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Thomas G. Stephens
General Motors Corporation, Pontiac, USA
GM s Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy
Solutions for Reduced CO2-Emissions and Energy Diversity

GM s Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy


Lsungen zur Reduzierung der CO2-Emissionen und zur Nutzung von
vielfltigen Energiequellen

Kurzfassung
Innovationen, Wirkungsgradverbesserungen und eine Diversifizierung der Energietrger
ermglichen eine nachhaltige globale Entwicklung der Wirtschaft und eine Reduzierung der
Kohlendioxidemissionen. General Motors(GM) Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy wird
eine wichtige Rolle bei der Bewltigung der Herausforderungen im Verkehrsektor spielen. GM
strebt an, durch die Entwicklung einer Vielzahl von Technologien einen Beitrag zur Nachhaltigkeit
der Energiesysteme zu leisten. Dabei konzentriert sich GM auf eine aus vier Komponenten
bestehende Strategie:

Wirkungsgradsteigerung von Motoren und Getrieben: Einfhrung von


zukunftsweisenden Antriebsstrangtechnologien, die Verbrauchs- und Emissionsvorteile
bieten
Alternative Kraftstoffe: Verstrkte Nutzung von Antriebssystemen, die fr Bio-Kraftstoffe
(Ethanol, E85, Bio-Diesel) geeignet sind
Elektrifizierung des Antriebsstrangs: Vorantreiben der Elektrifizierung der Fahrzeuge
durch die Einfhrung von Hybrid- und Plug-in Hybridtechnologie sowie elektrischen
Antriebssystemen
Fuel Cell: Entwicklung eines produktionsfhigen, automobilen Brennstoffzellensystems,
das Wasserstoff als Energietrger verwendet.

GM wird diese Produktverbesserungen unter Nutzung seiner globalen Organization einfhren.


Diese Organisation nutzt innerhalb der globalen GM Produktentwicklung, der Fertigungs- und
Einkaufsbereiche gleiche Methoden und Systeme. Dies ermglicht die zeitgerechte Entwicklung
der passenden Produkte zum marktgerechten Preis fr die Kunden.

Die Ergebnisse dieser Initiative werden die Konstruktion und die Leistungsfhigkeit der Fahrzeuge
wie auch deren Einfluss auf die Umwelt grundlegend ndern. Sie werden den Ausblick auf den
Energieverbrauch durch die Nutzung von lokal und regional verfgbaren Ressourcen nachhltig
ndern.

Abstract
Innovation, efficiency improvements and energy diversity are the keys to sustainable global eco-
nomic development and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. General Motors(GM) Advanced Pro-
pulsion Technology Strategy will play a significant role in meeting the challenge in the personal
transportation sector. Through a variety of technologies, GM is striving to deliver transportation so-
lutions that contribute to energy sustainability, focusing on a strategy comprising four components:

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Efficiency improvements of engines and transmissions: Implement advanced propul-


sion technologies to maximize fuel efficiency and minimize emissions.
Alternative fuels: Accelerate the use of alternative fuels through biofuel-capable propul-
sion systems (ethanol, and biodiesel).
Electrification: Drive the electrification of the vehicle by implementing hybrid and plug-in
hybrid technology, and advanced electric drive systems.
Fuel cell: Develop a production-viable automotive fuel cell system using hydrogen as the
energy carrier.

GM will implement these technologies using its global organization. This organization leverages
common methods and systems within GM s global product development, manufacturing and
purchasing departments, enabling the development of the right products at the right price and at
the right time for our customers.

The results of these initiatives will fundamentally change the design and performance of vehicles,
as well as their impact on the environment. They will also positively impact energy consumption as
they enable the use of energy carriers that make the best use of locally and regionally available
resources.

1 Introduction
Global energy demand is projected to be 70 percent higher in 2030 than it was in 2003 (Figure 1).
Because of its relative abundance, high energy density and ease of transportation, petroleum has
been one of the world s primary energy sources for more than a century, accounting for 35 percent
of the worlds energy and over 96 percent of the energy consumed in transportation. Oil demand is
expected to grow to nearly 340 million barrels per day by 2030. (It was approximately 200 million
barrels per day in 2003.)

Most of the increased energy need is coming in previously underdeveloped regions, with Asia and
Africa accounting for approximately 75 percent of the growth. Eastern European countries also
have experienced rapid growth during the past 15 years, and this growth is expected to continue
into the foreseeable future, although at a lower rate. A significant portion of the additional energy
will be required for transportation, as mobility is a contributor to, and byproduct of, economic
development.

And, as wealth increases in developing regions, so will the demand for personal automobiles, as
auto ownership is viewed as a passport to increased personal freedom and a symbol of economic
success. Global automotive sales are expected to increase 30 percent by 2016 to answer the
demand of emerging markets.

Recent instability in the petroleum market has led to concerns about the fuel s long-term viability.
Even with increased output from oil-producing states, the flow of oil cannot meet the projected en-
ergy demands of the coming decades and oil production and refining capacity are currently being
outstripped by demand. Petroleum supply concerns are matched by the growing awareness of
carbon-dioxide emissions and their effect on global climate change.

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Fig. 1 Global energy demand forecast; EIA, International Energy Outlook 2007.

GM believes that over time, a portion of conventional petroleum-based energy will be displaced
with a variety of fuels, including synthetic and biomass-derived liquid fuels, electricity, natural gas
and hydrogen. In the area of alternative fuels, for example, significant improvements have been
made in the production of cellulosic ethanol and first-test facilities are currently in the process of
validating the technology.

GM believes the key to success in addressing the global climate issue is to diversify toward a vari-
ety of sustainable energy sources that will have lower overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

The emission of carbon dioxide is directly linked to the consumption of carbon-based fuels, i.e. pe-
troleum. Around the world, many nations have elected to regulate carbon emissions to combat
both petroleum consumption and environmental change.

