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# 32 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Problem 1.6-10 A flexible connection consisting of rubber

pads (thickness t  9 mm) bonded to steel plates is shown in the
P 160 mm
figure. The pads are 160 mm long and 80 mm wide. X Rubber pad
2
(a) Find the average shear strain aver in the rubber if the P
force P  16 kN and the shear modulus for the rubber is Rubber pad
P
G  1250 kPa. X
2
(b) Find the relative horizontal displacement  between the
80 mm t = 9 mm
interior plate and the outer plates.
t = 9 mm

Section X-X

## Solution 1.6-10 Rubber pads bonded to steel plates

P
(a) SHEAR STRESS AND STRAIN IN THE RUBBER PADS
Thickness t
2
P
P2 8 kN
taver    625 kPa
P Rubber pad bL (80 mm)(160 mm)

2 taver 625 kPa
gaver    0.50
G 1250 kPa
Rubber pads: t  9 mm
Length L  160 mm (b) HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT

G  1250 kPa
P  16 kN

## Problem 1.6-11 A spherical fiberglass buoy used in an

underwater experiment is anchored in shallow water by a
chain [see part (a) of the figure]. Because the buoy is posi-
tioned just below the surface of the water, it is not expected d
to collapse from the water pressure. The chain is attached to Pin
the buoy by a shackle and pin [see part (b) of the figure]. Shackle
The diameter of the pin is 0.5 in. and the thickness of the
shackle is 0.25 in. The buoy has a diameter of 60 in. and
weighs 1800 lb on land (not including the weight of
the chain).
(b)
(a) Determine the average shear stress aver in the pin.
(b) Determine the average bearing stress b between the
pin and the shackle.

(a)
SECTION 1.6 Shear Stress and Strain 33

## Solution 1.6-11 Submerged buoy

EQUILIBRIUM
d  diameter of buoy
 60 in. T  FBW  2376 lb

## T  tensile force in chain (a) AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS IN PIN

dp
dp  diameter of pin
Ap  area of pin
t
 0.5 in.

Ap  d2p  0.1963 in.2
t  thickness of shackle 4
T  0.25 in. T
taver   6050 psi
W  weight of buoy 2Ap
 1800 lb
(b) BEARING STRESS BETWEEN PIN AND SHACKLE
W  weight density of sea water
 63.8 lb/ft3 Ab  2dpt  0.2500 in.2
T
FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF BUOY sb   9500 psi
Ab

## FB FB  buoyant force of water pressure

(equals the weight of the
displaced sea water)
V  volume of buoy
W
d 3
  65.45 ft3
6
T
FB  W V  4176 lb

## Problem 1.6-12 The clamp shown in the figure is used

to support a load hanging from the lower flange of a steel
beam. The clamp consists of two arms (A and B) joined
by a pin at C. The pin has diameter d  12 mm. Because
arm B straddles arm A, the pin is in double shear.
Line 1 in the figure defines the line of action of the
resultant horizontal force H acting between the lower
flange of the beam and arm B. The vertical distance from
this line to the pin is h  250 mm. Line 2 defines the line
of action of the resultant vertical force V acting between
the flange and arm B. The horizontal distance from this c Line 2
line to the centerline of the beam is c  100 mm. The Arm A Arm B
force conditions between arm A and the lower flange are
Line 1
symmetrical with those given for arm B.
Determine the average shear stress in the pin at C P
h
when the load P  18 kN.
C
Arm A

P
34 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF CLAMP Mc  0  

VcHh  0
C
Vc Pc
H   3.6 kN
h 2h
V HH V
h
FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF PIN
A B

C P
4
P (from half of arm B)
2 H
2
P P
H (from arm A)
4

## (from half of arm B)

H
h  250 mm 2

c  100 mm
SHEAR FORCE F IN PIN
P  18 kN
P F
From vertical equilibrium:
4
P
V  9 kN
2
H
d  diameter of pin at C 12 mm
2
FREE-BODY DIAGRAMS OF ARMS A AND B
P 2 H 2
P C F 

V= V=
P B 4 2
2 2
 4.847 kN
H H V

## h AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS

A P B F F
2 taver   2  42.9 MPa
C C Apin d4
H H
P
2

P
SECTION 1.6 Shear Stress and Strain 35

## Problem 1.6-13 A specially designed wrench is used to twist

a circular shaft by means of a square key that fits into slots (or c
keyways) in the shaft and wrench, as shown in the figure. The
shaft has diameter d, the key has a square cross section of
dimensions b  b, and the length of the key is c. The key fits
half into the wrench and half into the shaft (i.e., the keyways Shaft
Key
have a depth equal to b/2).
Derive a formula for the average shear stress aver in the
key when a load P is applied at distance L from the center of
Lever
the shaft.
Hints: Disregard the effects of friction, assume that the
bearing pressure between the key and the wrench is uniformly
L
distributed, and be sure to draw free-body diagrams of the
b
wrench and key. P

## FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF KEY

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF WRENCH

b Plane of shear
P 2 F

c d
F b
d b
+
L 2 4
b F
2
With friction disregarded, the bearing pressures F
taver 
between the wrench and the shaft are radial. bc
Because the bearing pressure between the wrench 4PL
and the key is uniformly distributed, the force F 
bc(2d  b)
acts at the midpoint of the keyway.
(width of keyway  b/2)
Mc  0  

d b
PL  F   0
2 4

4PL
F
2d  b
36 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Problem 1.6-14 A bicycle chain consists of a series of small Links Pin

links, each 12 mm long between the centers of the pins (see
figure). You might wish to examine a bicycle chain and observe
its construction. Note particularly the pins, which we will
assume to have a diameter of 2.5 mm.
In order to solve this problem, you must now make two 12 mm
measurements on a bicycle (see figure): (1) the length L of 2.5 mm
the crank arm from main axle to pedal axle, and (2) the radius
R of the sprocket (the toothed wheel, sometimes called the
chainring). T
F
Sprocket
(a) Using your measured dimensions, calculate the tensile
force T in the chain due to a force F  800 N applied
to one of the pedals. R
(b) Calculate the average shear stress aver in the pins.
L Chain

