. Uniform over entire plate plus uniform tension P lb = linear in applied to all

2a. Uniform over entire plate

2d. Uniformly increasing along the a side

qb

4

ðs a Þ max ¼ b x

qb

2 qb 2

: Here a; b x ; and b y depend on ratios a

b

and

P P E ; where P E ¼

p 2 Et 2 Þb 2 ; and have

3

Et

3

t

2 ðs b Þ max ¼ b y

t 2

3ð1 n

y max ¼ a

the following values:

Coef.

P=P E a=b
P=P E
a=b

0

0.15

0.5

1

2

3

4

5

 

1

0.044

0.035

0.022

0.015

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.003

1

1

0.084

0.060

0.035

0.022

0.012

0.008

0.006

0.005

2

a

2

0.110

0.075

0.042

0.025

0.014

0.010

0.007

0.006

3

0.133

0.085

0.045

0.026

0.016

0.011

0.008

0.007

4

0.140

0.088

0.046

0.026

0.016

0.011

0.008

0.007

 

1

0.287

0.216

0.132

0.084

0.048

0.033

0.026

0.021

1

1

0.300

0.204

0.117

0.075

0.045

0.031

0.024

0.020

2

b

x

2

0.278

0.189

0.111

0.072

0.044

0.031

0.024

0.020

 

3

0.246

0.183

0.108

0.070

0.043

0.031

0.025

0.020

4

0.222

0.183

0.108

0.074

0.047

0.032

0.027

0.024

 

1

0.287

0.222

0.138

0.090

0.051

0.036

0.030

0.024

1

1

0.487

0.342

0.186

0.108

0.066

0.042

0.036

0.030

2

b

y

2

0.610

0.302

0.216

0.132

0.072

0.051

0.042

0.036

 

3

0.713

0.444

0.234

0.141

0.078

0.054

0.042

0.036

4

0.741

0.456

0.240

0.144

0.078

0.054

0.042

0.036

In the above formulas s a and s b are stresses due to bending only; add direct stress P=t to s a and s b :

(Ref. 42)

a=b

0.50

0.667

1.0

1.5

2.0

4.0

b

0.36

0.45

0.67

0.77

0.79

0.80

a

0.080

0.106

0.140

0.160

0.165

0.167

(Ref. 8 for v ¼ 0:3)

a=b

0.50

0.667

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

b

0.11

0.16

0.20

0.28

0.32

0.35

0.36

0.37

0.37

a

0.026

0.033

0.040

0.050

0.058

0.064

0.067

0.069

0.070

(Ref. 8 for v ¼ 0:3)

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

s max ¼ b q b 2 t 2 and y m a x ¼ a

and

y max ¼ aqb 4 Et 3

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

s max ¼ b q b 2 t 2 and y m a x ¼ a

and

y max ¼ aqb 4 Et 3

506

Formulas for Stress and Strain

[CHAP. 11

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for flat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

Case no., shape, and supports

3. Rectangular plate; three edges simply supported, one short edge (b) fixed

3. Rectangular plate; three edges simply supported, one short edge ( b ) fixed

4. Rectangular plate; three edges simply supported, one long edge (a) fixed

4. Rectangular plate; three edges simply supported, one long edge ( a ) fixed

5. Rectangular plate; two long edges simply supported, two short edges fixed

5. Rectangular plate; two long edges simply supported, two short edges fixed

6. Rectangular plate; two long edges fixed, two short edges simply supported

6. Rectangular plate; two long edges fixed, two short edges simply supported

Case no., loading

3a. Uniform over entire plate

4a. Uniform over entire plate

5a. Uniform over entire plate

6a. Uniform over entire plate

Formulas and tabulated specific values

a=b

1

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

b

0.50

0.67

0.73

0.74

0.75

0.75

0.75

a

0.030

0.071

0.101

0.122

0.132

0.137

0.139

(Values from charts of Ref. 8; n ¼ 0:3)

a=b

1

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

b

0.50

0.66

0.73

0.74

0.74

0.75

0.75

a

0.030

0.046

0.054

0.056

0.057

0.058

0.058

(Values from charts of Ref. 8; n ¼ 0:3)

(At center of short edges)

(At center)

y max ¼ aqb 4 Et 3

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

a=b

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

1

b

0.4182

0.5208

0.5988

0.6540

0.6912

0.7146

0.750

a

0.0210

0.0349

0.0502

0.0658

0.0800

0.0922

(Ref. 21)

(At center of long edges)

(At center)

y max ¼ aqb 4 Et 3

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

a=b

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

1

b

0.4182

0.4626

0.4860

0.4968

0.4971

0.4973

0.500

a

0.0210

0.0243

0.0262

0.0273

0.0280

0.0283

0.0285

(Ref. 21)

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

s max ¼ b q b 2 t 2 and y m a x ¼ a

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

Et 3

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

s max ¼ b q b 2 t 2 and y m a x ¼ a

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

Et 3

SEC. 11.14]

Flat Plates

507

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for flat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

7. Rectangular plate; one edge fixed, opposite edge free, remaining edges simply supported

7. Rectangular plate; one edge fixed, opposite edge free, remaining edges simply supported
fixed, opposite edge free, remaining edges simply supported 7a. Uniform over entire plate 7aa. Uniform over
fixed, opposite edge free, remaining edges simply supported 7a. Uniform over entire plate 7aa. Uniform over
fixed, opposite edge free, remaining edges simply supported 7a. Uniform over entire plate 7aa. Uniform over

7a. Uniform over entire plate

7a. Uniform over entire plate

7aa. Uniform over 3 2 of plate from fixed edge

7aa. Uniform over 3 2 of plate from fixed edge

1

7aaa. Uniform over 3 of plate from fixed edge

1 7aaa. Uniform over 3 of plate from fixed edge

7d. Uniformly decreasing from fixed edge to free edge

7d. Uniformly decreasing from fixed edge to free edge

(At center of free edge)

(At end of free edge)

¼ b 1 qb 2

s ¼ b 2 qb 2

t 2

R ¼ g 2 qb

a=b

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

b

1

0.044

0.176

0.380

0.665

1.282

1.804

2.450

b

2

0.048

0.190

0.386

0.565

0.730

0.688

0.434

g

1

0.183

0.368

0.541

0.701

0.919

1.018

1.055

g

2

0.131

0.295

0.526

0.832

1.491

1.979

2.401

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

s ¼ bqb 2

a=b

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

b

0.044

0.161

0.298

0.454

0.730

0.932

1.158

g

0.183

0.348

0.466

0.551

0.645

0.681

0.689

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

s ¼ bqb 2

a=b

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

b

0.040

0.106

0.150

0.190

0.244

0.277

0.310

g

0.172

0.266

0.302

0.320

0.334

0.338

0.338

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2Þ

s ¼ bqb 2

a=b

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

b

0.037

0.120

0.212

0.321

0.523

0.677

0.866

g

0.159

0.275

0.354

0.413

0.482

0.509

0.517

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2Þ

(At

center

of

fixed edge)

s

t 2

and

R ¼ g 1 qb

(At center of fixed edge)

t 2

and R ¼ gqb

(At center of fixed edge)

t 2

and

R ¼ gqb

(At center of fixed edge)

t 2

and

R ¼ gqb

508

Formulas for Stress and Strain

[CHAP. 11

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for flat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

Case no., shape, and supports

Case no., shape, and supports 8. Rectangular plate, all edges fixed Case no., loading 7dd. Uniformly
Case no., shape, and supports 8. Rectangular plate, all edges fixed Case no., loading 7dd. Uniformly
Case no., shape, and supports 8. Rectangular plate, all edges fixed Case no., loading 7dd. Uniformly

8. Rectangular plate, all edges fixed

8. Rectangular plate, all edges fixed

Case no., loading

7dd. Uniformly

decreasing from fixed edge to zero

at 2

3 b

7dd. Uniformly decreasing from fixed edge to zero at 2 3 b

7ddd. Uniformly decreasing from fixed edge to

1 3 b

zero at

7ddd. Uniformly decreasing from fixed edge to 1 3 b zero at

7f. Distributed line load w lb=in along free edge

7f. Distributed line load w lb = in along free edge

8a. Uniform over entire plate

Formulas and tabulated specific values

s ¼ bqb 2

a=b

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

b

0.033

0.094

0.146

0.200

0.272

0.339

0.400

g

0.148

0.233

0.277

0.304

0.330

0.339

0.340

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

s ¼ bqb 2

a=b

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

b

0.023

0.048

0.061

0.073

0.088

0.097

0.105

g

0.115

0.149

0.159

0.164

0.167

0.168

0.168

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

s b ¼ b 1 wb (At center of fixed edge) and R ¼ g
s b ¼ b 1 wb
(At center of fixed edge)
and
R ¼ g 1 w
t
2
s a ¼ b 2 wb
(At center of free edge)
t
2
(At ends of free edge)
R ¼ g 2 w
a=b
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
b
0.000
0.024
0.188
0.570
1.726
2.899
4.508
1
b
0.321
0.780
1.204
1.554
1.868
1.747
1.120
2
g
0.000
0.028
0.160
0.371
0.774
1.004
1.119
1
g
1.236
2.381
3.458
4.510
6.416
7.772
9.031
2
(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

(At center of long edge)

s max ¼ b 1 qb 2

t

2

(At

a=b

center)

1.0

s ¼ b 2 qb 2

t 2

1.2

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

1.4

Et 3

1.6

1.8

2.0

1

b

1

0.3078

0.3834

0.4356

0.4680

0.4872

0.4974

0.5000

b

2

0.1386

0.1794

0.2094

0.2286

0.2406

0.2472

0.2500

a

0.0138

0.0188

0.0226

0.0251

0.0267

0.0277

0.0284

(Refs. 7 and 25 and Ref. 21 for n ¼ 0:3)

(At center of fixed edge)

t 2

and

R ¼ gqb

(At center of fixed edge)

t 2

and

R ¼ gqb

SEC. 11.14]

Flat Plates

509

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for flat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

8b. Uniform over small concentric circle of radius r o (note definition of r 0
8b. Uniform over small concentric circle of radius r o (note definition of r 0

8b. Uniform over small concentric circle of radius r o (note

definition of r 0 o )

8d.