Unlike smog-causing emissions, where vehicle technology improvements have led to great im-
provements in local air quality, climate change is a global issue. GM is committed to working con-
structively with policy makers to ensure that the strategy to reduce CO 2 emissions is affordable for
consumers, viable for manufacturers, proportional with other sectors and supported by the neces-
sary fuel, infrastructure and taxation policies to ensure a fully integrated, cost-effective approach.

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1.1 Energy and CO2 challenges in Europe


By 2030 the EU predicts that it will be 90-percent dependent on imports for oil and 80-percent de-
pendent on imports for its natural gas. The European community is working intensively to improve
energy efficiency in all sectors while increasing the use of renewable energies.

To this end, the EU biofuels directive that is currently in place sets a target market share of 5.75-
percent for biofuels by 2010. In 2007, the European Commission proposed a new energy policy for
Europe. It included a renewable energy roadmap that leads to a binding 20-percent target for the
overall share of renewable energy in 2020 and a binding 10-percent target for the share of biofuels
in petrol and diesel in Europe. The Commission recently released specific proposals on this issue,
including calling for biofuels with well-to-wheelsreductions of greater than 35 percent over petro-
leum being counted toward the renewable targets and environmental sustainability criteria for bio-
fuels and other bioliquids.

Biofuels such as E85 can reduce CO2 emissions on a well-to-wheels basis by more than 70 per-
cent and using biogas (CNG derived from waste) can result in a net zero CO2 from the source to
the wheels. The EU needs a comprehensive biofuels policy to bring lower-emitting CO2 biofuels to
market as rapidly as possible. This includes ensuring widespread availability of E85 and biogas,
basing fuel and vehicle taxation on the well-to-wheels CO2 emissions and giving appropriate credit
to automakers for making the use of these fuels possible. GM believes this could be an important
part of the EU
s strategy to achieve rapid near-term reductions in CO 2 and to reduce fossil energy
consumption.

Passenger cars account for about 12 percent of European CO 2 emissions. In December 2007, the
European Commission adopted a proposal for legislation to reduce the average CO 2 emissions of
new passenger cars. The proposed legislation would establish an average target for the new car
fleet of 130 grams per kilometer beginning in 2012. Each vehicle will receive a target based on its
weight. Each manufacturer s target is a volume-weighted combination of these targets, with flexibil-
ity to average across the vehicle lineup (for example, overachieving the target on some vehicles
will offset higher levels on others).

The regulatory proposal from the European Commission, however, does not engage all contribut-
ing parties in the solution, as it fails to exploit CO2 emission reduction potentials through the most
cost-effective measures, such as increased use of high-blend biofuels, improved infrastructure,
eco-driving, etc. Studies show that improved infrastructure to ease congestion and improve road
conditions, as well as more responsible driving behavior, could reduce CO 2 emissions more cost-
effectively.

The legislation will likely be finalized in the 2009-2010 timeframe. It is calling for almost a 20-
percent improvement by the proposed implementation date of 2012. The Stern Report indicates
that technologies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency are among the most expensive of any sector.
Today, the average GDP per capita in half the EU member states is less than the price of a new
small car. With fuel efficiency technologies being so expensive at the margins, automakers cannot
add these technologies on a just-in-casebasis.

The current timeline does not allow adequate lead-time for automakers to adjust their product
programs to comply with the detailed specifications of the regulatory program. More than 60
percent of the vehicles that will be offered in 2012 are already developed or in advanced stages of
development. If the implementation date of 2012 is not revised to a more realistic timeline, there
will be significant implications for product programs and for production and employment at
European automotive facilities.

The Commission has proposed increasing penalties over the period from 2012-2015. However, in-
stead of providing off rampsto compliance, GM believes that the EU should establish a viable

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albeit very challenging implementation schedule. The normal product development cycle is three
to five years and the normal production duration for a passenger car program is six to eight years.
This allows the industry to cadence the introduction of new product programs to level the burden
on engineering resources and on the supplier community. A phase-in schedule that requires 25-
percent compliance in 2012, 50-percent in 2013, 75-percent in 2014 and 100-percent in 2015
would still be very challenging given these industry product development and production sched-
ules but it would give automakers time to adequately adjust product plans and still allow normal
product development cycles.

The EU CO2 policy for passenger cars will require very significant resources from all automakers to
comply. This will pull financial, research and development, and engineering resources away from
the ultra-low CO2technologies that could enable very significant reductions in CO2 emissions
from passenger cars in the mid- to longer-term. To ensure that automakers can continue to devote
efforts to developing these technologies and to encourage their commercialization as early as pos-
sible, the EU CO2 legislation for passenger cars should include super-credits.For purposes of
compliance with the legislation, this would allow automakers to count vehicles with very low emis-
sions as multiple vehicles for compliance purposes (for example, vehicles under 50 grams CO2/km
would count as 10 vehicles for compliance purposes in 2012, 7 in 2013, 4 in 2014 and 2 in 2015.).
While the technologies to achieve these low CO2 emissions are very expensive today and involve
many technical hurdles, the super-credit approach would serve as an encouragement to auto-
makers to commercialize new ultra-low emission technologies as early as possible.

1.2 Energy and CO2: GMs perspective


At GM, we recognize that we live in an era of highly volatile energy supplies and costs, potential
constraints on carbon emissions, and concern with both the availability and reliability of energy that
can significantly affect our facilities, products and customers. Addressing these realities presents a
challenging assignment, but also an extraordinary opportunity.

On May 8, 2007, General Motors joined the United States Climate Action Partnership (USCAP),
becoming the first automaker to support the non-partisan group
s call for action to address climate
change through advanced technology and on an economy-wide, market-driven basis.

GM views the need to promote energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions as both a
business necessity and a social responsibility. The company has a globally integrated strategy to
meet the world
s growing demand for its cars and trucks, while lessening these productsimpact on
the environment.

