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502

Formulas for Stress and Strain

[CHAP. 11

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for ﬂat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness

NOTATION: The notation for Table 11.2 applies with the following modiﬁcations: a and b refer to plate dimensions, and when used as subscripts for stress, they refer to the stresses in directions parallel to the sides a and b, respectively. s is a bending stress which is positive when tensile on the bottom and compressive on the top if loadings are considered vertically downward. R is the

reaction force per unit ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ length normal to the plate surface exerted by the boundary support on the edge of the plate. r o 0 is the equivalent radius of contact for a load concentrated on a very small area

 and is given by r 0 o ¼ p 1:6r 2 o

þ t 2 0:675t if r o < 0:5t and r o 0 ¼ r o if r o 5 0:5t

Case no., shape, and supports

1. Rectangular plate; all edges simply supported

1a. Uniform over entire plate

1b. Uniform over small concentric circle of radius r o (note

deﬁnition of r 0 o )

Formulas and tabulated speciﬁc values

(At center of long sides) R max ¼ gqb

 a=b 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 3 4 5 1 b 0.2874 0.3762 0.453 0.5172 0.5688 0.6102 0.7134 0.741 0.7476 0.75 a 0.0444 0.0616 0.077 0.0906 0.1017 0.111 0.1335 0.14 0.1417 0.1421 g 0.42 0.455 0.478 0.491 0.499 0.503 0.505 0.502 0.501 0.5

(Ref. 21 for n ¼ 0:3)

 s max ¼ 3W 2pt 2 2b (At center) ð1 þ nÞ ln pr 0 o þ b y max ¼ aWb 2 Et 3
 a=b 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 1 b 0.435 0.65 0.789 0.875 0.927 0.958 1 a 0.1267 0.1478 0.1621 0.1715 0.177 0.1805 0.1851

(Ref. 21 for n ¼ 0:3)

(At center)

s max ¼ s b ¼ bqb 2

t

2

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

Et 3

SEC. 11.14]

Flat Plates

503

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for ﬂat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

1c. Uniform over central rectangular area

1d. Uniformly

increasing along

length

1e. Uniformly

increasing along

width

 a 1 =b b 1 =b a ¼ b a ¼ 1:4b a ¼ 2b 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.4 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 0 1.82 1.38 1.12 0.93 0.76 2.0 1.55 1.12 0.84 0.75 1.64 1.20 0.97 0.78 0.64 0.2 1.82 1.28 1.08 0.90 0.76 0.63 1.78 1.43 1.23 0.95 0.74 0.64 1.73 1.31 1.03 0.84 0.68 0.57 0.4 1.39 1.07 0.84 0.72 0.62 0.52 1.39 1.13 1.00 0.80 0.62 0.55 1.32 1.08 0.88 0.74 0.60 0.50 0.6 1.12 0.90 0.72 0.60 0.52 0.43 1.10 0.91 0.82 0.68 0.53 0.47 1.04 0.90 0.76 0.64 0.54 0.44 0.8 0.92 0.76 0.62 0.51 0.42 0.36 0.90 0.76 0.68 0.57 0.45 0.40 0.87 0.76 0.63 0.54 0.44 0.38 1.0 0.76 0.63 0.52 0.42 0.35 0.30 0.75 0.62 0.57 0.47 0.38 0.33 0.71 0.61 0.53 0.45 0.38 0.30

(Values from charts of Ref. 8; n ¼ 0:3.)

 a=b 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 b 0.16 0.26 0.34 0.38 0.43 0.47 0.49 a 0.022 0.043 0.06 0.07 0.078 0.086 0.091

(Values from charts of Ref. 8; n ¼ 0:3.)

 a=b 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 b 0.16 0.26 0.32 0.35 0.37 0.38 0.38 a 0.022 0.042 0.056 0.063 0.067 0.069 0.07

(Values from charts of Ref. 8; n ¼ 0:3.)

(At center)

s max ¼ s b ¼ bW

t

2

where

W ¼ qa 1 b 1

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

Et

3

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

Et

3

504

Formulas for Stress and Strain

[CHAP. 11

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for ﬂat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

Case no., shape, and supports

1f. Uniform over entire plate plus uniform tension or compression P lb=linear in applied to short edges

Formulas and tabulated speciﬁc values

 qb 4 ðs a Þ max ¼ b x qb 2 qb 2 : Here a; b x ; and b y depend on ratios a b and P P E ; where P E ¼ p 2 Et 2 Þb 2 ; and have 3 Et 3 t 2 ðs b Þ max ¼ b y t 2 3ð1 n

y max ¼ a

the following values:

Coef.

P=P E
a=b

0

0.15

0.25

0.50

0.75

1

2

3

4

5

P, Tension

 1 0.044 0.039 0.030 0.023 0.015 0.011 0.008 0.0075 1 1 2 0.084 0.075 0.060 0.045 0.0305 0.024 0.019 0.0170 a 2 0.110 0.100 0.084 0.067 0.0475 0.0375 0.030 0.0260 3 0.133 0.125 0.1135 0.100 0.081 0.066 0.057 0.0490 4 0.140 0.136 0.1280 0.118 0.102 0.089 0.080 0.072 1 0.287 0.135 0.096 0.072 0.054 0.045 1 1 2 0.300 0.150 0.105 0.078 0.066 0.048 b x 2 0.278 0.162 0.117 0.093 0.075 0.069 3 0.246 0.180 0.150 0.126 0.105 0.093 4 0.222 0.192 0.168 0.156 0.138 0.124 1 0.287 0.132 0.084 0.054 0.036 0.030 1 2 1 0.487 0.610 0.240 0.360 0.156 0.258 0.114 0.198 0.090 0.162 0.072 0.138 b y 2 3 0.713 0.510 0.414 0.348 0.294 0.258 4 0.741 0.624 0.540 0.480 0.420 0.372

P, Compression

 1 0.044 0.060 0.094 0.180 1 1 2 0.084 0.109 0.155 0.237 a 2 0.110 0.139 0.161 0.181 3 0.131 0.145 0.150 0.150 4 0.140 0.142 0.142 0.138 1 0.287 0.372 0.606 1.236 1 1 2 0.300 0.372 0.522 0.846 b x 2 0.278 0.330 0.390 0.450 3 0.246 0.228 0.228 0.210 4 0.222 0.225 0.225 0.225 1 0.287 0.420 0.600 1.260 1 2 1 0.487 0.610 0.624 0.720 0.786 0.900 1.380 1.020 b y 2 3 0.713 0.750 0.792 0.750 4 0.741 0.750 0.750 0.750

In the above formulas s a and s b are stresses due to bending only; add direct stress P=t to s a

(Ref. 41)

SEC. 11.14]

Flat Plates

505

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for ﬂat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

2. Rectangular plate; three edges simply supported, one edge (b) free

1g. Uniform over entire plate plus uniform tension P lb=linear in applied to all edges

2a. Uniform over entire plate

2d. Uniformly increasing along the a side

 qb 4 ðs a Þ max ¼ b x qb 2 qb 2 : Here a; b x ; and b y depend on ratios a b and P P E ; where P E ¼ p 2 Et 2 Þb 2 ; and have 3 Et 3 t 2 ðs b Þ max ¼ b y t 2 3ð1 n

y max ¼ a

the following values:

 Coef. P=P E a=b 0 0.15 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 1 0.044 0.035 0.022 0.015 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.003 1 1 0.084 0.060 0.035 0.022 0.012 0.008 0.006 0.005 2 a 2 0.110 0.075 0.042 0.025 0.014 0.010 0.007 0.006 3 0.133 0.085 0.045 0.026 0.016 0.011 0.008 0.007 4 0.140 0.088 0.046 0.026 0.016 0.011 0.008 0.007 1 0.287 0.216 0.132 0.084 0.048 0.033 0.026 0.021 1 1 0.300 0.204 0.117 0.075 0.045 0.031 0.024 0.020 2 b x 2 0.278 0.189 0.111 0.072 0.044 0.031 0.024 0.020 3 0.246 0.183 0.108 0.070 0.043 0.031 0.025 0.020 4 0.222 0.183 0.108 0.074 0.047 0.032 0.027 0.024 1 0.287 0.222 0.138 0.090 0.051 0.036 0.030 0.024 1 1 0.487 0.342 0.186 0.108 0.066 0.042 0.036 0.030 2 b y 2 0.610 0.302 0.216 0.132 0.072 0.051 0.042 0.036 3 0.713 0.444 0.234 0.141 0.078 0.054 0.042 0.036 4 0.741 0.456 0.240 0.144 0.078 0.054 0.042 0.036

In the above formulas s a and s b are stresses due to bending only; add direct stress P=t to s a and s b :

(Ref. 42)

 a=b 0.5 0.667 1 1.5 2 4 b 0.36 0.45 0.67 0.77 0.79 0.8 a 0.08 0.106 0.14 0.16 0.165 0.167

(Ref. 8 for v ¼ 0:3)

 a=b 0.5 0.667 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 b 0.11 0.16 0.2 0.28 0.32 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.37 a 0.026 0.033 0.04 0.05 0.058 0.064 0.067 0.069 0.07

(Ref. 8 for v ¼ 0:3)

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

and

y max ¼ aqb 4 Et 3

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

and

y max ¼ aqb 4 Et 3

506

Formulas for Stress and Strain

[CHAP. 11

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for ﬂat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

Case no., shape, and supports

3. Rectangular plate; three edges simply supported, one short edge (b) ﬁxed

4. Rectangular plate; three edges simply supported, one long edge (a) ﬁxed

5. Rectangular plate; two long edges simply supported, two short edges ﬁxed

6. Rectangular plate; two long edges ﬁxed, two short edges simply supported

3a. Uniform over entire plate

4a. Uniform over entire plate

5a. Uniform over entire plate

6a. Uniform over entire plate

Formulas and tabulated speciﬁc values

 a=b 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 b 0.5 0.67 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.75 0.75 a 0.03 0.071 0.101 0.122 0.132 0.137 0.139

(Values from charts of Ref. 8; n ¼ 0:3)

 a=b 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 b 0.5 0.66 0.73 0.74 0.74 0.75 0.75 a 0.03 0.046 0.054 0.056 0.057 0.058 0.058

(Values from charts of Ref. 8; n ¼ 0:3)

(At center of short edges)

(At center)

y max ¼ aqb 4 Et 3

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

 a=b 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 1 b 0.4182 0.5208 0.5988 0.654 0.6912 0.7146 0.750 a 0.021 0.0349 0.0502 0.0658 0.08 0.0922

(Ref. 21)

(At center of long edges)

(At center)

y max ¼ aqb 4 Et 3

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

 a=b 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 1 b 0.4182 0.4626 0.486 0.4968 0.4971 0.4973 0.5 a 0.021 0.0243 0.0262 0.0273 0.028 0.0283 0.0285

(Ref. 21)

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

Et 3

s max ¼ bqb 2

t

2

and

y max ¼ aqb 4

Et 3

SEC. 11.14]

Flat Plates

507

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for ﬂat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

7. Rectangular plate; one edge ﬁxed, opposite edge free, remaining edges simply supported

7a. Uniform over entire plate

7aa. Uniform over 3 2 of plate from ﬁxed edge

1

7aaa. Uniform over 3 of plate from ﬁxed edge

7d. Uniformly decreasing from ﬁxed edge to free edge

(At center of free edge)

(At end of free edge)

¼ b 1 qb 2

s ¼ b 2 qb 2

t 2

R ¼ g 2 qb

 a=b 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 b 1 0.044 0.176 0.38 0.665 1.282 1.804 2.45 b 2 0.048 0.19 0.386 0.565 0.73 0.688 0.434 g 1 0.183 0.368 0.541 0.701 0.919 1.018 1.055 g 2 0.131 0.295 0.526 0.832 1.491 1.979 2.401

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

s ¼ bqb 2

 a=b 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 b 0.044 0.161 0.298 0.454 0.73 0.932 1.158 g 0.183 0.348 0.466 0.551 0.645 0.681 0.689

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

s ¼ bqb 2

 a=b 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 b 0.04 0.106 0.15 0.19 0.244 0.277 0.31 g 0.172 0.266 0.302 0.32 0.334 0.338 0.338

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2Þ

s ¼ bqb 2

 a=b 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 b 0.037 0.12 0.212 0.321 0.523 0.677 0.866 g 0.159 0.275 0.354 0.413 0.482 0.509 0.517

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2Þ

(At

center

of

ﬁxed edge)

s

t 2

and

R ¼ g 1 qb

(At center of ﬁxed edge)

t 2

and R ¼ gqb

(At center of ﬁxed edge)

t 2

and

R ¼ gqb

(At center of ﬁxed edge)

t 2

and

R ¼ gqb

508

Formulas for Stress and Strain

[CHAP. 11

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for ﬂat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

Case no., shape, and supports

8. Rectangular plate, all edges ﬁxed

7dd. Uniformly

decreasing from ﬁxed edge to zero

at 2

3 b

7ddd. Uniformly decreasing from ﬁxed edge to

1 3 b

zero at

7f. Distributed line load w lb=in along free edge

8a. Uniform over entire plate

Formulas and tabulated speciﬁc values

s ¼ bqb 2

 a=b 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 b 0.033 0.094 0.146 0.2 0.272 0.339 0.4 g 0.148 0.233 0.277 0.304 0.33 0.339 0.34

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

s ¼ bqb 2

 a=b 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 b 0.023 0.048 0.061 0.073 0.088 0.097 0.105 g 0.115 0.149 0.159 0.164 0.167 0.168 0.168

(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

s b ¼ b 1 wb
(At center of ﬁxed edge)
and
R ¼ g 1 w
t
2
s a ¼ b 2 wb
(At center of free edge)
t
2
(At ends of free edge)
R ¼ g 2 w
a=b
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
b
0.000
0.024
0.188
0.570
1.726
2.899
4.508
1
b
0.321
0.780
1.204
1.554
1.868
1.747
1.120
2
g
0.000
0.028
0.160
0.371
0.774
1.004
1.119
1
g
1.236
2.381
3.458
4.510
6.416
7.772
9.031
2
(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

(At center of long edge)

s max ¼ b 1 qb 2

t

2

 (At a=b center) 1.0 s ¼ b 2 qb 2 t 2 1.2 and y max ¼ aqb 4 1.4 Et 3 1.6 1.8 2 1 b 1 0.3078 0.3834 0.4356 0.4680 0.4872 0.4974 0.5 b 2 0.1386 0.1794 0.2094 0.2286 0.2406 0.2472 0.25 a 0.0138 0.0188 0.0226 0.0251 0.0267 0.0277 0.0284

(Refs. 7 and 25 and Ref. 21 for n ¼ 0:3)

(At center of ﬁxed edge)

t 2

and

R ¼ gqb

(At center of ﬁxed edge)

t 2

and

R ¼ gqb

SEC. 11.14]

Flat Plates

509

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for ﬂat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

8b. Uniform over small concentric circle of radius r o (note

deﬁnition of r 0 o )

8d.