## Solution 1.6-14 Bicycle chain

Pin T
F
T T Sprocket
2 2
T T
R
2 2
12 mm
d = 2.5 mm L Chain

## (800 N)(162 mm)

F  force applied to pedal800 N T  1440 N
90 mm
L  length of crank arm
R  radius of sprocket (b) SHEAR STRESS IN PINS
T2 T 2T
MEASUREMENTS (FOR AUTHORS BICYCLE) taver   2 
Apin 2( d4 ) d 2
(1) L  162 mm (2) R  90 mm
2FL

(a) TENSILE FORCE T IN CHAIN d2R
FL Substitute numerical values:
Maxle  0 FL  TR T 
R 2(800 N)(162 mm)
taver   147 MPa
Substitute numerical values: (2.5 mm) 2 (90 mm)

## Problem 1.6-15 A shock mount constructed as shown in the Steel tube

figure is used to support a delicate instrument. The mount consists
of an outer steel tube with inside diameter b, a central steel bar of r
diameter d that supports the load P, and a hollow rubber cylinder P
Steel bar
(height h) bonded to the tube and bar.
d
(a) Obtain a formula for the shear stress  in the rubber at a Rubber
radial distance r from the center of the shock mount.
(b) Obtain a formula for the downward displacement  of the h
central bar due to the load P, assuming that G is the shear
modulus of elasticity of the rubber and that the steel tube
and bar are rigid. b
SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 37

## Solution 1.6-15 Shock mount

 2rh
dr r  radial distance
d from center of P P
r t 
b shock mount to As 2rh
element of
thickness dr (b) DOWNWARD DISPLACEMENT 
Steel tube
  shear strain at distance r
Rubber
cylinder t P
g 
G 2rhG
P
d  downward displacement for element dr
d Pdr
d  gdr 
2rhG
h b2

 
Pdr
  d 
d2
2rhG

b2


b P dr P b2
  [ln r] d2
(a) SHEAR STRESS  AT RADIAL DISTANCE r 2hG d2
r 2hG
As  shear area at distance r P b
 ln
2hG d

Allowable Loads

## Problem 1.7-1 A bar of solid circular cross section is loaded in tension by d

forces P (see figure). The bar has length L  16.0 in. and diameter d  0.50 P P
in. The material is a magnesium alloy having modulus of elasticity L
E  6.4  106 psi. The allowable stress in tension is allow  17,000 psi,
and the elongation of the bar must not exceed 0.04 in.
What is the allowable value of the forces P?

## Solution 1.7-1 Magnesium bar in tension

L max  Etmax  (6.4  106 psi)(0.00250)
d
P P  16,000 psi

Pmax  smax A  (16,000 psi) (0.50 in.) 2
4
 3140 lb
L  16.0 in.
d  0.50 in. MAXIMUM LOAD BASED UPON TENSILE STRESS
E  6.4  106 psi 
Pmax  sallow A  (17,000 psi) (0.50 in.) 2
allow  17,000 psi max  0.04 in. 4
 3340 lb
MAXIMUM LOAD BASED UPON ELONGATION
max 0.04 in. ALLOWABLE LOAD
tmax    0.00250
L 16 in. Elongation governs.
Pallow  3140 lb
38 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Problem 1.7-2 A torque T0 is transmitted between two flanged shafts T0

d
by means of four 20-mm bolts (see figure). The diameter of the bolt circle
is d  150 mm.
If the allowable shear stress in the bolts is 90 MPa, what is the T0
maximum permissible torque? (Disregard friction between the flanges.)

## F F To  torque transmitted by bolts ALLOWABLE SHEAR FORCE IN ONE BOLT

F F dB  bolt diameter  20 mm 
F  tallowAbolt  (90 MPa) (20 mm) 2
d  diameter of bolt circle 4
d  150 mm  28.27 kN

## allow  90 MPa MAXIMUM TORQUE

F  Shear force in one bolt To  2Fd  2(28.27 kN)(150 mm)
d  8.48 kN m
To  4F  2Fd
2

P
Problem 1.7-3 A tie-down on the deck of a sailboat consists of a bent
bar bolted at both ends, as shown in the figure. The diameter dB of the
bar is 14 in., the diameter dW of the washers is 78 in., and the thickness t
of the fiberglass deck is 38 in.
If the allowable shear stress in the fiberglass is 300 psi, and the
allowable bearing pressure between the washer and the fiberglass is dB dB
550 psi, what is the allowable load Pallow on the tie-down?
t
dW dW

## Solution 1.7-3 Bolts through fiberglass

P 1  309.3 lb
2 ds  in.
4 P1  619 lb
dB 7
Fiberglass dW  in.
8 ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON BEARING PRESSURE
3
t  in. b  550 psi
t 8
dW  2
Bearing area Ab  (d  d2B )
4 W
ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON SHEAR STRESS IN P2  7 2
1 2

FIBERGLASS
 sb Ab  (550 psi) B in.  in. R
2 4 8 4
allow  300 psi  303.7 lb
Shear area As  dW t P2  607 lb
P1
 tallow As  tallow (d W t) ALLOWABLE LOAD
2
7 3 Bearing pressure governs.
 (300 psi)() in. in.
8 8 Pallow  607 lb
SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 39

Problem 1.7-4 An aluminum tube serving as a compression brace in the fuselage of a small t
airplane has the cross section shown in the figure. The outer diameter of the tube is d  25 mm
and the wall thickness is t  2.5 mm. The yield stress for the aluminum is Y  270 MPa and
the ultimate stress is U  310 MPa.
Calculate the allowable compressive force Pallow if the factors of safety with respect to the
d
yield stress and the ultimate stress are 4 and 5, respectively.

## t d  25 mm YIELD STRESS ULTIMATE STRESS

t  2.5 mm
Y  270 MPa
U  310 MPa
do  inner diameter F.S.  4 F.S.  5
d  20 mm 270 MPa 310 Mpa
sallow  sallow 
 2 4 5
Atube  (d  do2)  176.7 mm2  67.5 MPa
4  62 MPa
The ultimate stress governs.

## ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE FORCE

Pallow  allow Atube  (62 MPa )(176.7 mm2)
11.0 kN

## Problem 1.7-5 A steel pad supporting heavy machinery rests

on four short, hollow, cast iron piers (see figure). The ultimate
strength of the cast iron in compression is 50 ksi. The outer
diameter of the piers is d  4.5 in. and the wall thickness is
t
t  0.40 in.
Using a factor of safety of 3.5 with respect to the ultimate
strength, determine the total load P that may be supported by
the pad. d

## t Four piers do  3.7 in.

U  50 ksi  2 
A (d  d2o )  [ (4.5 in.) 2  (3.7 in.) 2 ]
4 4
n  3.5
d  5.152 in. 2

sU 50 ksi
sallow    14.29 ksi P1  allowable load on one pier
n 3.5
 allow A  (14.29 ksi)(5.152 in.2)
d  4.5 in.
 73.62 k
t  0.4 in.
Total load P  4 P1  294 k
40 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Problem 1.7-6 A long steel wire hanging from a balloon car-

ries a weight W at its lower end (see figure). The 4-mm diameter
wire is 25 m long.
What is the maximum weight Wmax that can safely be car-
ried if the tensile yield stress for the wire is Y  350 MPa and a
margin of safety against yielding of 1.5 is desired? (Include the
weight of the wire in the calculations.)

d
L

## Solution 1.7-6 Wire hanging from a balloon


d  4.0 mm Wo  (77.0 kNm3 ) (4.0 mm) 2 (25 m)
4
L  25 m
d  24.19 N
L Y  350 MPa
Total load P  Wmax  Wo 
allow A
Margin of safety  1.5
Wmax  sallow A  Wo
Factor of safety  n  2.5
sY d2
sallow   140 MPa  (140 MPa)  24.19 N
n 4
W

 (140 MPa) (4.0 mm) 2  24.19 N
Weight density of steel:   77.0 kN/m3 4
Weight of wire:  1759.3 N  24.2 N  1735.1 N

d 2 Wmax  1740 N
Wo  gAL  g (L)
4
SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 41

## Problem 1.7-7 A lifeboat hangs from two ships davits, as shown T T

in the figure. A pin of diameter d  0.80 in. passes through each Davit  = 15
davit and supports two pulleys, one on each side of the davit.
Cables attached to the lifeboat pass over the pulleys and wind Pulley
around winches that raise and lower the lifeboat. The lower parts of Pin
the cables are vertical and the upper parts make an angle   15
with the horizontal. The allowable tensile force in each cable is
Cable
1800 lb, and the allowable shear stress in the pins is 4000 psi.
If the lifeboat weighs 1500 lb, what is the maximum weight
that should be carried in the lifeboat?

## Solution 1.7-7 Lifeboat supported by four cables

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF ONE PULLEY ALLOWABLE TENSILE FORCE IN ONE CABLE BASED
UPON SHEAR IN THE PINS
15 T 
Pulley Vallow  tallow Apin  (4000 psi) (0.80 in.) 2
4
 2011 lb
RH
Pin Vallow
V  1.2175TT1   1652 lb
1.2175

## RV ALLOWABLE FORCE IN ONE CABLE BASED UPON

TENSION IN THE CABLE

T T2  Tallow  1800 lb

## V  shear force in pin

V  (RH ) 2  (RV ) 2  1.2175T
42 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Problem 1.7-8 A ships spar is attached at the base of a mast Mast

by a pin connection (see figure). The spar is a steel tube of outer P
diameter d2  80 mm and inner diameter d1  70 mm. The steel Pin
pin has diameter d  25 mm, and the two plates connecting the
spar to the pin have thickness t  12 mm.
The allowable stresses are as follows: compressive stress in Spar
the spar, 70 MPa; shear stress in the pin, 45 MPa; and bearing
stress between the pin and the connecting plates, 110 MPa.
Connecting
Determine the allowable compressive force Pallow in plate
the spar.

## Solution 1.7-8 Pin connection for a ships spar

P
Spar: d2  80 mm ALLOWABLE LOAD P BASED UPON SHEAR IN THE PIN
(DOUBLE SHEAR)
d1  70 mm
allow  45 MPa
Pin: d  25 mm
Spar
Plates: t  12 mm d 2 
As  2  (25 mm) 2  981.7 mm2
Pin 4 2
Plate P2  allow As  (45 MPa )(981.7 mm2)  44.2 kN
ALLOWABLE LOAD P BASED UPON COMPRESSION
ALLOWABLE LOAD P BASED UPON BEARING
IN THE SPAR
b  110 MPa

c  70 MPa
Ab  2dt  2(25 mm)(12 mm)  600 mm2
 
Ac  (d22  d21 )  [ (80 mm) 2  (70 mm) 2 ]
4 4 P3  bAb  (110 MPa )(600 mm2)  66.0 kN

## 1178.1 mm2 ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE LOAD IN THE SPAR

P1 
cAc  (70 MPa )(1178.1 mm2)  82.5 kN Shear in the pin governs.
Pallow  44.2 kN

## Problem 1.7-9 What is the maximum possible value of the P

clamping force C in the jaws of the pliers shown in the figure
if a  3.75 in., b  1.60 in., and the ultimate shear stress in Pin
the 0.20-in. diameter pin is 50 ksi?
What is the maximum permissible value of the applied
load P if a factor of safety of 3.0 with respect to failure of
the pin is to be maintained?