As a full-line automaker, GM is pursuing energy diversity across its product line by developing ve-
hicles that can be powered by advanced propulsion systems using many different energy sources
that will displace petroleum and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to its intensive ef-
forts to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines and to displace traditional petroleum-
based fuels with biofuels like E85 ethanol, GM is significantly expanding and accelerating the de-
velopment of electrically driven vehicles, including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, extended-range electric
vehicles and fuel cells.

GM continues to set targets and monitor greenhouse gas emissions from its facilities and is taking
steps to achieve near-term reductions. In 2005, GM s global facilities achieved a 16-percent reduc-
tion in CO2 emissions compared to 2000. GM is leveraging the reach of its efforts by engaging its
significant worldwide supply chain. GM was the first automotive manufacturer to announce the re-
quirement for certification of an Environmental Management System across its suppliers in 1999.
GM has initiated partnerships with its suppliers in the U.S. and China to share knowledge and best
practices with and between suppliers across the automotive supply chain.

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2 General MotorsAdvanced Propulsion Technology Strategy


General MotorsAdvanced Propulsion Technology Strategy (Figure 2) incorporates a variety of
new and refined technologies that will result in a portfolio of propulsion systems to meet customers
varied and diverse driving needs. This will be accomplished through a three-prong approach to
eliminate vehicle emissions and simultaneously increase fuel economy dramatically. First, the
strategy includes the continuing use of petroleum, albeit in an increasingly diminished role. Near-
term solutions in this arena are focused on reducing carbon dioxide emissions through improved
internal-combustion engines and fuel-saving transmissions, systems optimization and wider im-
plementation of alternative fuels, such as ethanol and compressed natural gas.

The second element involves electrification of the automobile through hybrids, plug-in hybrid and
extended-range electric-drive systems. The third prong of the strategy is the implementation of a
production-viable fuel cell propulsion system.

Even after the introduction of production fuel cell vehicles, GM considers a variety of energy
sources to have viable places within the transportation sector, including petrol, diesel, ethanol,
natural gas and biodiesel each energy source contributing to a globally diverse energy strategy.

With the approach outlined herein, GM aims to make personal transportation truly sustainable.

Fig. 2 GM
s Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy.

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2.1 The role of diesel engines


Efficiency improvements to conventional powertrains are possible by addressing some of the key
mechanical and thermodynamic loss mechanisms found in today s vehicles, as well as minimizing
the energy used on a vehicle system level. On the side of the internal combustion engine, spark-
ignition and diesel engines have proven widely successful in the global marketplace for more than
a century. Historically, diesel engines have maintained a significant efficiency advantage over
spark ignition, and have been the energy source for over-the-road transporters around the world
and the engine of choice for personal vehicles in regions where fuel costs demand a more efficient
automobile.

In Europe, the diesel engine has gained significant market share in the past 20 years rising from
about 20 percent of the personal vehicle market in the mid-1980s to about 50 percent today. This
is due to the development of direct injection and turbocharging technologies that have vastly im-
proved the performance characteristics and efficiency of the diesel engine.

Already in widespread use in General MotorsEuropean passenger car lines, GM believes diesel
engines will play an increasing role in the powertrain options of North American cars, crossover
vehicles, SUVs and light trucks. Currently, GM offers diesel engines in North America only on
heavy-duty full-size trucks and vans. This will change in 2010, as a new, smaller diesel engine in
the U.S. will be offered in light trucks. GM is vigorously pursuing diesel engines for North American
passenger cars, but challenges include public acceptance, cost and performance tailored to North
American driving styles.

A drawback to diesel engines is the expensive exhaust aftertreatment required to meet the more
stringent emissions mandate. In the United States, for example, recently enacted federal guide-
lines mandating ultra low sulfur diesel fuel and a 90-percent reduction in NOx emissions from diesel
engines have required diesel vehicles to be nearly as clean as passenger cars with spark-ignition
engines. The aftertreatment systems add mass, complexity and cost to the vehicle, as well as new
maintenance procedures. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an aftertreatment system that is rap-
idly becoming standard equipment in many global markets. Lean NOx aftertreatment systems are
also required to meet the aggressive U.S. emissions regulations. For NO x control, both the Lean-
NOx Trap (LNT) and the Selective Catalytic Converter (SCR) systems are being considered for ap-
plications in the United States. The most appropriate system depends on the vehicle load charac-
teristics and the engine displacement, with the heavier applications favoring the SCR
aftertreatment solution.

Diesel aftertreatment systems require sophisticated exhaust temperature control and regeneration.
These processes and the heating strategy generally increase fuel consumption. Additionally, the
required additional emission compliance technologies have increased the cost penalty for diesel
engines, relative to spark-ignition engines. Todays clean diesel costs are driven by the inclusion of
sophisticated boosting systems, high-pressure fuel injection equipment, engine architecture re-
quirements for high peak pressures and complex emissions-control systems. The added content
increases material costs for the diesel engine to approximately twice the cost of an equivalent
spark-ignition engine, depending on the application and market. However, the cost for diesel pow-
ertrains is expected to stabilize in the mid-term, as the next-generation emission compliance sys-
tems are developed.

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Fig. 3 Advanced technologies for diesel engines.

2.2 The role of spark-ignition engines


The spark-ignition engine will continue to play a significant role in transportation solutions around
the globe. It can be optimized to run on several fuels including alcohols and gaseous fuels.

Advances in spark-ignition engines are primarily focused on improvements in the efficiency of the
combustion process as well as improvements in part load efficiency through a reduction of pump-
ing losses (Figure 4). The primary efficiency-related technologies for spark-ignition engines include
direct ignition, charge-air motion control and variable-valve actuation. Boosting (turbocharging or
supercharging) in combination with displacement downsizing becomes another very important
element to further improve efficiencies.

Direct injection of the fuel into the cylinder is a major improvement for the spark-ignition engine. In
a homogenous and stoichiometric operation, direct injection offers several performance and effi-
ciency benefits due to the cooling effect, improvement in volumetric efficiency, the capability of sin-
gle or multiple injections and an improved dynamic metering of the fuel that avoids wall wettingin
the induction system. The compression ratio of the engine can also be increased and the full-load
performance is positively affected. Flexibility in the injection timing offers significant potential for fur-
ther reduction in cold-start emissions. Finally, direct injection is an enabling technology for future,
high-efficiency combustion systems, such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and
improved boosted engines.

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Technologies to control the charge motion in the cylinder, such as port deactivation, enable higher-
charge dilution and, consequently, improved efficiency. GM s TwinPort engines use port deactiva-
tion technology and higher EGR rates as enablers for increased efficiency of up to 4 percent.

Variable-valve actuation is another significant efficiency enabler for spark-ignition engines. The
variability of cam phasing, valve lift and valve opening duration allows precise control of the mass
and composition of the gas in the cylinder and can be used as an effective means of engine
pumping work reduction. Phasing of the intake and the exhaust cam is common on many
contemporary engines. Several solutions of the variable valve lift profiles are currently in
production. The simplest form of varying the shape of the valve lift curve is through mechanisms
that allow switching between two valve-lift profiles. A special application for variable valvetrain
technology is cylinder deactivation, which is used in GM s Active Fuel Management TM system. It
allows the engine to shut down some of the engine s cylinders during light-load driving conditions
to reduce pumping losses and save fuel.

Generally, the benefits of the various spark-ignition engine technologies are not completely addi-
tive; but those described herein can serve as enablers for further efficiency gains. For example, the
combination of direct injection, variable valve actuation and closed-loop combustion control with
cylinder pressure measurement enables low-NOx HCCI operation in part-load operation. In HCCI
operation, auto-ignition of the pre-mixed charge occurs via the compression of the in-cylinder
charge rather than a spark-controlled ignition event. HCCI s flameless, fast combustion keeps
down peak cylinder temperature generally below the NOx formation temperature, resulting in very
low NOx emissions. Recent advances by General Motors have confirmed the viability of homoge-
nous charged compression ignition outside of the laboratory environment. In an integrated engine
concept, HCCI, along with other enabling advanced technologies, approaches the engine efficiency
of a diesel.

Fig. 4 Advanced technologies for spark-ignition engines.

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The efficiency promise of HCCI is enhanced by the technologys compatibility with many different
fuels, including E85 ethanol. The challenges facing HCCI center on combustion control, which re-
quires charge mixture composition and temperature adjustments to suit varied climates, altitudes,
engine load and more. The benefit of the HCCI operation in a customer application depends
strongly on the driving profile as well as on the power-to-weight ratio of the vehicle.

General Motors has developed two proof-of-concept vehicles and continues the effort to develop
this technology toward a production-viable solution. These prototypes can operate in HCCI mode
at speeds up to 100 km/h, transitioning to spark ignition at higher vehicle speeds and during heavy
engine load. During cold-start, the HCCI engines run in a spark-ignition mode for a few seconds to
take advantage of the very good cold start performance of a direct injected gasoline engine with
the additional benefit of fast catalyst light off. An extended range for HCCI operation is intended as
further refinements to the control system and engine hardware are made. GM will continue to re-
fine the technology in a wide range of ambient and altitude conditions, from extreme heat and cold
to the low air density at high altitude.

2.3 Transmission solutions


GM is nearing completion of the development of 10 new FWD, RWD and AWD six-speed auto-
matic transmission models an initiative that was launched only five years ago (Figure 5). With the
2008 model year, nine of the 10 variants have been launched, with the tenth variant being
launched in calendar year 2009. GM's extensive use of computer math modeling tools has enabled
the development of numerous models in parallel, greatly reducing development time and accelerat-
ing the implementation in nearly 40 global vehicle applications. By 2010, GM will be producing
three million six-speed transmissions annually.

Fig. 5 Automatic transmission technology.

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These six-speed transmissions offer a wide overall ratio spread with small steps between the six
forward gears. In addition to better shift smoothness, they can improve fuel economy by 4 percent
and improve acceleration performance by up to 7 percent.

In all of these transmissions, GM uses very advanced torque converters (Figure 5) that were de-
veloped using advanced design and analysis tools, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
and global optimization techniques. This results in new blade profiles and flow path with superior
efficiency and performance, further improving fuel economy. These torque converters have effi-
ciencies that are the benchmark in the industry.

The torque converters will be coupled with advanced driveline isolation via three advanced tech-
nologies, including high-travel, three-stage damper isolation springs; new turbine damper designs;
and a multi-plate clutch with a dedicated piston to enable more precise control of the clutch slip
speed. This allows for effective isolation of drivetrain torsionals and very aggressive slip speed
modulation. In some cases, they will enable complete lock-up of the torque converter clutch at very
low vehicle speeds, contributing to a significant fuel economy improvement.

GM is also developing advanced controls to modulate the torque converter clutch to optimize the
behavior of the torque converter during various driving conditions. During normal driving, the
clutch is controlled to maximize efficiency, and during sportydriving conditions, to maximize per-
formance. These technologies eliminate the need to compromise between fuel economy and per-
formance in converter design.

Additionally, GM is incorporating other technologies such as integration of the transmission cooling


systems with the engine cooling system to bring the transmission oil up to its normal operating
temperature as quickly as possible. This reduces the parasitic losses of the transmission, further
improving fuel economy.

GM is developing a brand-new family of eight-speed automatic transmissions to complement the


six-speed portfolio. In addition to a greater number of gears, these units will have a wider gear ratio
spread with smaller gear step sizes. They also incorporate a number of other advanced technolo-
gies that will further enhance the overall efficiency, performance, and shift feel of the transmission.
These units will offer additional vehicle fuel economy and performance improvements.