Uniformly decreasing parallel to side b

 (At center) 3W ð1 þ nÞ ln 2b þ b 1 pr 0 o and y max ¼ aWb 2 Et 3 s b ¼ 2pt 2

(At center of long edge)

s b ¼ b 2 W

t

2

 a=b 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 1 b 1 0.238 0.078 0.011 0.053 0.068 0.067 0.067 b 2 0.7542 0.894 0.9624 0.9906 1 1.004 1.008 a 0.0611 0.0706 0.0754 0.0777 0.0786 0.0788 0.0791

(Ref. 26 and Ref. 21 for n ¼ 0:3Þ

ðAt
x
¼
0;
z
¼
0
ðs b Þ max ¼ b 1 qb 2
t
2
s b ¼ b 2 qb 2
ðAt
x ¼ 0; z ¼ 0:4bÞ
and s a ¼ b 3 qb 2
t
2
t
2
s b ¼ b 4 qb 2
ðAt
x ¼ 0; z ¼ bÞ
t
2
ðs a Þ max ¼ b 5 qb 2
y max ¼ aqb 4
Et 3
a=b
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
b
0.1132
0.1778
0.2365
0.2777
0.3004
0.3092
0.3100
0.3068
1
b
0.0410
0.0633
0.0869
0.1038
0.1128
0.1255
0.1157
0.1148
2
b
0.0637
0.0688
0.0762
0.0715
0.0610
0.0509
0.0415
0.0356
3
b
0.0206
0.0497
0.0898
0.1249
0.1482
0.1615
0.1680
0.1709
4
b
0.1304
0.1436
0.1686
0.1800
0.1845
0.1874
0.1902
0.1908
5
a
0.0016
0.0047
0.0074
0.0097
0.0113
0.0126
0.0133
0.0136
(Ref. 28 for n ¼ 0:3)

At x ¼ a ; z ¼ 0:45b

2

t

2

510

Formulas for Stress and Strain

[CHAP. 11

TABLE 11.4

Formulas for ﬂat plates with straight boundaries and constant thickness (Continued )

Case no., shape, and supports

9. Rectangular plate, three edges ﬁxed, one edge (a) simply supported

9a. Uniform over entire plate

9aa. Uniform over 3 2 of plate from ﬁxed edge

Formulas and tabulated speciﬁc values

ðs b Þ max ¼ b 1 qb 2
ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ 0Þ
and
R ¼ g 1 qb
t
2
s b ¼ b 2 qb 2
s a ¼ b 3 qb 2
ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ 0:6bÞ
and
t
2
t
2
ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ bÞ
R ¼ g 2 qb
a=b
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
b
0.020
0.081
0.173
0.307
0.539
0.657
0.718
1
b
0.004
0.018
0.062
0.134
0.284
0.370
0.422
2
b
0.016
0.061
0.118
0.158
0.164
0.135
0.097
3
b
0.031
0.121
0.242
0.343
0.417
0.398
0.318
4
g
0.115
0.230
0.343
0.453
0.584
0.622
0.625
1
g
0.123
0.181
0.253
0.319
0.387
0.397
0.386
2
g
0.125
0.256
0.382
0.471
0.547
0.549
0.530
3
(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2Þ
ðs b Þ max ¼ b 1 qb 2
s b ¼ b 2 qb 2
s a ¼ b 3 qb 2
ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ 0:6bÞ
and
t
2
t
2
ðAt x ¼ 0; z ¼ bÞ
R ¼ g 2 qb
a=b
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
b
0.020
0.080
0.164
0.274
0.445
0.525
0.566
1
b
0.003
0.016
0.044
0.093
0.193
0.252
0.286
2
b
0.012
0.043
0.081
0.108
0.112
0.091
0.066
3
b
0.031
0.111
0.197
0.255
0.284
0.263
0.204
4
g
0.115
0.230
0.334
0.423
0.517
0.542
0.543
1
g
0.002
0.015
0.048
0.088
0.132
0.139
0.131
2
g
0.125
0.250
0.345
0.396
0.422
0.417
0.405
3
(Ref. 49 for n ¼ 0:2)

At x ¼ a ;z ¼ 0:6b

2

s a ¼ b 4 qb 2

t

2

and

R ¼ g