P a b
SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 43

## FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF ONE ARM V  shear force in pin (single shear)

V V
Pin V  R C  and P 
b a
1 1
a b
C MAXIMUM CLAMPING FORCE Cult
R ult  50 ksi
P Vult  ult Apin
a b

 (50 ksi) (0.20 in.) 2
4
C  clamping force
1571 lb
R  reaction at pin Vult 1571 lb
Cult  
a  3.75 in. b 1.60 in.
1 1
a 3.75 in.
b  1.60 in.
1100 lb
d  diameter of pin
 0.20 in. MAXIMUM LOAD Pult

## Mpin  0Cb  Pa  0 Vult 1571 lb

Pult    469.8 lb
a 3.75 in.
Pa Cb C a 1 1
C P    b 1.60 in.
b a P b
Fvert  0   P  C  R  0 ALLOWABLE LOAD Pallow
a b Pult 469.8 lb
R  P  C  P 1   C 1  Pallow  
b a M 3.0
157 lb

## Problem 1.7-10 A metal bar AB of weight W is suspended by a 0.75 m 0.75 m

system of steel wires arranged as shown in the figure. The diameter 2.5 m
of the wires is 2 mm, and the yield stress of the steel is 450 MPa.
Determine the maximum permissible weight Wmax for a factor
of safety of 1.9 with respect to yielding. 1.75 m

1.75 m
W

A B
44 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

10 b
W
2
E F CAB

7b Fhoriz  0
C D TCD  2CAB
TCD 3W

7b 7

CAB
A B b = 0.25 m W
W
2

## LAC  LEC  (3b) 2  (7b) 2  b58 ALLOWABLE TENSILE FORCE IN A WIRE

d  2 mm y  450 MPa F.S.  1.9
FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF POINT A
d 2
sy
TAC sy A 4
Tallow  
n n
A CAC
450 MPa 
 (2 mm) 2  744.1 N
W 1.9 4
2
7b W MAXIMUM TENSILE FORCES IN WIRES
Fvert  0TAC 
b58 2 3W W58
TCD  TAC 
W58 7 14
TAC 
14 Force in wire AC is larger.
3b
Fhoriz  0TAC  CAB MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WEIGHT W
b58
3W 14 TAC 14 Tallow 14
CAB  Wmax    (744.1 N)
14 58 58 58
 1370 N

## Problem 1.7-11 Two flat bars loaded in tension by forces P

b = 1.0 in.
are spliced using two rectangular splice plates and two 58-in.
diameter rivets (see figure). The bars have width b  1.0 in. P P
(except at the splice, where the bars are wider) and thickness
t  0.4 in. The bars are made of steel having an ultimate stress
in tension equal to 60 ksi. The ultimate stresses in shear and
bearing for the rivet steel are 25 ksi and 80 ksi, respectively.
Determine the allowable load Pallow if a safety factor
Bar Splice plate
of 2.5 is desired with respect to the ultimate load that can
t = 0.4 in.
be carried. (Consider tension in the bars, shear in the rivets,
and bearing between the rivets and the bars. Disregard friction P P
between the plates.)
SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 45

## Solution 1.7-11 Splice between two flat bars

P
t
P P2  tult (2AR )  2(25 ksi)(0.3068 in.2 )

 15.34 k

ULTIMATE LOAD BASED UPON TENSION IN THE BARS ULTIMATE LOAD BASED UPON BEARING

## A  bt b  1.0 in. t  0.4 in. 5

P3  sbAb  (80 ksi) in. (0.4 in.)  20.0 k
8
A  0.40 in.2
ULTIMATE LOAD
P1  ult A  (60 ksi)(0.40 in.2)  24.0 k
Shear governs. Pult  15.34 k
ULTIMATE LOAD BASED UPON SHEAR IN THE RIVETS
ALLOWABLE LOAD
Double shear d  diameter of rivets
Pult 15.34 k
d  58 in. AR  Area of rivets Pallow    6.14 k
n 2.5
d 2  5 2
AR   in.  0.3068 in.2
4 4 8

Problem 1.7-12 A solid bar of circular cross section (a) Obtain a formula for the allowable load Pallow that
(diameter d) has a hole of diameter d/4 drilled laterally the bar can carry in tension.
through the center of the bar (see figure). The allowable (b) Calculate the value of Pallow if the bar is made of brass
average tensile stress on the net cross section of the bar with diameter d  40 mm and allow  80 MPa.
is allow.
(Hint: Use the formulas of Case 15, Appendix D.)

d
d

d 4 4
P P
d

## CROSS SECTION OF BAR d d

15
From Case 15, Appendix D: d 2 1 8 8
A  2 B arc cos  R
2 4 (d2) 2
ab
A  2r2  
d2 1 15
r2  arc cos   0.5380 d 2
d

2 4 16
d d
4 r  a 
2 8 (a) ALLOWABLE LOAD IN TENSION
d
2
d 15 d Pallow  allow A  0.5380d2 allow
b r2  d  15
B 8 B 64 8
d8 (b) SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES
  arc cos
r allow  80 MPa d  40 mm
1
 arc cos Pallow  68.9 kN
4
46 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Problem 1.7-13 A solid steel bar of diameter d1  2.25 in. has a

hole of diameter d2  1.125 in. drilled through it (see figure). A d2
steel pin passes through the hole and is attached to supports.
Determine the maximum permissible tensile load Pallow in the d1
bar if the yield stress for shear in the pin is y  17,000 psi, the d1
yield stress for tension in the bar is y 5 36,000 psi, and a factor of
safety of 2.0 with respect to yielding is required. (Hint: Use the P
formulas of Case 15, Appendix D.)