GM is accelerating the implementation of six-speed manual transmissions (Figure 6) in products


around the globe, including two new families introduced in Europe, the M20/M32 and F40. These
transmissions provide nearly 1 liter in fuel savings for every 100 km driven, while providing up to 8
percent improved acceleration. They are very well matched with diesel engines, with gear ratio
spreads that enhance the torque range of such engines.

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Fig. 6 Manual transmission technology.

For these transmissions, various technologies such as new transmission fluids, lightweight compo-
nents, low-friction bearings and optimized gear ratios are being pursued to increase the operating
efficiency of these transmissions and to improve vehicle fuel economy.

New and exciting shift systems and synchronizer technologies are being developed to enable a
short shift stroke with reduced effort, and a sporty shift character. GM is also exploring new active
clutch systems to improve performance and pedal effort. By adding computer controlled servo sys-
tems, the clutch pedal effort is reduced and protects the transmission from driver abuse.

2.5 The electrification of the propulsion system


The electrification of the propulsion system covers a wide range from hybrid to pure electric drive.
Hybrid systems in general can be combined with internal combustion engines in a synergistic way.
If improvements beyond the technical possibilities of the conventional powertrain elements are
necessary to achieve efficiency goals, electrification helps improve the efficiency of the vehicle sys-
tem by many means, including the recuperation of brake energy and electrically assisting propul-
sion.

General MotorsAdvanced Propulsion Technology Strategy incorporates a variety of technologies


that will provide increased use of electricity as the propulsion source for vehicles of all sizes and
types. GM s experience with electrification is rooted in the landmark EV1 pure electric car, and
more recently in a variety of contemporary hybrid vehicles that combine internal combustion
propulsion with electric drive modes. Hybrid versions of several production cars and SUVs,

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including the Chevrolet Malibu, Saturn Vue and Saturn Aura save fuel and reduce carbon dioxide
emissions with integrated, belt alternator starter motors.

The GM Hybrid system (Figure 7) featured on the Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid, for example, saves fuel
by using sophisticated controls and software, as well as a unique, 36-volt electric motor/generator
mated to GM Powertrain s 2.4L Ecotec VVT four-cylinder engine. The GM Hybrid system maintains
the vehicle
s sporty feel and seamlessly reduces fuel consumption by:

Shutting off the engine when the vehicle is stopped, to minimize idling
Restarting the engine promptly when the brake pedal is released
Enabling extended fuel shut-off during vehicle deceleration
Capturing vehicle kinetic energy during deceleration through regenerative braking to charge
the advanced nickel metal hydride battery
Performing intelligent battery charging when it is most efficient

When required, the GM Hybrid system provides additional launching power from the electric mo-
tor/generator. At wide-open throttle, such as during a passing maneuver, the system enhances ac-
celeration by using the motor/generator to bolster the internal combustion engine.

Fig. 7 GM Hybrid system with belt alternator starter motor.

Increased electric drive was pioneered on the innovative GM 2-Mode Hybrid System for transit
buses in 2003 (Figure 8). The 2-Mode hybrid system represents a breakthrough in mainstream
electrification, as it is scalable to vehicles of all sizes. It enables two electrically variable transmis-
sion modes that allow for high efficiency in both low-speed and high-speed operation. In addition to
avoiding fuel consumption during vehicle standstill by shutting off the engine, the system enables

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regenerative braking and the ability to increase the time the engine operates at its most efficient
speed and load.

GM recently introduced the rear-wheel-drive 2-Mode hybrid system (Figure 9) in the Chevrolet Ta-
hoe and GMC Yukon full-size sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) in the United States. Later this year, the
2-Mode Hybrid system will be expanded to the Cadillac Escalade full-size SUV and two- and four-
wheel drive versions of the Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra Crew Cab full-size trucks (also in
the United States). The 2-Mode system incorporates two 60kW electric motors and is combined
with a V-8 gasoline engine that utilizes GM s Active Fuel Management to deactivate cylinders and
cam phasing strategies that de-throttle the engine even further by late closing of the intake valves.
With full-size utilities such as the Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon, the 2-Mode system increases
mileage by 50 percent in city driving and delivers an overall fuel savings of 30 percent in the com-
bined FTP test cycle. The system provides electric drive up to approximately 19 km/h (30 mph),
even when the truck is loaded with cargo or towing a trailer.

Fig. 8 GM 2-Mode hybrid system pioneered on public buses.

A front-wheel-drive version of the 2-Mode system was announced at the North American Interna-
tional Auto Show (NAIAS) for the 2009 Saturn Vue Green Line. Powered by a V-6 petrol engine,
the 2-Mode system is expected to deliver a 50-percent improvement in combined city and highway
fuel economy over the non-hybrid V-6 Vue.

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GM is also committed to building plug-in hybrids. At the 2008 NAIAS, the Saturn Vue plug-in hybrid
SUV was revealed. The plug-in technology will offer approximately 10 miles of electric-only range
and has the potential to achieve twice the fuel economy of any current SUV on short trips.

The Vue plug-in hybrid will use a modified version of GM s 2-Mode hybrid system, plug-in technol-
ogy, a lithium-ion battery pack, highly efficient electronics and powerful electric motors. It will pro-
vide a significant fuel economy improvement over the 2-Mode FWD Vue Green Line. After
depleting the lithium-ion energy storage system to a specified level, the vehicle is operated like a
conventional 2-Mode.

The plug-in technology allows customers to complement the energy in the fuel tank with energy
from the electrical grid. It is a very important enabler for diversifying the energy sources used for
transportation.

In the U.S. GM will launch 16 hybrid models during the next four years, with an average of one new
model added every three months.

The diesel engine is currently the most cost-effective solution for the European market. Further
improvements in carbon-dioxide reduction and improved fuel economy in Europe may require
hybridization of both diesel and gasoline engines. GM is working on the next generation of hybrid
vehicles that will provide greater fuel economy, lower cost, increased energy storage capacity,
greater electrical power capability and a global design architecture.

