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Overview ta3520

Introduction to seismics
Fourier Analysis
Basic principles of the Seismic Method
Interpretation of Raw Seismic Records
Seismic Instrumentation
Processing of Seismic Reflection Data
Vertical Seismic Profiles

Practical:
Processing practical (with MATLAB)
Signal and Noise

Signal: desired
Noise: not desired

So for reflection seismology:


- Primary reflections are signal
- Everything else is noise!
Signal and Noise (2)

Direct wave: noise

Reflection: (desired) signal

Refraction: noise
Signal and Noise (3)

Direct wave: noise


Multiply reflected : noise

Reflection: signal
Refraction: noise
Signal and Noise for P-wave survey

Desired signal:
primary reflected P-waves

Noise:
direct wave through first layer
direct air wave
direct surface wave
S-wave
Multiply reflected wave
Refraction / Head wave
Signal and Noise for P-wave survey

Signal Primary P-wave Reflected Energy


=
Noise All but Primary Reflection Energy

Goal of Processing:
Remove effects of All-but-Primary-Reflection Energy
Processing of Signal
(Primary-reflected energy)

Goal of processing:
Focus energy to where it comes from
Understanding signal and noise:
wave theory
Basic physics underlying signal is captured by wave equation

Ray theory: approximation of wave equation (high-frequency)


Resonances: modes expansion of wave equation

S-waves, P-waves: elastic form of wave equation


The
seismic
record
Body waves:

Surface waves:
A seismic shot record on land

Slightly hyperbolic Linear event:


event: Reflection Direct/refraction

Linear event:
Slower, Direct

Linear event:
Very slow, Direct
A seismic shot record on land

Slightly hyperbolic Linear event:


event: Reflection Direct/refraction

Linear event:
Slower, Direct

Linear event:
Very slow, Direct
Interpretation of seismic land record
offset

source air wave detector velocity 340 m/s

surface wave

thickness 200 m
(velocity 1850 m/s)

velocity 3500 m/s


(P waves)

refraction velocity 4800 m/s


Picture made within PowerPoint

offset

source air wave detector velocity 340 m/s

surface wave

thickness 200 m
(velocity 1850 m/s)

velocity 3500 m/s


(P waves)

refraction velocity 4800 m/s


Modelling of seismic land record

Modelled data
Observed data
(ray theory approx.)
Modelling of seismic land record
direc
t P-w
ave
refract
ion
sur
reflection fa c
ew
av
e
reflection

dire
ct ai
wavr
e
Modelled data
Observed data
(ray theory approx.)
Wassenaar-beach data: Wednesday
Wassenaar-beach data: Wednesday
Wassenaar-beach data:
array data (Thursday)
A seismic shot record at Wassenaar beach

Linear event:
Direct/refraction

Many slightly hyperbolic


events: Reflections !

Linear event:
Slower, Direct

Linear event:
Slow, Direct
Interpretation of Wassenaar record
Modelling of Wassenaar record

Modelled data
Observed data
(ray theory approx.)
A seismic shot record at sea
Linear event: Direct

First hyperbolic event: primary


reflection

Hyperbolic event at twice time


of primary reflection: multiple

Many Hyperbolic events:


Reflections
Linear event:
Refraction
Interpretation of marine record
offset

source detector

m flec
direct P wave

re
ul t i
re

tip on
fle velocity 1500 m/s

300 m
le
ct
io (P waves)
n

250 m
velocity 1500 m/s
(density different)

refraction velocity 240 m/s


Picture made with PowerPoint

offset

source detector

m flec
direct P wave

re
ul t i
re

tip on
fle velocity 1500 m/s

300 m
le
ct
io (P waves)
n

250 m
velocity 1500 m/s
(density different)

refraction velocity 240 m/s


Old: Modelling of marine record

Modelled data
Observed data
(ray theory approx.)
Modelling of marine record

di
re
ct
P-
r efl

wa
ecti
ons

v e(
wa
mu
ltip

t
le

er
refl

)
mu ecti
ltip on
le refl ref
ecti ra c
on tion

Modelled data
Observed data
(ray theory approx.)