## d1  2.25 in. ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED ON TENSION IN THE BAR

 d2  1.125 in. sy 36,000 psi
 P1  A (1.5546 in.2 )
c From Case 15, Appendix D: n 2.0
  28.0 k
ab
A  2r2  
r2 ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED ON SHEAR IN THE PIN
d1 Double shear
d2 r   1.125 in.
2
d22 
d22 d2 As  2Apin  2  (1.125 in.) 2
d1   arc cos  arc cos 4 2
d12 d1
 1.9880 in.2
d2 1.125 in. 1 1
    arc cos  1.0472 rad ty 17,000 psi
d1 2.25 in. 2 2 P2  As  (1.9880 in.) 2
n 2.0
d2
a   0.5625 in.  16.9 k
2
r b b  r2  a2  0.9743 in. ALLOWABLE LOAD
 ab
C A  2r2   2 Shear in the pin governs.
a r
 2(1.125 in.) 2 Pallow  16.9 k

B 1.0472  R
(1.125 in.) 2
 1.5546 in.2

## Problem 1.7-14 The piston in an engine is attached to a connecting rod

AB, which in turn is connected to a crank arm BC (see figure). The piston
slides without friction in a cylinder and is subjected to a force P (assumed
to be constant) while moving to the right in the figure. The connecting
rod, which has diameter d and length L, is attached at both ends by pins. Cylinder Piston Connecting rod
The crank arm rotates about the axle at C with the pin at B moving in a M
A d C
circle of radius R. The axle at C, which is supported by bearings, exerts P
B
a resisting moment M against the crank arm.
L R
(a) Obtain a formula for the maximum permissible force Pallow
based upon an allowable compressive stress c in the connect-
ing rod.
(b) Calculate the force Pallow for the following data:
c  160 MPa, d  9.00 mm, and R  0.28L.
SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 47

## A M The maximum allowable force P occurs when cos

P C
a has its smallest value, which means that has its
R largest value.
L B
LARGEST VALUE OF
d  diameter of rod AB
L2 R2 C
A
FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF PISTON 
R
L
RP
B

## The largest value of  occurs when point B is the

farthest distance from line AC. The farthest distance
P
a is the radius R of the crank arm.
Therefore,
C BC  R

## C  compressive force in connecting rod L2  R2 R 2

cos    1
L B L
RP  resultant of reaction forces between cylinder
and piston (no friction)
(a) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FORCE P
Fhoriz  0 S
 d P  C cos  0

Pallow  sc Ac cos 
P  C cos
d2 R 2
 sc 1
MAXIMUM COMPRESSIVE FORCE C IN CONNECTING ROD 4 B L
Cmax 
c Ac (b) SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES
in which Ac  area of connecting rod c  160 MPa d  9.00 mm
d2
Ac  R  0.28 L R/L  0.28
4
Pallow  9.77 kN
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FORCE P
P  Cmax cos 
 sc Ac cos 
48 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Problem 1.8-1 An aluminum tube is required to transmit an axial

tensile force P  34 k (see figure). The thickness of the wall of the d
tube is to be 0.375 in. P P
What is the minimum required outer diameter dmin if the allowable
tensile stress is 9000 psi?

d P
d t
P P tsallow

## SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

P  34 k
34 k
t  0.375 in. dmin   0.375 in.
(0.375 in.)(9000 psi)
allow  9000 psi  3.207 in.  0.375 in.
  dmin  3.58 in.
A  [d2  (d  2t) 2 ]  (4t)(d  t)
4 4
 t(d  t)
P  sallow A  t(d  t)sallow

## Problem 1.8-2 A steel pipe having yield stress y  270 MPa P d

is to carry an axial compressive load P  1200 kN (see figure). t =
8
A factor of safety of 1.8 against yielding is to be used.
If the thickness t of the pipe is to be one-eighth of its outer
diameter, what is the minimum required outer diameter dmin?
d

## Solution 1.8-2 Steel pipe in compression

d
t = P  1200 kN SOLVE FOR d:
8

Y  270 MPa 64 P P
d2  d  8
n  1.8 7sallow B 7sallow
d allow  150 MPa SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

 2 d 2 7d 2 1200 kN
A B d  d  R  dmin  8  153 mm
4 4 64 B 7 (150 MPa)

7d2
P  sallowA  s
64 allow
SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 49

## Problem 1.8-3 A horizontal beam AB supported by an 4 ft 4 ft

inclined strut CD carries a load P  2500 lb at the position B
shown in the figure. The strut, which consists of two bars, A C
is connected to the beam by a bolt passing through the 3 ft
three bars meeting at joint C. P
If the allowable shear stress in the bolt is 14,000 psi,
what is the minimum required diameter dmin of the bolt?
D

Beam AB

Bolt

Strut CD

## Solution 1.8-3 Beam ACB supported by a strut CD

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM
A 4 ft C
4 ft 4 ft
B 3 ft 5 ft
A C
3 ft
P D

## (RD)V FCD  compressive force in strut

5 5 8P 10P
FCD  (RD ) H  
MA  0   P(8 ft)  (RD ) H (3 ft)  0 4 4 3 3

## 8 SHEAR FORCE ACTING ON BOLT

(RD ) H  P
3 FCD 5P
V 
2 3
(RD)H
D REQUIRED AREA AND DIAMETER OF BOLT
V 5P d2 20P
A  A  d2 
tallow 3tallow 4 3tallow

## SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

(RD)V
P  2500 lb allow  14,000 psi
FCD
d2  0.3789 in.2
dmin  0.616 in.
50 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Problem 1.8-4 Two bars of rectangular cross section (thickness

t t
t  15 mm) are connected by a bolt in the manner shown in P P
the figure. The allowable shear stress in the bolt is 90 MPa and
the allowable bearing stress between the bolt and the bars is
150 MPa.
If the tensile load P  31 kN, what is the minimum required
diameter dmin of the bolt?

P P

## t BASED UPON SHEAR IN THE BOLT.

P
P d2 P
P Abolt   
t 2tallow 4 2tallow

2P
d2 
One bolt in double shear. tallow
P  31 kN 2P 2(31 kN)
d1  
allow  90 MPa B tallow B (90 MPa)

b  150 MPa  14.8 mm
t  15 mm BASED UPON BEARING BETWEEN PLATE AND BOLT
Find minimum diameter of bolt. P P
Abearing  dt 
sb sb
P 31 kN
d d2   13.8 mm
tsb (15 mm) (150 MPa)

## MINIMUM DIAMETER OF BOLT

Shear governs.
dmin  14.8 mm
SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 51

## Problem 1.8-5 Solve the preceding problem if the bars have

thickness t  516 in., the allowable shear stress is 12,000 psi, the
allowable bearing stress is 20,000 psi, and the load P  1800 lb.

## t BASED UPON SHEAR IN THE BOLT

P
P d2 P
P Abolt   
t 2tallow 4 2tallow

2P
d2 
One bolt in double shear. tallow
P  1800 lb 2P 2(1800 lb)
d1    0.309 in.
allow  12,000 psi t
B allow B (12,000 psi)

b  20,000 psi
BASED UPON BEARING BETWEEN PLATE AND BOLT
t  516 in. P P
Abearing  dt 
Find minimum diameter of bolt. sb sb
P 1800 lb
d d2  5  0.288 in.
tsb ( 16 in.)(20,000 psi)

Shear governs.
dmin  0.309 in.

## Problem 1.8-6 A suspender on a suspension bridge consists of a

cable that passes over the main cable (see figure) and supports the
bridge deck, which is far below. The suspender is held in position by
a metal tie that is prevented from sliding downward by clamps around Main
cable
the suspender cable.
Let P represent the load in each part of the suspender cable, and Suspender
let  represent the angle of the suspender cable just above the tie. Collar
Finally, let allow represent the allowable tensile stress in the metal tie.
 
(a) Obtain a formula for the minimum required cross-sectional area
of the tie.
(b) Calculate the minimum area if P  130 kN,   75, and Clamp Tie
allow  80 MPa.

P P
52 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Solution 1.8-6 Suspender tie on a suspension bridge

F F
F  tensile force in FORCE TRIANGLE
cable above tie
T F
  P  tensile force in cot u  P
cable below tie P

## allow  allowable tensile T  P cot u 

Tie
stress in the tie (a) MINIMUM REQUIRED AREA OF TIE T

T P cot u
Amin  
sallow sallow
P P
(b) SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:
FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF HALF THE TIE
P  130 kN  75
allow  80 MPa
Note: Include a small amount of the cable in the
free-body diagram Amin  435 mm2
T  tensile force in the tie
F

## Problem 1.8-7 A square steel tube of length L  20 ft and

width b2  10.0 in. is hoisted by a crane (see figure). The
tube hangs from a pin of diameter d that is held by the cables
at points A and B. The cross section is a hollow square with
inner dimension b1  8.5 in. and outer dimension b2  10.0 d
in. The allowable shear stress in the pin is 8,700 psi, and the
A B
allowable bearing stress between the pin and the tube is
13,000 psi. Square
Determine the minimum diameter of the pin in order to tube
support the weight of the tube. (Note: Disregard the rounded
Square Pin
corners of the tube when calculating its weight.)
tube d A B
L
b2
b1
b2
SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 53

## T T T  tensile force in cable W  gs AL  (490 lbft3 )(27.75 in.2 )

W  weight of steel tube 1 ft2
(20 ft)
d  diameter of pin 144 in.
 1,889 lb
b1  inner dimension of tube
 8.5 in. DIAMETER OF PIN BASED UPON SHEAR
b2  outer dimension of tube Double shear. 2 allow Apin  W
b2  10.0 in.
b1
d L  Length of tube  20 ft d 2
2(8,700 psi)  1889 lb
4
allow  8,700 psi
b  13,000 psi d2  0.1382 in.2 d1  0.372 in.

b(b2  b1) d  W

##  490 lb/ft3 (13,000 psi)(10.0 in.  8.5 in.) d  1,889 lb

d2  0.097 in.
A  area of tube
 b22  b21  (10.0 in.) 2  (8.5 in.) 2 MINIMUM DIAMETER OF PIN
 27.75 in. Shear governs.
dmin  0.372 in.

Problem 1.8-8 Solve the preceding problem if the length L of the tube is 6.0 m,
the outer width is b2  250 mm, the inner dimension is b1  210 mm, the allow-
able shear stress in the pin is 60 MPa, and the allowable bearing stress is 90 MPa.

## Solution 1.8-8 Tube hoisted by a crane

A  area of tube
T T T  tensile force in cable
b22  b21  18,400 mm2
W  weight of steel tube
d  diameter of pin W  sAL  (77.0 kN/m3)(18,400 mm2)(6.0 m)

## b1  inner dimension of tube  8.501 kN

 210 mm DIAMETER OF PIN BASED UPON SHEAR
b2  outer dimension of tube Double shear. 2allow Apin  W
b2  250 mm
 2
b1
d L  length of tube 2(60 MPa) d  8.501 kNd 2  90.20 mm2
4
 6.0 m d1  9.497 mm
allow  60 MPa DIAMETER OF PIN BASED UPON BEARING
b  90 MPa
b(b2  b1)d  W
Weight of tube (90 MPa )(40 mm)d  8.501 kN d2  2.361 mm
s  Weight density of steel
MINIMUM DIAMETER OF PIN
 77.0 kN/m3
Shear governs. dmin  9.50 mm
54 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Problem 1.8-9 A pressurized circular cylinder has a sealed cover plate Cover plate
fastened with steel bolts (see figure). The pressure p of the gas in the cylinder
is 290 psi, the inside diameter D of the cylinder is 10.0 in., and the diameter dB
of the bolts is 0.50 in.
If the allowable tensile stress in the bolts is 10,000 psi, find the number Steel bolt
n of bolts needed to fasten the cover. p
Cylinder

## Solution 1.8-9 Pressurized cylinder

NUMBER OF BOLTS
p  tensile force in one bolt
Bolt
p F pD2
p 
n 4n

Ab  area of one bolt  d2b
4
D p  allow Ab
p pD2 pD2
p  290 psi sallow   
Ab (4n)( 4 )d2b nd2b
D  10.0 in.
pD2
db  0.50 in. n
d2b sallow
allow  10,000 psi
n  number of bolts SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

F  total force acting on the cover plate from (290 psi)(10 in.) 2
n  11.6
the internal pressure (0.5 in.) 2 (10,000 psi)
D2 Use 12 bolts
Fp
4
SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 55

## Problem 1.8-10 A tubular post of outer diameter d2 is guyed by two

cables fitted with turnbuckles (see figure). The cables are tightened Cable
by rotating the turnbuckles, thus producing tension in the cables and
compression in the post. Both cables are tightened to a tensile force Turnbuckle
of 110 kN. Also, the angle between the cables and the ground is 60,
and the allowable compressive stress in the post is c  35 MPa.
If the wall thickness of the post is 15 mm, what is the minimum
permissible value of the outer diameter d2?
Post
d2
60 60

## 30 30 d2  outer diameter AREA OF POST

T T d1  inner diameter  2 
A (d2  d21 )  [d22  (d2  2t) 2 ]
t  wall thickness 4 4
P
 15 mm  t(d2  t)

## T  tensile force in a cable EQUATE AREAS AND SOLVE FOR d2:

d2  110 kN 2T cos 30
 t(d2  t)

allow  35 MPa sallow
2T cos 30
P  compressive force in post d2  t
tsallow
 2T cos 30
SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:
REQUIRED AREA OF POST (d2 ) min  131 mm
P 2T cos 30
A 
sallow sallow

## Problem 1.8-11 A cage for transporting workers and supplies on a

construction site is hoisted by a crane (see figure). The floor of the cage
is rectangular with dimensions 6 ft by 8 ft. Each of the four lifting cables
is attached to a corner of the cage and is 13 ft long. The weight of the
cage and its contents is limited by regulations to 9600 lb.
Determine the required cross-sectional area AC of a cable if the
breaking stress of a cable is 91 ksi and a factor of safety of 3.5 with
respect to failure is desired.
56 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Solution 1.8-11 Cage hoisted by a crane

b 2 c 2
W From geometry:L2    h2
2 2
(13 ft)2  (3 ft)2  (4 ft)2  h2
B Solving, h  12 ft

FORCE IN A CABLE

A TV

A
T  force in one cable (cable AB)
TV  vertical component of T
b c
(Each cable carries the same load.)

## Dimensions of cage: W 9600 lb

TV    2400 lb
4 4
b  6 ft c  8 ft
T L 13 ft
Length of a cable: L  13 ft  
TV h 12 ft
Weight of cage and contents: 13
T  TV  2600 lb
W  9600 lb 12

## Breaking stress of a cable: REQUIRED AREA OF CABLE

ult  91 ksi
T 2,600 lb
Factor of safety: n  3.5 Ac    0.100 in.2
sallow 26,000 psi
sult 91 ksi
sallow    26,000 psi
n 3.5 (Note: The diameter of the cable cannot be
calculated from the area Ac, because a cable does not
GEOMETRY OF ONE CABLE (CABLE AB) have a solid circular cross section. A cable consists
Point B is above the midpoint of the cage of several strands wound together. For details, see
Section 2.2.)
B
L = 13 ft

h b c
 3 ft  4 ft
c 2 2
A b 2 h  height from A to B
2
SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 57

## Problem 1.8-12 A steel column of hollow circular cross sec-

tion is supported on a circular steel base plate and a concrete d
pedestal (see figure). The column has outside diameter d  P Column P
250 mm and supports a load P  750 kN.
(a) If the allowable stress in the column is 55 MPa, what is
the minimum required thickness t? Based upon your result, Base plate t
select a thickness for the column. (Select a thickness that
is an even integer, such as 10, 12, 14, . . ., in units of mil-
D
limeters.)
(b) If the allowable bearing stress on the concrete pedestal is
11.5 MPa, what is the minimum required diameter D of
the base plate if it is designed for the allowable load Pallow
that the column with the selected thickness can support?

## P SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES IN EQ. (1):

(750  103 N)
t2  250 t  0
d t (55 Nmm2 )
(Note: In this eq., t has units of mm.)
t2  250t  4,340.6  0
Solve the quadratic eq. for t:
t  18.77 mmtmin  18.8 mm
D
Use t  20 mm

## d  250 mm (b) DIAMETER D OF THE BASE PLATE

P  750 kN For the column, Pallow  allow A
allow  55 MPa (compression in column) where A is the area of the column with t  20 mm.
t  thickness of column A  t(d  t) Pallow  allow t(d  t)
D  diameter of base plate D2 Pallow
Area of base plate  

b  11.5 MPa (allowable pressure on concrete) 4 sb
D2 sallowt(d  t)
(a) THICKNESS t OF THE COLUMN 
4 sb
P d2  4sallowt(d  t)
A A   (d  2t) 2 D2 
sallow 4 4 sb

 (4t)(d  t)  t(d  t) 4(55 MPa)(20 mm)(230 mm)
4 
11.5 MPa
P
t(d  t)  D2  88,000 mm2D  296.6 mm
sallow
P Dmin  297 mm
t2  td  0
sallow
P
t2  dt  0 (Eq. 1)
sallow
58 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Problem 1.8-13 A bar of rectangular cross section is subjected to an

axial load P (see figure). The bar has width b  2.0 in. and thickness
t  0.25 in. A hole of diameter d is drilled through the bar to provide P
for a pin support. The allowable tensile stress on the net cross section d b
of the bar is 20 ksi, and the allowable shear stress in the pin is 11.5 ksi.
(a) Determine the pin diameter dm for which the load P will be
a maximum.
(b) Determine the corresponding value Pmax of the load. t
P

## t GRAPH OF EQS. (1) AND (2)

P
Load P
(lb)
d
P2
20,000
Eq.(2)
Width of bar b  2 in. Eq.(1)
Thickness t  0.25 in. 10,000
allow  20 ksi Pmax P1
allow  11.5 ksi
d  diameter of pin (inches) 0 0.5 dM 1.0
Diameter d (in.)
P  axial load (pounds)

ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON TENSION IN BAR (a) MAXIMUM LOAD OCCURS WHEN P1 P2
P1  allow Anet  allow(b  d)t 10,000  5,000d  18,064d 2
 (20,000 psi)(2 in.  d)(0.25 in.) or 18,064d 2  5,000d  10,000  0
 5,000(2  d)  10,000  5,000d Eq. (1) Solve quadratic equation:
d  0.6184 in.dm  0.618 in.
ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON SHEAR IN PIN
Double shear (b) MAXIMUM LOAD
d2
d
2
Substitute d  0.6184 in. into Eq. (1) or
P2  2tallow  tallow
4 2
Eq. (2):
d 2
 (11,500 psi)  18,064d 2 Eq. (2) Pmax  6910 lb
2

## Problem 1.8-14 A flat bar of width b  60 mm and thickness

t  10 mm is loaded in tension by a force P (see figure). The bar is
attached to a support by a pin of diameter d that passes through a hole P
d b
of the same size in the bar. The allowable tensile stress on the net cross
section of the bar is T  140 MPa, the allowable shear stress in the
pin is S  80 MPa, and the allowable bearing stress between the pin
and the bar is B  200 MPa.
(a) Determine the pin diameter dm for which the load P will be a t
P
maximum.
(b) Determine the corresponding value Pmax of the load.
SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 59

## SHEAR IN THE PIN

P d2
d b Ps  2ts Apin  2ts
4
 2 1
 2(80 MPa) (d )
4 1000
 0.040 d2  0.12566d2 (Eq. 2)
t
P
BEARING BETWEEN PIN AND BAR
PB  B td
d
1
 (200 MPa)(10 mm)(d)
b  60 mm 1000

t  10 mm  2.0 d (Eq. 3)

d  diameter of hole and pin GRAPH OF EQS. (1), (2), AND (3)
T  140 MPa P (kN)
s  80 MPa
100
B  200 MPa
P

PS
75

r
Tens T PB

ea
ring

Sh
UNITS USED IN THE FOLLOWING CALCULATIONS: ion
Bea
P is in kN 50

##  and  are in N/mm2 (same as MPa) 25

b, t, and d are in mm 0
10 20 30 40
TENSION IN THE BAR d
(mm)
PT  T (Net area)  t(t)(b  d)
1 (a) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LOAD P
 (140 MPa)(10 mm)(60 mm  d)
1000 PT  PB or 1.40(60  d)  2.0 d
 1.40 (60  d) (Eq. 1) 84.0
Solving, dm  mm  24.7 mm
3.4

## (b) LOAD Pmax

Substitute d into Eq. (1) or Eq. (3):
Pmax  49.4 kN
60 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

## Problem 1.8-15 Two bars AC and BC of the same material support A

a vertical load P (see figure). The length L of the horizontal bar is
fixed, but the angle  can be varied by moving support A vertically
and changing the length of bar AC to correspond with the new
position of support A. The allowable stresses in the bars are the
same in tension and compression.
We observe that when the angle  is reduced, bar AC becomes
shorter but the cross-sectional areas of both bars increase (because
the axial forces are larger). The opposite effects occur if the angle 
is increased. Thus, we see that the weight of the structure (which is
B
proportional to the volume) depends upon the angle . C
Determine the angle  so that the structure has minimum weight L
without exceeding the allowable stresses in the bars. (Note: The P
weights of the bars are very small compared to the force P and may
be disregarded.)

## Solution 1.8-15 Two bars supporting a load P

A Joint C
WEIGHT OF TRUSS
T
  weight density of material
W  (AacLac  AbcLbc)

gPL 1 1
 
C
sallow sin u cos u tan u
C
gPL 1  cos2u
B P  Eq. (1)
C sallow sin u cos u
L , P, L, and allow are constants
P
W varies only with 
T  tensile force in bar AC gPL
Let k  (k has units of force)
c  Compressive force in bar BC sallow
P W 1  cos2u
Fvert  0T   (Nondimensional) Eq. (2)
sin u k sin u cos u
P
Fhoriz  0C  GRAPH OF EQ. (2):
tan u
12
AREAS OF BARS
T P W 9
Aac  
sallow sallow sin u k

c c 6
Abc  
sallow sallow tan u
3
LENGTHS OF BARS
L 0
Lac  Lbc  L
cos u 30 60 90

SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 61

## ANGLE  THAT MAKES W A MINIMUM

Use Eq. (2)

1  cos2u
Let f 
sin u cos u
df
0
du
df (sin u cos u) (2) (cos u) (sin u)  (1  cos2u) (sin2u  cos2u)

du sin2u cos2u
sin2u cos2u  sin2u  cos2u  cos4u

sin2u cos2u

## Combine terms to simplify the equation:

1
1  3 cos2u  0cos u 
3
u  54.7