Fig. 9 GM 2-Mode hybrid system migrated to passenger vehicles.

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In addition to production and near-production hybrid vehicles based on existing vehicle platforms,
GM is also readying the first production-viable car based on its innovative E-Flex architecture (Fig-
ure 10), which is designed for pure electric propulsion, but is adaptable to a variety of onboard
power generating systems, such as internal combustion engines and fuel cells. For example, in the
groundbreaking Chevrolet Volt E-Flex and Opel Flextreme concept vehicles, a small internal com-
bustion engine (petrol or diesel) is used to augment the energy stored in batteries. The Volt is pri-
marily a plug-in electric vehicle with a range of approximately 40 miles of pure electric driving. The
internal combustion engine engages when the energy from the battery is depleted or not sufficient.
For urban drivers with less than a 65km (40 miles) roundtrip commute, the Volt has the potential to
use only electricity from the grid.

The Flextreme uses a 1.3L turbo-diesel rather than the Volt s gasoline engine and can deliver 55
km (34 miles) of electric-only range more than the average commuting range of most European
drivers. Based on the current European test cycle for plug-in vehicles, the Flextreme is expected to
emit less than 40 grams of CO2 per kilometer (according to European test procedure ECE R101 for
range extended vehicles). Combined range of electric-only and engine-generated electricity is 715
km (444 miles).

One of the largest challenges in bringing plug-in hybrids or range-extended electric vehicles to
market is the development of a battery that will meet the expectations and real-world performance
standards that customers expect in terms of safety, durability, driving range, recharge time, operat-
ing temperature range and affordability. Lithium-ion batteries hold the most promise for the future,
but their development is still ongoing.

Fig. 10 GM E-Flex architecture.

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2.6 Fuel cell as a long-term solution


Since 2001, General Motors has developed a range of fuel cell prototype vehicles to demonstrate
its commitment to advancing the technology and exploring the viability of petroleum-free transpor-
tation. Previous concepts included the HydroGen3, which demonstrated how a fuel cell could be
packaged in a conventional vehicle design; the Autonomy, which suggested an entirely new design
ethic combined with fuel cell and by-wire technology; and the Hy-wire, the world s first driveable
fuel cell and by-wire vehicle.

In 2006, the Chevrolet Sequel concept was demonstrated to the media, proving that a fuel cell ve-
hicle could drive 300 miles (480 km) between hydrogen fill-ups, with its only exhaustemissions
being water vapor. The success of the Sequel demonstration helped GM launch Project Driveway
this year. Project Driveway is a fuel cell vehicle market test that is placing 110 Chevrolet Equinox
Fuel Cell vehicles in the hands of customers around the United States. They are using the vehicles
as daily transportation for up to three months and providing valuable feedback on the driving char-
acteristics and range. This year, GM will also place 10 similar fuel cell vehicles in Europe for addi-
tional evaluations.

Fig. 11 GM
s fuel cell consumer test program.

In addition to a fuel infrastructure, onboard vehicle fuel storage is the other overriding challenge for
implementing mainstream fuel cell vehicles, as customers will demand driving ranges comparable
to conventional internal combustion-powered vehicles. Compressing the hydrogen gas for vehicle
storage is still in the early stages of technological development. Three major advanced storage
concepts remain under development, including complex (destabilized) hydrides, high-pressure
classic hydrides and high-surface area/cryo-adsorbents.

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GM is committed to producing a viable fuel cell propulsion system that is competitive with passen-
ger cars concerning performance, range and passenger space. How quickly there will be signifi-
cant volumes of exciting, safe and affordable fuel cell vehicles on the market depends on many
factors, including cost-effective and conveniently available hydrogen refueling for our customers,
uniform codes and standards for hydrogen and hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and supportive govern-
ment policies to help overcome the initial vehicle and refueling infrastructure investment hurdles.
No single industry can go it alone. GM is working these issues with governments, energy compa-
nies and other interested parties around the world.

3 Energy diversity
Diverse energy resources and conversion technologies are being sought on a global scale to suit
local and regional energy demands. This is evidenced in areas such as the burgeoning biofuel
arena, growing synthetic fuel production from natural gas and coal, and renewable electricity gen-
eration from wind and solar. This is particularly true for the transportation industry, which arguably
has a faster unit replacement rate of the energy-conversion system, while being poised to lead the
way to a more sustainable future.

GM, as cited in its Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy, believes the trend toward diversified
energy carriers will depend on a blended strategy (Figure 12) for transportation. Gaseous fuels
such as LPG or CNG will be used depending on regional resources and policies. Liquid fuels are
attractive for energy density and handling reasons and will persist well into the future. However,
these will increasingly come from diverse resources as indicated. Petroleum from conventional re-
sources and increasingly from non-conventional resources, such as oil sands, will provide the bulk
of liquid fuels refined in the form of gasoline and diesel fuel for the foreseeable future.

Sustained oil prices above $40 or $50 per barrel provide sufficient financial incentive for investment
in alternative liquid fuels. However, the large capital investments in fuel distribution infrastructure,
and, in most cases, the desirable attributes of the alternate fuel stream (ultra-low sulfur, high-
octane or cetane number), remain challenges.

Liquid non-petroleum energy sources, including ethanol and biodiesel biomass fuels, electricity and
hydrogen comprise the majority of alternative energy sources that have proved the most viable in
terms of automotive-type transportation solutions. Each alternative energy source has clear bene-
fits yet implementation challenges that are often driven by regional infrastructure.

GM is a strong proponent for the electrification of the vehicle, as it offers excellent performance
and zero vehicle emissions. Storage technology and the source of externally supplied electricity
are the largest challenges. The supply of electricity can be brought onboard with the use of hydro-
gen-based fuel cells, which generate electricity without the need for plug-in charging which typically
draws energy from carbon-emitting power plants.