Uniformly decreasing parallel to side b

8d. Uniformly decreasing parallel to side b

(At center)

 

3W

ð1 þ nÞ ln 2b þ b 1

pr 0

o

and

y max ¼ aWb 2

Et 3

s b ¼

2pt 2

(At center of long edge)

s b ¼ b 2 W

t

2

a=b

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

1

b

1

0.238

0.078

0.011

0.053

0.068

0.067

0.067

b

2

0.7542

0.8940

0.9624

0.9906

1.0000

1.004

1.008

a

0.0611

0.0706

0.0754

0.0777

0.0786

0.0788

0.0791

(Ref. 26 and Ref. 21 for n ¼ 0:3Þ

ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ 0 ðs b Þ max ¼ b 1 qb
ðAt
x
¼
0;
z
¼
0
ðs b Þ max ¼ b 1 qb 2
t
2
s b ¼ b 2 qb 2
ðAt
x ¼ 0; z ¼ 0:4bÞ
and s a ¼ b 3 qb 2
t
2
t
2
s b ¼ b 4 qb 2
ðAt
x ¼ 0; z ¼ bÞ
t
2
ðs a Þ max ¼ b 5 qb 2
y max ¼ aqb 4
Et 3
a=b
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
b
0.1132
0.1778
0.2365
0.2777
0.3004
0.3092
0.3100
0.3068
1
b
0.0410
0.0633
0.0869
0.1038
0.1128
0.1255
0.1157
0.1148
2
b
0.0637
0.0688
0.0762
0.0715
0.0610
0.0509
0.0415
0.0356
3
b
0.0206
0.0497
0.0898
0.1249
0.1482
0.1615
0.1680
0.1709
4
b
0.1304
0.1436
0.1686
0.1800
0.1845
0.1874
0.1902
0.1908
5
a
0.0016
0.0047
0.0074
0.0097
0.0113
0.0126
0.0133
0.0136
(Ref. 28 for n ¼ 0:3)

At x ¼ a ; z ¼ 0:45b

2

t

2

510

Formulas for Stress and Strain

[CHAP. 11

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for flat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

Case no., shape, and supports

9. Rectangular plate, three edges fixed, one edge (a) simply supported

9. Rectangular plate, three edges fixed, one edge ( a ) simply supported
plate, three edges fixed, one edge ( a ) simply supported Case no., loading 9a. Uniform

Case no., loading

9a. Uniform over entire plate

9aa. Uniform over 3 2 of plate from fixed edge

9aa. Uniform over 3 2 of plate from fixed edge

Formulas and tabulated specific values

ðs b Þ max ¼ b 1 qb 2 ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼
ðs b Þ max ¼ b 1 qb 2
ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ 0Þ
and
R ¼ g 1 qb
t
2
s b ¼ b 2 qb 2
s a ¼ b 3 qb 2
ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ 0:6bÞ
and
t
2
t
2
ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ bÞ
R ¼ g 2 qb
a=b
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
b
0.020
0.081
0.173
0.307
0.539
0.657
0.718
1
b
0.004
0.018
0.062
0.134
0.284
0.370
0.422
2
b
0.016
0.061
0.118
0.158
0.164
0.135
0.097
3
b
0.031
0.121
0.242
0.343
0.417
0.398
0.318
4
g
0.115
0.230
0.343
0.453
0.584
0.622
0.625
1
g
0.123
0.181
0.253
0.319
0.387
0.397
0.386
2
g
0.125
0.256
0.382
0.471
0.547
0.549
0.530
3
(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2Þ
ðs b Þ max ¼ b 1 qb 2 s b ¼ b 2 qb
ðs b Þ max ¼ b 1 qb 2
s b ¼ b 2 qb 2
s a ¼ b 3 qb 2
ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ 0:6bÞ
and
t
2
t
2
ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ bÞ
R ¼ g 2 qb
a=b
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
b
0.020
0.080
0.164
0.274
0.445
0.525
0.566
1
b
0.003
0.016
0.044
0.093
0.193
0.252
0.286
2
b
0.012
0.043
0.081
0.108
0.112
0.091
0.066
3
b
0.031
0.111
0.197
0.255
0.284
0.263
0.204
4
g
0.115
0.230
0.334
0.423
0.517
0.542
0.543
1
g
0.002
0.015
0.048
0.088
0.132
0.139
0.131
2
g
0.125
0.250
0.345
0.396
0.422
0.417
0.405
3
(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

At x ¼ a ;z ¼ 0:6b

2

s a ¼ b 4 qb 2

t

2

At x ¼ a ; z ¼ 0 : 6 b 2 s a ¼ b

and

R ¼ g