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Module 1

Basic concepts of ICT


Types of Personal Computers
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Mainframe
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Network Computer (Server)
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Digital Assistant (PDA)
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Comparison of PC
Mainframe Class Server Desktop PDA High Performance Medium Medium / Low Low Low
High Medium Low Cost Operation System for Academic Research Company System Syste
m System Individual Individual Users Many Many A One
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Hardware / Software
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Hardware: From € ™ English (tool) is the physical part of a personal computer, o
r any parts magnetic, optical, mechanical and electronic equipment that allows h
im to work. Software: means all programs (or one of them) can run on a computer.
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Structure of a PC
CPU RAM
Network Card Mainboard Memory Card Reader
Hard Disk
CD-ROM
Keyboard Monitor Printer Sound Speakers
Floppy
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Hardware
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
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EA € ™ Allows the heart of the system to calculate and consists € ™ ALU and Cach
e
CACHE CACHE
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The measurement speed in MHz / GHz and the amount of core
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ALU
ALU
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Memoirs
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ROM (Read Only Memory)
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RAM (Random Access Memory)
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Storage Systems
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Storage Devices
Type
Floppy disk CD-ROM
Image
Capacity
1.44 MB 800MB
Speed
484Kb / s 7 MB / s
Cost
Low Low
Spread
Decrease in Large
USB-key
1 ~ 32 GB
~ 10 MB / s
Low
Large
DVD-ROM Internal Hard Drives
4.7 GB
20 MB / s
Average
Large
80 ~ 1.5 TB
~ 150MB / s
Average
Total
External Hard Drives
80 ~ 1.5 TB
~ 50MB / s.
High
Large
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System performance
Are influenced by: ï ® processor or CPU Speed [Ghz] ï ® Quantity Cache [KB] ® Am
ount of RAM [Mb] ï ® bus speed (CPU-RAM) [MHz] ï ® Hard Disk Speed [r / sec] and
capacity [Gb] ï ® number and complexity of running applications
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The QWERTY keyboard
Terms € ™ s IT 11/45
Mouse
1. Left button 2. Right button 3. Scroll wheel and
Center button
4. X and thumb buttons
Ring [Optional]
Terms € ™ s IT 12/45
Other Input Devices
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Input: There are devices that allow you to enter data or information into the co
mputer
Pointing touchpad and trackball Games Joystick and Game Pad
Creativity Scanner
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Output devices
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Output: the channels through which the computer makes available to the user € ™
results of its analysis
Monitor Printer
Loudspeakers
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Device IN-OUT
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Are all those devices that allow you to enter data to be € ™ s PC, which display
or export
Disk drive (HDD)
Multifunction (Scanner-Printer) Burner
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Main Ports I / O
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Are the ports that are used to connect the PC with the way external
Terms € ™ s IT 16/45
The binary language
Binary
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Decimal
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2 values
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10 values
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(0 1)
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(0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9) 10 ^ 2 (100) â € | 10 ^ 3 (1000) Kilo [K] 10 ^ 6 (1000K) m
ega [M]
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Multiple
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Multiple
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2 ^ 2 (4) â € | 2 ^ 10 (1024) Kilo [K] 2 ^ 20 (1024K) mega [M]
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To represent the letters and special characters, using the â € € œnumeriâ from 0
to 255 already established.
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ASCII
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Size of the words
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Each character encoded using 8bit (1Byte) ECDL => 8x4 = 32bit = 4Byte space on a
CD
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700mb = 734â € ™ 003â € ™ 200Byte 734 million characters
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Units
Bit 1 = 2 values (0.1) 1 Byte = 8 bits (2 ^ 3 bits) 1 kilobytes [KB] = 1024 Byte
s (2 ^ 10 bits) 1 megabyte [MB] = 1024 KB (2 ^ 20 bits) 1 gigabyte [GB] = 1024 M
B (2 ^ 30 bits) 1 terabyte [TB] = 1024 Gb (2 ^ 40 bits)
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Organization Data
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All data at € ™ s PC are stored in Hard Disk € ™ (â € € AEO dishes or those of l
ast generation was solidoâ € â € AEO)
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Before being used, must be formatted
Files and Folders
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Difference between files and software
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Software: There are programs that let you create files File: These are documents
created and may be modified or read by software
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File Types
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Papers
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Images
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Songs / Videos
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Archives
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Executable
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Software
Types of Software
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System: they are all programs that allow the PC to function properly (eg operati
ng system, drivers € |) Application Software: Programs that are € ™ s user can i
nstall on your machine to run the job every day (eg . Office, Winamp € |)
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GUI â € "Graphical User Interface
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à € ™ s only part of a program € ™ s user can see. EA € ™ through the GUI that I
t can interact with the program
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Software development
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Analysis Design Programming Test
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Computer Networks
Lan - Wan
Hub
LAN
(Local Area Network)
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WAN
(Wide Area Network)
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Benefits Network
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Being able to share files print from € ™ a single network printer to use the sam
e applications on more PCs simultaneously
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Intranet, Extranet
ï ® Intranet:
Is the type of network you created when you connect more computers to the one or
more network computers
ï ® Extranet:
is created with some computer outside the network's common pear ² are always con
nected (eg customers and suppliers)
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Internet
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Invented in 1960 under Managed protocols exchange data through TCP / IP resource
s are identified by IP address (xxxx) Translation of web addresses to IP through
DNS
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Internet Services
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Electronic mail (e-mail) discussion groups (newsgroups) Access databases (www, W
orld Wide Web) file transfer (FTP, File Transfer Protocol) communication in real
time (chat) Teleconference Telephone calls (VOIP)
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WWW: World Wide Web
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It is the global network of all the websites is created by Web masters and Web d
esigners use different languages: HTML, PHP, Java € | To go to Internet Browser
is required addresses are called URLs Each address belongs to a Domain:. com. or
g. com. de. uk â € |
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Internet
PC User PC User
Web Server
PC User
WWW
Internet
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Telephone network and computer
Three kinds of connections available:
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PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), ISDN (Integrated System of Digital Net
work), ADSL (Asymetric digital subscriber line)
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Computers in everyday life
Uses the most common
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Hospitals Banks School Office Telework
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Search Engines and Email
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Most Popular Search Engines
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www.google.com www.yahoo.com www.live.com
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Email Clients
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Pc On Internet
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E-Commerce
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Advantages: services available 24 hours a day, a chance to see € ™ range of prod
ucts
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Disadvantages: having to share private information, choosing from a virtual stor
e, no human contact, risks associated with unsafe payment methods
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Health, Safety and Environment
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Ergonomics (environmental
working)
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Health problems (back,
wrist, eyes)
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Security (cables, Spinea € |) Pc and the environment (recycling,
components to low)
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Security
Data Security
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Privacy Issues Backup ID and password data risks the loss of a laptop
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Virus
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Antivirus applications for protection against attacks
A Fee Free
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Types
Boot, Trojans, Worms, Spyware,€Generic Virus
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Use of small attentions to be safe
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Copyright and legal aspects
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Copyright applies to: Text, graphics, music use and distribution of protected me
dia (CD, DVDA € |) Each software product has a serial number that uniquely ident
ifies
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Types of Programs
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Freeware: free programs usable for an unlimited period of time (eg â € € œQuick
Time) Shareware: programs usable only for a certain period, after which you must
pay a cost in order to continue (eg â € œNero Burning Roma €) Demo: private pro
grams of some functions, but still usable for an unlimited period (eg some games
) With charge: most of the available software (eg Office, and € â € œMicrosoft)
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