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4.5 What is the important of gel point (t gel) from processing point of view?

t gel is the time taken for the epoxy and amine that reacts to transform from liquid
medium to gel medium. One of the uses of epoxy is industrial adhesives, therefore it has a
fixed amount of time before it become gel or harden. This reaction is an exothermic reaction
that will increase the surrounding temperature. Therefore, due to its exothermic reaction, for a
larger mass of reaction produces more heat loss which in favours increases the rate of
reaction causes the t gel to be shorter. The equipment design must have a thick wall to
accommodate the large temperature difference. So a suitable temperature is needed to be
maintained to avoid over reaction that makes the polymer to be gel and cannot be used.

4.6 Write the chemical reaction that take place between epoxy and amine

4.7 Give one compound beside amine that can be used as crosslinker. Explain how this
compound will react and form a network system.

Phenolic novolac resins. It is started with phenols reacting with excess formaldehyde
to form phenolic novolac resins in the presence of acidic catalyst. Novolac epoxy resins
contains numerous epoxide group. The epoxide groups will cause the crosslinking that will
form a material which have high temperature, chemical and solvent resistance (Bhangale,
2004). Novolac epoxy is used for moulding microelectronics packaging due to their excellent
performance at higher temperature.

Figure 1 Novolac Epoxy Resin

4.8 Give TWO (2) examples of applications and discuss why epoxy resin is proffered as
compared to polyester or another polymer?

1) Counter tops for kitchen, it is moulded into specified sizes.

2) As a protective layer for wind turbine blades.

3) Comparison of epoxy resin and polyester

Factors Explanation
Bonding Strength Epoxy have higher bonding capacity there for they have a
relative strength up to 2000lbs/in2 compare to polyester
which have strength less than 500lbs/in2. (Long, 2013)
Resistance to Wear Epoxy have higher resistance on wearing, corrosion
damage from chemical and peeling. Polyester is more
fragile therefore it is used for temporary fixing or in the
area that have low stress.
Shelf Life Epoxy have longer shelf life, it can be stored for few years
without losing it properties

4.9 Explain the difference between crosslink and network polymers.

a) Crosslink

Crosslink has adjacent linear chains that are joint to each other covalently. This type
of polymers is synthesised through a non-reversible reaction. Crosslinking will be
formed through additives atoms or molecules that has covalent bond with the chains.
Figure 2 Crosslinking Arrangement

b) Network Polymers

This type of arrangement is connected between mers to mers in many paths through
polymer phase. The number of paths increases with the average number of intervening
bonds. It covalently forms a three-dimensional network.

Figure 3 Network Arrangement

Bhangale, S. (2004, September). Sunil Bhangale. Retrieved from Tripos:

Long, S. (2013, December 14). Pcepoxy. Retrieved from PG Fix: