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pads (thickness t 9 mm) bonded to steel plates is shown in the

P 160 mm

figure. The pads are 160 mm long and 80 mm wide. X Rubber pad

2

(a) Find the average shear strain aver in the rubber if the P

force P 16 kN and the shear modulus for the rubber is Rubber pad

P

G 1250 kPa. X

2

(b) Find the relative horizontal displacement between the

80 mm t = 9 mm

interior plate and the outer plates.

t = 9 mm

Section X-X

P

(a) SHEAR STRESS AND STRAIN IN THE RUBBER PADS

Thickness t

2

P

P2 8 kN

taver 625 kPa

P Rubber pad bL (80 mm)(160 mm)

2 taver 625 kPa

gaver 0.50

G 1250 kPa

Rubber pads: t 9 mm

Length L 160 mm (b) HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT

G 1250 kPa

P 16 kN

underwater experiment is anchored in shallow water by a

chain [see part (a) of the figure]. Because the buoy is posi-

tioned just below the surface of the water, it is not expected d

to collapse from the water pressure. The chain is attached to Pin

the buoy by a shackle and pin [see part (b) of the figure]. Shackle

The diameter of the pin is 0.5 in. and the thickness of the

shackle is 0.25 in. The buoy has a diameter of 60 in. and

weighs 1800 lb on land (not including the weight of

the chain).

(b)

(a) Determine the average shear stress aver in the pin.

(b) Determine the average bearing stress b between the

pin and the shackle.

(a)

SECTION 1.6 Shear Stress and Strain 33

EQUILIBRIUM

d diameter of buoy

60 in. T FBW 2376 lb

dp

dp diameter of pin

Ap area of pin

t

0.5 in.

Ap d2p 0.1963 in.2

t thickness of shackle 4

T 0.25 in. T

taver 6050 psi

W weight of buoy 2Ap

1800 lb

(b) BEARING STRESS BETWEEN PIN AND SHACKLE

W weight density of sea water

63.8 lb/ft3 Ab 2dpt 0.2500 in.2

T

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF BUOY sb 9500 psi

Ab

(equals the weight of the

displaced sea water)

V volume of buoy

W

d 3

65.45 ft3

6

T

FB W V 4176 lb

to support a load hanging from the lower flange of a steel

beam. The clamp consists of two arms (A and B) joined

by a pin at C. The pin has diameter d 12 mm. Because

arm B straddles arm A, the pin is in double shear.

Line 1 in the figure defines the line of action of the

resultant horizontal force H acting between the lower

flange of the beam and arm B. The vertical distance from

this line to the pin is h 250 mm. Line 2 defines the line

of action of the resultant vertical force V acting between

the flange and arm B. The horizontal distance from this c Line 2

line to the centerline of the beam is c 100 mm. The Arm A Arm B

force conditions between arm A and the lower flange are

Line 1

symmetrical with those given for arm B.

Determine the average shear stress in the pin at C P

h

when the load P 18 kN.

C

Arm A

P

34 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

VcHh 0

C

Vc Pc

H 3.6 kN

h 2h

V HH V

h

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF PIN

A B

C P

4

P (from half of arm B)

2 H

2

P P

H (from arm A)

4

H

h 250 mm 2

c 100 mm

SHEAR FORCE F IN PIN

P 18 kN

P F

From vertical equilibrium:

4

P

V 9 kN

2

H

d diameter of pin at C 12 mm

2

FREE-BODY DIAGRAMS OF ARMS A AND B

P 2 H 2

P C F

V= V=

P B 4 2

2 2

4.847 kN

H H V

A P B F F

2 taver 2 42.9 MPa

C C Apin d4

H H

P

2

P

SECTION 1.6 Shear Stress and Strain 35

a circular shaft by means of a square key that fits into slots (or c

keyways) in the shaft and wrench, as shown in the figure. The

shaft has diameter d, the key has a square cross section of

dimensions b b, and the length of the key is c. The key fits

half into the wrench and half into the shaft (i.e., the keyways Shaft

Key

have a depth equal to b/2).

Derive a formula for the average shear stress aver in the

key when a load P is applied at distance L from the center of

Lever

the shaft.

Hints: Disregard the effects of friction, assume that the

bearing pressure between the key and the wrench is uniformly

L

distributed, and be sure to draw free-body diagrams of the

b

wrench and key. P

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF WRENCH

b Plane of shear

P 2 F

c d

F b

d b

+

L 2 4

b F

2

With friction disregarded, the bearing pressures F

taver

between the wrench and the shaft are radial. bc

Because the bearing pressure between the wrench 4PL

and the key is uniformly distributed, the force F

bc(2d b)

acts at the midpoint of the keyway.

(width of keyway b/2)

Mc 0

d b

PL F 0

2 4

4PL

F

2d b

36 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

links, each 12 mm long between the centers of the pins (see

figure). You might wish to examine a bicycle chain and observe

its construction. Note particularly the pins, which we will

assume to have a diameter of 2.5 mm.

In order to solve this problem, you must now make two 12 mm

measurements on a bicycle (see figure): (1) the length L of 2.5 mm

the crank arm from main axle to pedal axle, and (2) the radius

R of the sprocket (the toothed wheel, sometimes called the

chainring). T

F

Sprocket

(a) Using your measured dimensions, calculate the tensile

force T in the chain due to a force F 800 N applied

to one of the pedals. R

(b) Calculate the average shear stress aver in the pins.

L Chain

Pin T

F

T T Sprocket

2 2

T T

R

2 2

12 mm

d = 2.5 mm L Chain

F force applied to pedal800 N T 1440 N

90 mm

L length of crank arm

R radius of sprocket (b) SHEAR STRESS IN PINS

T2 T 2T

MEASUREMENTS (FOR AUTHORS BICYCLE) taver 2

Apin 2( d4 ) d 2

(1) L 162 mm (2) R 90 mm

2FL

(a) TENSILE FORCE T IN CHAIN d2R

FL Substitute numerical values:

Maxle 0 FL TR T

R 2(800 N)(162 mm)

taver 147 MPa

Substitute numerical values: (2.5 mm) 2 (90 mm)

figure is used to support a delicate instrument. The mount consists

of an outer steel tube with inside diameter b, a central steel bar of r

diameter d that supports the load P, and a hollow rubber cylinder P

Steel bar

(height h) bonded to the tube and bar.

d

(a) Obtain a formula for the shear stress in the rubber at a Rubber

radial distance r from the center of the shock mount.

(b) Obtain a formula for the downward displacement of the h

central bar due to the load P, assuming that G is the shear

modulus of elasticity of the rubber and that the steel tube

and bar are rigid. b

SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 37

2rh

dr r radial distance

d from center of P P

r t

b shock mount to As 2rh

element of

thickness dr (b) DOWNWARD DISPLACEMENT

Steel tube

shear strain at distance r

Rubber

cylinder t P

g

G 2rhG

P

d downward displacement for element dr

d Pdr

d gdr

2rhG

h b2

Pdr

d

d2

2rhG

b2

b P dr P b2

[ln r] d2

(a) SHEAR STRESS AT RADIAL DISTANCE r 2hG d2

r 2hG

As shear area at distance r P b

ln

2hG d

Allowable Loads

forces P (see figure). The bar has length L 16.0 in. and diameter d 0.50 P P

in. The material is a magnesium alloy having modulus of elasticity L

E 6.4 106 psi. The allowable stress in tension is allow 17,000 psi,

and the elongation of the bar must not exceed 0.04 in.

What is the allowable value of the forces P?

L max Etmax (6.4 106 psi)(0.00250)

d

P P 16,000 psi

Pmax smax A (16,000 psi) (0.50 in.) 2

4

3140 lb

L 16.0 in.

d 0.50 in. MAXIMUM LOAD BASED UPON TENSILE STRESS

E 6.4 106 psi

Pmax sallow A (17,000 psi) (0.50 in.) 2

allow 17,000 psi max 0.04 in. 4

3340 lb

MAXIMUM LOAD BASED UPON ELONGATION

max 0.04 in. ALLOWABLE LOAD

tmax 0.00250

L 16 in. Elongation governs.

Pallow 3140 lb

38 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

d

by means of four 20-mm bolts (see figure). The diameter of the bolt circle

is d 150 mm.

If the allowable shear stress in the bolts is 90 MPa, what is the T0

maximum permissible torque? (Disregard friction between the flanges.)

F F dB bolt diameter 20 mm

F tallowAbolt (90 MPa) (20 mm) 2

d diameter of bolt circle 4

d 150 mm 28.27 kN

F Shear force in one bolt To 2Fd 2(28.27 kN)(150 mm)

d 8.48 kN m

To 4F 2Fd

2

P

Problem 1.7-3 A tie-down on the deck of a sailboat consists of a bent

bar bolted at both ends, as shown in the figure. The diameter dB of the

bar is 14 in., the diameter dW of the washers is 78 in., and the thickness t

of the fiberglass deck is 38 in.

If the allowable shear stress in the fiberglass is 300 psi, and the

allowable bearing pressure between the washer and the fiberglass is dB dB

550 psi, what is the allowable load Pallow on the tie-down?

t

dW dW

P 1 309.3 lb

2 ds in.

4 P1 619 lb

dB 7

Fiberglass dW in.

8 ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON BEARING PRESSURE

3

t in. b 550 psi

t 8

dW 2

Bearing area Ab (d d2B )

4 W

ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON SHEAR STRESS IN P2 7 2

1 2

FIBERGLASS

sb Ab (550 psi) B in. in. R

2 4 8 4

allow 300 psi 303.7 lb

Shear area As dW t P2 607 lb

P1

tallow As tallow (d W t) ALLOWABLE LOAD

2

7 3 Bearing pressure governs.

(300 psi)() in. in.

8 8 Pallow 607 lb

SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 39

Problem 1.7-4 An aluminum tube serving as a compression brace in the fuselage of a small t

airplane has the cross section shown in the figure. The outer diameter of the tube is d 25 mm

and the wall thickness is t 2.5 mm. The yield stress for the aluminum is Y 270 MPa and

the ultimate stress is U 310 MPa.

Calculate the allowable compressive force Pallow if the factors of safety with respect to the

d

yield stress and the ultimate stress are 4 and 5, respectively.

t 2.5 mm

Y 270 MPa

U 310 MPa

do inner diameter F.S. 4 F.S. 5

d 20 mm 270 MPa 310 Mpa

sallow sallow

2 4 5

Atube (d do2) 176.7 mm2 67.5 MPa

4 62 MPa

The ultimate stress governs.

Pallow allow Atube (62 MPa )(176.7 mm2)

11.0 kN

on four short, hollow, cast iron piers (see figure). The ultimate

strength of the cast iron in compression is 50 ksi. The outer

diameter of the piers is d 4.5 in. and the wall thickness is

t

t 0.40 in.

Using a factor of safety of 3.5 with respect to the ultimate

strength, determine the total load P that may be supported by

the pad. d

U 50 ksi 2

A (d d2o ) [ (4.5 in.) 2 (3.7 in.) 2 ]

4 4

n 3.5

d 5.152 in. 2

sU 50 ksi

sallow 14.29 ksi P1 allowable load on one pier

n 3.5

allow A (14.29 ksi)(5.152 in.2)

d 4.5 in.

73.62 k

t 0.4 in.

Total load P 4 P1 294 k

40 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

ries a weight W at its lower end (see figure). The 4-mm diameter

wire is 25 m long.

What is the maximum weight Wmax that can safely be car-

ried if the tensile yield stress for the wire is Y 350 MPa and a

margin of safety against yielding of 1.5 is desired? (Include the

weight of the wire in the calculations.)

d

L

d 4.0 mm Wo (77.0 kNm3 ) (4.0 mm) 2 (25 m)

4

L 25 m

d 24.19 N

L Y 350 MPa

Total load P Wmax Wo

allow A

Margin of safety 1.5

Wmax sallow A Wo

Factor of safety n 2.5

sY d2

sallow 140 MPa (140 MPa) 24.19 N

n 4

W

(140 MPa) (4.0 mm) 2 24.19 N

Weight density of steel: 77.0 kN/m3 4

Weight of wire: 1759.3 N 24.2 N 1735.1 N

d 2 Wmax 1740 N

Wo gAL g (L)

4

SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 41

in the figure. A pin of diameter d 0.80 in. passes through each Davit = 15

davit and supports two pulleys, one on each side of the davit.

Cables attached to the lifeboat pass over the pulleys and wind Pulley

around winches that raise and lower the lifeboat. The lower parts of Pin

the cables are vertical and the upper parts make an angle 15

with the horizontal. The allowable tensile force in each cable is

Cable

1800 lb, and the allowable shear stress in the pins is 4000 psi.

If the lifeboat weighs 1500 lb, what is the maximum weight

that should be carried in the lifeboat?

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF ONE PULLEY ALLOWABLE TENSILE FORCE IN ONE CABLE BASED

UPON SHEAR IN THE PINS

15 T

Pulley Vallow tallow Apin (4000 psi) (0.80 in.) 2

4

2011 lb

RH

Pin Vallow

V 1.2175TT1 1652 lb

1.2175

TENSION IN THE CABLE

T T2 Tallow 1800 lb

V (RH ) 2 (RV ) 2 1.2175T

42 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

by a pin connection (see figure). The spar is a steel tube of outer P

diameter d2 80 mm and inner diameter d1 70 mm. The steel Pin

pin has diameter d 25 mm, and the two plates connecting the

spar to the pin have thickness t 12 mm.

The allowable stresses are as follows: compressive stress in Spar

the spar, 70 MPa; shear stress in the pin, 45 MPa; and bearing

stress between the pin and the connecting plates, 110 MPa.

Connecting

Determine the allowable compressive force Pallow in plate

the spar.

P

Spar: d2 80 mm ALLOWABLE LOAD P BASED UPON SHEAR IN THE PIN

(DOUBLE SHEAR)

d1 70 mm

allow 45 MPa

Pin: d 25 mm

Spar

Plates: t 12 mm d 2

As 2 (25 mm) 2 981.7 mm2

Pin 4 2

Plate P2 allow As (45 MPa )(981.7 mm2) 44.2 kN

ALLOWABLE LOAD P BASED UPON COMPRESSION

ALLOWABLE LOAD P BASED UPON BEARING

IN THE SPAR

b 110 MPa

c 70 MPa

Ab 2dt 2(25 mm)(12 mm) 600 mm2

Ac (d22 d21 ) [ (80 mm) 2 (70 mm) 2 ]

4 4 P3 bAb (110 MPa )(600 mm2) 66.0 kN

P1

cAc (70 MPa )(1178.1 mm2) 82.5 kN Shear in the pin governs.

Pallow 44.2 kN

clamping force C in the jaws of the pliers shown in the figure

if a 3.75 in., b 1.60 in., and the ultimate shear stress in Pin

the 0.20-in. diameter pin is 50 ksi?

What is the maximum permissible value of the applied

load P if a factor of safety of 3.0 with respect to failure of

the pin is to be maintained?

P a b

SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 43

V V

Pin V R C and P

b a

1 1

a b

C MAXIMUM CLAMPING FORCE Cult

R ult 50 ksi

P Vult ult Apin

a b

(50 ksi) (0.20 in.) 2

4

C clamping force

1571 lb

R reaction at pin Vult 1571 lb

Cult

a 3.75 in. b 1.60 in.

1 1

a 3.75 in.

b 1.60 in.

1100 lb

d diameter of pin

0.20 in. MAXIMUM LOAD Pult

Pult 469.8 lb

a 3.75 in.

Pa Cb C a 1 1

C P b 1.60 in.

b a P b

Fvert 0 P C R 0 ALLOWABLE LOAD Pallow

a b Pult 469.8 lb

R P C P 1 C 1 Pallow

b a M 3.0

157 lb

system of steel wires arranged as shown in the figure. The diameter 2.5 m

of the wires is 2 mm, and the yield stress of the steel is 450 MPa.

Determine the maximum permissible weight Wmax for a factor

of safety of 1.9 with respect to yielding. 1.75 m

1.75 m

W

A B

44 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

10 b

W

2

E F CAB

7b Fhoriz 0

C D TCD 2CAB

TCD 3W

7b 7

CAB

A B b = 0.25 m W

W

2

d 2 mm y 450 MPa F.S. 1.9

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF POINT A

d 2

sy

TAC sy A 4

Tallow

n n

A CAC

450 MPa

(2 mm) 2 744.1 N

W 1.9 4

2

7b W MAXIMUM TENSILE FORCES IN WIRES

Fvert 0TAC

b58 2 3W W58

TCD TAC

W58 7 14

TAC

14 Force in wire AC is larger.

3b

Fhoriz 0TAC CAB MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WEIGHT W

b58

3W 14 TAC 14 Tallow 14

CAB Wmax (744.1 N)

14 58 58 58

1370 N

b = 1.0 in.

are spliced using two rectangular splice plates and two 58-in.

diameter rivets (see figure). The bars have width b 1.0 in. P P

(except at the splice, where the bars are wider) and thickness

t 0.4 in. The bars are made of steel having an ultimate stress

in tension equal to 60 ksi. The ultimate stresses in shear and

bearing for the rivet steel are 25 ksi and 80 ksi, respectively.

Determine the allowable load Pallow if a safety factor

Bar Splice plate

of 2.5 is desired with respect to the ultimate load that can

t = 0.4 in.

be carried. (Consider tension in the bars, shear in the rivets,

and bearing between the rivets and the bars. Disregard friction P P

between the plates.)

SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 45

P

t

P P2 tult (2AR ) 2(25 ksi)(0.3068 in.2 )

15.34 k

ULTIMATE LOAD BASED UPON TENSION IN THE BARS ULTIMATE LOAD BASED UPON BEARING

P3 sbAb (80 ksi) in. (0.4 in.) 20.0 k

8

A 0.40 in.2

ULTIMATE LOAD

P1 ult A (60 ksi)(0.40 in.2) 24.0 k

Shear governs. Pult 15.34 k

ULTIMATE LOAD BASED UPON SHEAR IN THE RIVETS

ALLOWABLE LOAD

Double shear d diameter of rivets

Pult 15.34 k

d 58 in. AR Area of rivets Pallow 6.14 k

n 2.5

d 2 5 2

AR in. 0.3068 in.2

4 4 8

Problem 1.7-12 A solid bar of circular cross section (a) Obtain a formula for the allowable load Pallow that

(diameter d) has a hole of diameter d/4 drilled laterally the bar can carry in tension.

through the center of the bar (see figure). The allowable (b) Calculate the value of Pallow if the bar is made of brass

average tensile stress on the net cross section of the bar with diameter d 40 mm and allow 80 MPa.

is allow.

(Hint: Use the formulas of Case 15, Appendix D.)

d

d

d 4 4

P P

d

15

From Case 15, Appendix D: d 2 1 8 8

A 2 B arc cos R

2 4 (d2) 2

ab

A 2r2

d2 1 15

r2 arc cos 0.5380 d 2

d

2 4 16

d d

4 r a

2 8 (a) ALLOWABLE LOAD IN TENSION

d

2

d 15 d Pallow allow A 0.5380d2 allow

b r2 d 15

B 8 B 64 8

d8 (b) SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES

arc cos

r allow 80 MPa d 40 mm

1

arc cos Pallow 68.9 kN

4

46 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

hole of diameter d2 1.125 in. drilled through it (see figure). A d2

steel pin passes through the hole and is attached to supports.

Determine the maximum permissible tensile load Pallow in the d1

bar if the yield stress for shear in the pin is y 17,000 psi, the d1

yield stress for tension in the bar is y 5 36,000 psi, and a factor of

safety of 2.0 with respect to yielding is required. (Hint: Use the P

formulas of Case 15, Appendix D.)

d2 1.125 in. sy 36,000 psi

P1 A (1.5546 in.2 )

c From Case 15, Appendix D: n 2.0

28.0 k

ab

A 2r2

r2 ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED ON SHEAR IN THE PIN

d1 Double shear

d2 r 1.125 in.

2

d22

d22 d2 As 2Apin 2 (1.125 in.) 2

d1 arc cos arc cos 4 2

d12 d1

1.9880 in.2

d2 1.125 in. 1 1

arc cos 1.0472 rad ty 17,000 psi

d1 2.25 in. 2 2 P2 As (1.9880 in.) 2

n 2.0

d2

a 0.5625 in. 16.9 k

2

r b b r2 a2 0.9743 in. ALLOWABLE LOAD

ab

C A 2r2 2 Shear in the pin governs.

a r

2(1.125 in.) 2 Pallow 16.9 k

B 1.0472 R

(1.125 in.) 2

1.5546 in.2

AB, which in turn is connected to a crank arm BC (see figure). The piston

slides without friction in a cylinder and is subjected to a force P (assumed

to be constant) while moving to the right in the figure. The connecting

rod, which has diameter d and length L, is attached at both ends by pins. Cylinder Piston Connecting rod

The crank arm rotates about the axle at C with the pin at B moving in a M

A d C

circle of radius R. The axle at C, which is supported by bearings, exerts P

B

a resisting moment M against the crank arm.

L R

(a) Obtain a formula for the maximum permissible force Pallow

based upon an allowable compressive stress c in the connect-

ing rod.

(b) Calculate the force Pallow for the following data:

c 160 MPa, d 9.00 mm, and R 0.28L.

SECTION 1.7 Allowable Loads 47

P C

a has its smallest value, which means that has its

R largest value.

L B

LARGEST VALUE OF

d diameter of rod AB

L2 R2 C

A

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF PISTON

R

L

RP

B

farthest distance from line AC. The farthest distance

P

a is the radius R of the crank arm.

Therefore,

C BC R

cos 1

L B L

RP resultant of reaction forces between cylinder

and piston (no friction)

(a) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FORCE P

Fhoriz 0 S

d P C cos 0

Pallow sc Ac cos

P C cos

d2 R 2

sc 1

MAXIMUM COMPRESSIVE FORCE C IN CONNECTING ROD 4 B L

Cmax

c Ac (b) SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES

in which Ac area of connecting rod c 160 MPa d 9.00 mm

d2

Ac R 0.28 L R/L 0.28

4

Pallow 9.77 kN

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FORCE P

P Cmax cos

sc Ac cos

48 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

tensile force P 34 k (see figure). The thickness of the wall of the d

tube is to be 0.375 in. P P

What is the minimum required outer diameter dmin if the allowable

tensile stress is 9000 psi?

d P

d t

P P tsallow

P 34 k

34 k

t 0.375 in. dmin 0.375 in.

(0.375 in.)(9000 psi)

allow 9000 psi 3.207 in. 0.375 in.

dmin 3.58 in.

A [d2 (d 2t) 2 ] (4t)(d t)

4 4

t(d t)

P sallow A t(d t)sallow

is to carry an axial compressive load P 1200 kN (see figure). t =

8

A factor of safety of 1.8 against yielding is to be used.

If the thickness t of the pipe is to be one-eighth of its outer

diameter, what is the minimum required outer diameter dmin?

d

d

t = P 1200 kN SOLVE FOR d:

8

Y 270 MPa 64 P P

d2 d 8

n 1.8 7sallow B 7sallow

d allow 150 MPa SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

2 d 2 7d 2 1200 kN

A B d d R dmin 8 153 mm

4 4 64 B 7 (150 MPa)

7d2

P sallowA s

64 allow

SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 49

inclined strut CD carries a load P 2500 lb at the position B

shown in the figure. The strut, which consists of two bars, A C

is connected to the beam by a bolt passing through the 3 ft

three bars meeting at joint C. P

If the allowable shear stress in the bolt is 14,000 psi,

what is the minimum required diameter dmin of the bolt?

D

Beam AB

Bolt

Strut CD

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM

A 4 ft C

4 ft 4 ft

B 3 ft 5 ft

A C

3 ft

P D

5 5 8P 10P

FCD (RD ) H

MA 0 P(8 ft) (RD ) H (3 ft) 0 4 4 3 3

(RD ) H P

3 FCD 5P

V

2 3

(RD)H

D REQUIRED AREA AND DIAMETER OF BOLT

V 5P d2 20P

A A d2

tallow 3tallow 4 3tallow

(RD)V

P 2500 lb allow 14,000 psi

FCD

d2 0.3789 in.2

dmin 0.616 in.

50 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

t t

t 15 mm) are connected by a bolt in the manner shown in P P

the figure. The allowable shear stress in the bolt is 90 MPa and

the allowable bearing stress between the bolt and the bars is

150 MPa.

If the tensile load P 31 kN, what is the minimum required

diameter dmin of the bolt?

P P

P

P d2 P

P Abolt

t 2tallow 4 2tallow

2P

d2

One bolt in double shear. tallow

P 31 kN 2P 2(31 kN)

d1

allow 90 MPa B tallow B (90 MPa)

b 150 MPa 14.8 mm

t 15 mm BASED UPON BEARING BETWEEN PLATE AND BOLT

Find minimum diameter of bolt. P P

Abearing dt

sb sb

P 31 kN

d d2 13.8 mm

tsb (15 mm) (150 MPa)

Shear governs.

dmin 14.8 mm

SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 51

thickness t 516 in., the allowable shear stress is 12,000 psi, the

allowable bearing stress is 20,000 psi, and the load P 1800 lb.

P

P d2 P

P Abolt

t 2tallow 4 2tallow

2P

d2

One bolt in double shear. tallow

P 1800 lb 2P 2(1800 lb)

d1 0.309 in.

allow 12,000 psi t

B allow B (12,000 psi)

b 20,000 psi

BASED UPON BEARING BETWEEN PLATE AND BOLT

t 516 in. P P

Abearing dt

Find minimum diameter of bolt. sb sb

P 1800 lb

d d2 5 0.288 in.

tsb ( 16 in.)(20,000 psi)

Shear governs.

dmin 0.309 in.

cable that passes over the main cable (see figure) and supports the

bridge deck, which is far below. The suspender is held in position by

a metal tie that is prevented from sliding downward by clamps around Main

cable

the suspender cable.

Let P represent the load in each part of the suspender cable, and Suspender

let represent the angle of the suspender cable just above the tie. Collar

Finally, let allow represent the allowable tensile stress in the metal tie.

(a) Obtain a formula for the minimum required cross-sectional area

of the tie.

(b) Calculate the minimum area if P 130 kN, 75, and Clamp Tie

allow 80 MPa.

P P

52 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

F F

F tensile force in FORCE TRIANGLE

cable above tie

T F

P tensile force in cot u P

cable below tie P

Tie

stress in the tie (a) MINIMUM REQUIRED AREA OF TIE T

T P cot u

Amin

sallow sallow

P P

(b) SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF HALF THE TIE

P 130 kN
75

allow 80 MPa

Note: Include a small amount of the cable in the

free-body diagram Amin 435 mm2

T tensile force in the tie

F

width b2 10.0 in. is hoisted by a crane (see figure). The

tube hangs from a pin of diameter d that is held by the cables

at points A and B. The cross section is a hollow square with

inner dimension b1 8.5 in. and outer dimension b2 10.0 d

in. The allowable shear stress in the pin is 8,700 psi, and the

A B

allowable bearing stress between the pin and the tube is

13,000 psi. Square

Determine the minimum diameter of the pin in order to tube

support the weight of the tube. (Note: Disregard the rounded

Square Pin

corners of the tube when calculating its weight.)

tube d A B

L

b2

b1

b2

SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 53

W weight of steel tube 1 ft2

(20 ft)

d diameter of pin 144 in.

1,889 lb

b1 inner dimension of tube

8.5 in. DIAMETER OF PIN BASED UPON SHEAR

b2 outer dimension of tube Double shear. 2 allow Apin W

b2 10.0 in.

b1

d L Length of tube 20 ft d 2

2(8,700 psi) 1889 lb

4

allow 8,700 psi

b 13,000 psi d2 0.1382 in.2 d1 0.372 in.

b(b2 b1) d W

d2 0.097 in.

A area of tube

b22 b21 (10.0 in.) 2 (8.5 in.) 2 MINIMUM DIAMETER OF PIN

27.75 in. Shear governs.

dmin 0.372 in.

Problem 1.8-8 Solve the preceding problem if the length L of the tube is 6.0 m,

the outer width is b2 250 mm, the inner dimension is b1 210 mm, the allow-

able shear stress in the pin is 60 MPa, and the allowable bearing stress is 90 MPa.

A area of tube

T T T tensile force in cable

b22 b21 18,400 mm2

W weight of steel tube

d diameter of pin W sAL (77.0 kN/m3)(18,400 mm2)(6.0 m)

210 mm DIAMETER OF PIN BASED UPON SHEAR

b2 outer dimension of tube Double shear. 2allow Apin W

b2 250 mm

2

b1

d L length of tube 2(60 MPa) d 8.501 kNd 2 90.20 mm2

4

6.0 m d1 9.497 mm

allow 60 MPa DIAMETER OF PIN BASED UPON BEARING

b 90 MPa

b(b2 b1)d W

Weight of tube (90 MPa )(40 mm)d 8.501 kN d2 2.361 mm

s Weight density of steel

MINIMUM DIAMETER OF PIN

77.0 kN/m3

Shear governs. dmin 9.50 mm

54 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Problem 1.8-9 A pressurized circular cylinder has a sealed cover plate Cover plate

fastened with steel bolts (see figure). The pressure p of the gas in the cylinder

is 290 psi, the inside diameter D of the cylinder is 10.0 in., and the diameter dB

of the bolts is 0.50 in.

If the allowable tensile stress in the bolts is 10,000 psi, find the number Steel bolt

n of bolts needed to fasten the cover. p

Cylinder

NUMBER OF BOLTS

p tensile force in one bolt

Bolt

p F pD2

p

n 4n

Ab area of one bolt d2b

4

D p allow Ab

p pD2 pD2

p 290 psi sallow

Ab (4n)( 4 )d2b nd2b

D 10.0 in.

pD2

db 0.50 in. n

d2b sallow

allow 10,000 psi

n number of bolts SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

F total force acting on the cover plate from (290 psi)(10 in.) 2

n 11.6

the internal pressure (0.5 in.) 2 (10,000 psi)

D2 Use 12 bolts

Fp

4

SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 55

cables fitted with turnbuckles (see figure). The cables are tightened Cable

by rotating the turnbuckles, thus producing tension in the cables and

compression in the post. Both cables are tightened to a tensile force Turnbuckle

of 110 kN. Also, the angle between the cables and the ground is 60,

and the allowable compressive stress in the post is c 35 MPa.

If the wall thickness of the post is 15 mm, what is the minimum

permissible value of the outer diameter d2?

Post

d2

60 60

T T d1 inner diameter 2

A (d2 d21 ) [d22 (d2 2t) 2 ]

t wall thickness 4 4

P

15 mm t(d2 t)

d2 110 kN 2T cos 30

t(d2 t)

allow 35 MPa sallow

2T cos 30

P compressive force in post d2 t

tsallow

2T cos 30

SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

REQUIRED AREA OF POST (d2 ) min 131 mm

P 2T cos 30

A

sallow sallow

construction site is hoisted by a crane (see figure). The floor of the cage

is rectangular with dimensions 6 ft by 8 ft. Each of the four lifting cables

is attached to a corner of the cage and is 13 ft long. The weight of the

cage and its contents is limited by regulations to 9600 lb.

Determine the required cross-sectional area AC of a cable if the

breaking stress of a cable is 91 ksi and a factor of safety of 3.5 with

respect to failure is desired.

56 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

b 2 c 2

W From geometry:L2 h2

2 2

(13 ft)2 (3 ft)2 (4 ft)2 h2

B Solving, h 12 ft

FORCE IN A CABLE

A TV

A

T force in one cable (cable AB)

TV vertical component of T

b c

(Each cable carries the same load.)

TV 2400 lb

4 4

b 6 ft c 8 ft

T L 13 ft

Length of a cable: L 13 ft

TV h 12 ft

Weight of cage and contents: 13

T TV 2600 lb

W 9600 lb 12

ult 91 ksi

T 2,600 lb

Factor of safety: n 3.5 Ac 0.100 in.2

sallow 26,000 psi

sult 91 ksi

sallow 26,000 psi

n 3.5 (Note: The diameter of the cable cannot be

calculated from the area Ac, because a cable does not

GEOMETRY OF ONE CABLE (CABLE AB) have a solid circular cross section. A cable consists

Point B is above the midpoint of the cage of several strands wound together. For details, see

Section 2.2.)

B

L = 13 ft

h b c

3 ft 4 ft

c 2 2

A b 2 h height from A to B

2

SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 57

tion is supported on a circular steel base plate and a concrete d

pedestal (see figure). The column has outside diameter d P Column P

250 mm and supports a load P 750 kN.

(a) If the allowable stress in the column is 55 MPa, what is

the minimum required thickness t? Based upon your result, Base plate t

select a thickness for the column. (Select a thickness that

is an even integer, such as 10, 12, 14, . . ., in units of mil-

D

limeters.)

(b) If the allowable bearing stress on the concrete pedestal is

11.5 MPa, what is the minimum required diameter D of

the base plate if it is designed for the allowable load Pallow

that the column with the selected thickness can support?

(750 103 N)

t2 250 t 0

d t (55 Nmm2 )

(Note: In this eq., t has units of mm.)

t2 250t 4,340.6 0

Solve the quadratic eq. for t:

t 18.77 mmtmin 18.8 mm

D

Use t 20 mm

P 750 kN For the column, Pallow allow A

allow 55 MPa (compression in column) where A is the area of the column with t 20 mm.

t thickness of column A t(d t) Pallow allow t(d t)

D diameter of base plate D2 Pallow

Area of base plate

b 11.5 MPa (allowable pressure on concrete) 4 sb

D2 sallowt(d t)

(a) THICKNESS t OF THE COLUMN

4 sb

P d2 4sallowt(d t)

A A (d 2t) 2 D2

sallow 4 4 sb

(4t)(d t) t(d t) 4(55 MPa)(20 mm)(230 mm)

4

11.5 MPa

P

t(d t) D2 88,000 mm2D 296.6 mm

sallow

P Dmin 297 mm

t2 td 0

sallow

P

t2 dt 0 (Eq. 1)

sallow

58 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

axial load P (see figure). The bar has width b 2.0 in. and thickness

t 0.25 in. A hole of diameter d is drilled through the bar to provide P

for a pin support. The allowable tensile stress on the net cross section d b

of the bar is 20 ksi, and the allowable shear stress in the pin is 11.5 ksi.

(a) Determine the pin diameter dm for which the load P will be

a maximum.

(b) Determine the corresponding value Pmax of the load. t

P

P

Load P

(lb)

d

P2

20,000

Eq.(2)

Width of bar b 2 in. Eq.(1)

Thickness t 0.25 in. 10,000

allow 20 ksi Pmax P1

allow 11.5 ksi

d diameter of pin (inches) 0 0.5 dM 1.0

Diameter d (in.)

P axial load (pounds)

ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON TENSION IN BAR (a) MAXIMUM LOAD OCCURS WHEN P1 P2

P1 allow Anet allow(b d)t 10,000 5,000d 18,064d 2

(20,000 psi)(2 in. d)(0.25 in.) or 18,064d 2 5,000d 10,000 0

5,000(2 d) 10,000 5,000d Eq. (1) Solve quadratic equation:

d 0.6184 in.dm 0.618 in.

ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON SHEAR IN PIN

Double shear (b) MAXIMUM LOAD

d2

d

2

Substitute d 0.6184 in. into Eq. (1) or

P2 2tallow tallow

4 2

Eq. (2):

d 2

(11,500 psi) 18,064d 2 Eq. (2) Pmax 6910 lb

2

t 10 mm is loaded in tension by a force P (see figure). The bar is

attached to a support by a pin of diameter d that passes through a hole P

d b

of the same size in the bar. The allowable tensile stress on the net cross

section of the bar is T 140 MPa, the allowable shear stress in the

pin is S 80 MPa, and the allowable bearing stress between the pin

and the bar is B 200 MPa.

(a) Determine the pin diameter dm for which the load P will be a t

P

maximum.

(b) Determine the corresponding value Pmax of the load.

SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 59

P d2

d b Ps 2ts Apin 2ts

4

2 1

2(80 MPa) (d )

4 1000

0.040 d2 0.12566d2 (Eq. 2)

t

P

BEARING BETWEEN PIN AND BAR

PB B td

d

1

(200 MPa)(10 mm)(d)

b 60 mm 1000

t 10 mm 2.0 d (Eq. 3)

d diameter of hole and pin GRAPH OF EQS. (1), (2), AND (3)

T 140 MPa P (kN)

s 80 MPa

100

B 200 MPa

P

PS

75

r

Tens T PB

ea

ring

Sh

UNITS USED IN THE FOLLOWING CALCULATIONS: ion

Bea

P is in kN 50

b, t, and d are in mm 0

10 20 30 40

TENSION IN THE BAR d

(mm)

PT T (Net area) t(t)(b d)

1 (a) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LOAD P

(140 MPa)(10 mm)(60 mm d)

1000 PT PB or 1.40(60 d) 2.0 d

1.40 (60 d) (Eq. 1) 84.0

Solving, dm mm 24.7 mm

3.4

Substitute d into Eq. (1) or Eq. (3):

Pmax 49.4 kN

60 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

a vertical load P (see figure). The length L of the horizontal bar is

fixed, but the angle can be varied by moving support A vertically

and changing the length of bar AC to correspond with the new

position of support A. The allowable stresses in the bars are the

same in tension and compression.

We observe that when the angle is reduced, bar AC becomes

shorter but the cross-sectional areas of both bars increase (because

the axial forces are larger). The opposite effects occur if the angle

is increased. Thus, we see that the weight of the structure (which is

B

proportional to the volume) depends upon the angle . C

Determine the angle so that the structure has minimum weight L

without exceeding the allowable stresses in the bars. (Note: The P

weights of the bars are very small compared to the force P and may

be disregarded.)

A Joint C

WEIGHT OF TRUSS

T

weight density of material

W (AacLac AbcLbc)

gPL 1 1

C

sallow sin u cos u tan u

C

gPL 1 cos2u

B P Eq. (1)

C sallow sin u cos u

L , P, L, and allow are constants

P

W varies only with

T tensile force in bar AC gPL

Let k (k has units of force)

c Compressive force in bar BC sallow

P W 1 cos2u

Fvert 0T (Nondimensional) Eq. (2)

sin u k sin u cos u

P

Fhoriz 0C GRAPH OF EQ. (2):

tan u

12

AREAS OF BARS

T P W 9

Aac

sallow sallow sin u k

c c 6

Abc

sallow sallow tan u

3

LENGTHS OF BARS

L 0

Lac Lbc L

cos u 30 60 90

SECTION 1.8 Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear 61

Use Eq. (2)

1 cos2u

Let f

sin u cos u

df

0

du

df (sin u cos u) (2) (cos u) (sin u) (1 cos2u) (sin2u cos2u)

du sin2u cos2u

sin2u cos2u sin2u cos2u cos4u

sin2u cos2u

1

1 3 cos2u 0cos u

3

u 54.7

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