Hydrogen production pathways start with the same, equally diverse primary energy resources as
electricity. In addition to electrical pathways through electrolysis, hydrogen also has production
pathways that directly convert bio- and fossil-fuel hydrocarbons to hydrogen. Hydrogen is abun-
dant, yet an infrastructure similar to conventional gasoline fueling stations must be created an is-
sue that is less problematic with, for example, ethanol or biodiesel. GM forecasts that all of the
alternative energy sources will play significant roles in reducing the dependence on petroleum and
lowering carbon emissions.

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Fig. 12 Blended energy carrier strategy.

3.1 Ethanol and E85


GM believes ethanol has the greatest near-term potential to displace petroleum and is committed
to working with government, academia and industry to promote both supply and availability. The
benefits of ethanol include reduced greenhouse gas emissions, renewability, lower infrastructure
investment due to local and/or domestic production and the potential to add substantially to the
fuel supply. It also requires a minimal investment to convert automotive engines to have ethanol
capability.

General Motors has more E85 and E100 capable vehicles on the road than any other manufac-
turer. In North America, 2.5 million E85-capable GM vehicles are on the road, with GM committed
to have 50 percent of its annual vehicle production volume in North America E85-capable by 2012.
In Europe, the Saab 9-5 BioPower is the best-selling FlexFuel (E85-capable) vehicle, with Saab
recently offering the 9-3 line with BioPower variants.

In Brazil, more than 95 percent of GM s vehicles are FlexPower-enabled, allowing the vehicles to
run on 100-percent ethanol, as well as gasoline. The country, which has a population of more than
190 million, derives its ethanol production primarily from domestically grown sugar cane, allowing
virtual energy independence. In fact, Brazil s renewable fuel supply and ethanol production capac-
ity allow the country to export the fuel.

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Fig. 13 Ethanol production methods.

In the United States, E85 production facilities are being added at an unprecedented pace, using
domestically produced corn as the primary energy source, although alternative sources such as
cellulosic-derived ethanol (see Section 3.2) are being explored. The U.S. is the world s largest
ethanol producer; it generated approximately 8 billion gallons in 2007 and output is expected to in-
crease to about 13 billion gallons by the end of 2009. If the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of
2007 are fulfilled, 36 billion gallons per year may be required starting in 2022.

Brazil is the worlds second-largest ethanol producer, with more than 4 billion gallons in 2007;
China ranks third, with more than 1 billion gallons in 2007. Europe produced more than 600 million
gallons in 2007.

3.2 Cellulosic ethanol


Concern about the effect of food stock-derived ethanol on the supply and cost of food is prevalent
in the United States, as well as concern regarding crops satisfying future demand for E85. Cellu-
losic-derived ethanol is considered by General Motors to be the future solution.

Cellulosic ethanol is non-food based and can be made from a variety of biomass sources (Figure
13), including waste from urban, agricultural and forestry resources, such as corn stalks, lumber
mill waste and prairie grass. But unlike corn ethanol, the cellulose in the products used to make
cellulosic ethanol must be pre-treated and then broken down into sugars before they can be fer-
mented, a step called cellulosis. Both grain-based ethanol and biomass ethanol reduce green-
house gas emissions 29 percent for grain-based ethanol and 86 percent for cellulosic ethanol,
according to Argonne National Laboratories.

GM recently announced a partnership with Coskata Inc. to use the company s breakthrough cellu-
losic technology that affordably and efficiently makes ethanol from practically any renewable
source, including garbage, old tires and plant waste. Coskata uses a proprietary process that lev-

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erages patented microorganisms and bioreactor designs to produce ethanol for less than $1 a gal-
lon, about half of today
s cost of producing gasoline.

Coskata s process addresses the issues most often raised about grain-based ethanol production.
According to Argonne National Laboratory, which analyzed Coskata s process, for every unit of
energy used, it generates up to 7.7 times that amount of energy. In addition, it reduces CO 2 emis-
sions by up to 84 percent, compared with a well-to-wheel analysis of gasoline. It is also a highly ef-
ficient production process that has lower water consumption than conventional ethanol production.

Coskata s process uses less than a gallon of water to make a gallon of ethanol, compared to three
gallons or more for other processes. The technology can be employed almost anywhere in the
world where a carbon-based feedstock is available. For GM, this could lead to joint efforts in mar-
kets such as China, where growing energy demand and a new energy research center could jump-
start a significant effort into ethanol made from biomass.

GM is also working with governments, universities and partners in the energy industry to bring
ethanol to the global markets.

3.3 Biodiesel
Biodiesel is a processed fuel that is a diesel equivalent made of the transesterification of vegetable
oils or animal fats. Like ethanol, biodiesel is made from domestically produced, renewable sources
and offers substantially reduced carbon emissions. It has proven to provide nearly equivalent com-
bustion and performance capabilities as petroleum-based diesel. In limited quantities, biodiesel can
be used in current vehicles when blended with traditional diesel fuel. Expanded use of biodiesel will
require further fuel systems development.

Just as ethanol is blended with gasoline to produce E85, biodiesel can be mixed with petroleum
diesel to produce a fuel blend that offers reduced emissions and reduced need for petroleum. In
North America, the most common blends include B5 (5-percent biodiesel) and B20. General
Motors currently approves B5 for use in Duramax 6.6-liter V-8 turbo-diesel truck engines and all
European automobile diesels. North American full-size heavy-duty pickups and vans are offered
with B20 capability, as a special-equipment option.

3.4 The role of CNG in Europe


Compressed natural gas (CNG) and biogas are playing an increasing role as automotive fuels in
Europe, as their low-carbon combustion and significantly lower consumer cost make them an in-
creasingly attractive alternative to gasoline in passenger cars. Italy has the most CNG-fueled vehi-
cles in Europe, with Germany adding more each year. It is projected that 2 million CNG vehicles
may be on Germany s roads by 2020. In other countries within the European Union, tax incentives
and other economically favorable programs make CNG an increasingly attractive alternative en-
ergy.

GM believes the upward trend in CNG use in Europe will continue. Currently, GM markets two
CNG-enabled vehicles in Europe: The Opel Zafira CNG and Opel Combo CNG. Each is powered
by a 1.6-liter four-cylinder engine that, when operated strictly on CNG, deliver 100 km of range
from approximately 5 kg of CNG.

Customer and environmental advantages are clear. In Germany alone, CNG-powered vehicles are
approximately 50-percent less expensive to operate than comparable petrol models. The Opel
Zafira and Combo models offer approximately 380 km of range.

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Biogas is derived from fermented biomass, such as organic waste, landfills, vegetables and animal
feedstock. It can be produced from a wide range of sources, and has a large production potential.
For example, studies estimate that by 2030 up to 20 percent of all road fuels in Europe could be
replaced by biomethane. The opportunity to blend biogas into the natural gas grid could provide an
important benefit in terms of well-to-wheels balance.

3.5 Electricity and onboard storage capacity


Electricity can improve vehicle energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions as the electric en-
ergy is generated with a high-efficiency power plant. From a transportation standpoint, electricity is
relatively inexpensive yet hard to store. The challenge is maximizing onboard storage while mini-
mizing or eliminating the need for carbon-based electricity sources. A large-scale conversion to
electric power would also have a significant impact on electricity supply, with increased power
coming mostly from carbon-emitting coal-fired power plants.

The electrification of vehicle propulsion systems depends on the use of electricity for at least part
of the drive power, with vehicle range dependent on energy storage. Currently, nickel-metal hy-
dride batteries are used in most applications, but their size and weight limits onboard capacity.
Lithium-ion batteries, similar to those used in many personal electronic devices, are seen as the
solution to increasing storage capacity, but current technology is immature in regard to automobile
usage.

Lithium-ion batteriesadvantages include approximately 40-percent reduced mass and 20-percent


reduced volume when compared with nickel-metal hydride batteries. Lithium-ion batteries also offer
a long life cycle, low self-discharge rate and easier control.

Electrification of transportation in the EU also presents significant challenges for overnight battery
charging. Plug-in hybrid or plug-in all-electric vehicles, for example, require access to charging
points. This is not a problem in most parts of the United States, where most drivers have a dedi-
cated parking space at their home with easy access to a charging point. This is not the case in
many large cities around the world, where vehicles are parked on the street. However, there is an
opportunity for new infrastructures with parking structures that provide dedicated charging points.

3.6 Hydrogen
Hydrogen is an energy carrier and is interchangeable with electricity. GM believes hydrogen can
be competitive with petrol on a cost-per-mile basis, given the higher efficiency of a fuel cell propul-
sion system.

The greatest implementation challenge is converting the existing fueling infrastructure to support
hydrogen, which requires natural gas, electricity and water, but even a 2-percent increase in the
United Statesnatural gas supply could support the infrastructure for approximately 10 million vehi-
cles 95 percent of hydrogen is derived from natural gas. Currently, large hydrogen production
sites exist in or near almost every major city in the United States and Europe.

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4 Global organization
GM Powertrain is the world s largest global powertrain organization, with more than 47,000 people
at 22 engineering centers, 27 engine plants, 18 casting and component plants and 17 transmission
plants. Together, they produce 37,000 engines and 33,000 transmissions each day (Figure 14).

Fig. 14 GM Powertrain
s global footprint.

GM Powertrain has a global structure with single-point leaders in all of the core functions of the
business, including engineering, manufacturing, purchasing and information technology (IT). This
structure enables GM Powertrain to develop, build and deliver powertrains in a very effective man-
ner using common processes identified in a Process of Engineering that includes a bill of design,
bill of material, enhanced analysis, development, validation and road-to-lab-to-math computer
tools.

The bill of designand bill of materialprocesses are the starting points for GM Powertrain engi-
neers and comprise a set of rules for designing powertrain components. A virtual library documents
the lessons learned during the development process so engineers in all of Powertrain s develop-
ment sites can benefit from previous learnings. The enhanced analysis, development, validation
and road-to-lab-to-math computer tools are used early in the powertrain development process to
identify when analysis is sufficient or when physical parts are still needed to be fabricated and
tested. In road-to-lab-to-math, GM Powertrain engineers use math tools to replace some validation
tests that were typically done when the physical components are placed in the vehicle. They are
conducting virtual tests early in the development process where it can have the greatest influence
in changing the design.

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The benefits of this approach include a crisper product execution, shorter life cycles, better quality
and lower costs.

GM has linked its global product development with its global manufacturing and purchasing strate-
gies. This is enabling the organization to build powertrains at lower costs through the use of com-
mon purchasing and manufacturing processes around the world.

Finally, GM Powertrain has a global bill of information technologyto ensure that common proc-
esses and systems are used across the global Powertrain network, which is creating a strategic
advantage for the organization, particularly in the area of control systems.

5 Summary
General MotorsAdvanced Propulsion Technology Strategy promotes efficiency improvements of
powertrain products, energy diversity and acknowledges the energy challenges of the century. By
leveraging its global organization and resources, GM will seek the most appropriate solutions for its
worldwide markets.

Energy diversity will be mandatory for meeting energy demand in the coming decades, because
there is no single solution that solves the dilemma. Balances must be struck between delivering vi-
able energy solutions that minimize or eliminate carbon and reduce the dependence on petroleum
while offering attainable transportation that suits the diverse populations around the globe.

General Motors is committed to the implementation of advanced propulsion technologies that opti-
mize fuel efficiency, minimize emissions and support energy diversity.

29. Internationales Wiener Motorensymposium 2008