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Performance measurements on a thermoacoustic refrigerator

driven at high amplitudes

Matthew E. Poese and Steven L. Garretta)
Graduate Program in Acoustics, The Pennsylvania State University, P.O. Box 30, State College,
Pennsylvania 16804

Received 11 June 1998; revised 8 December 1999; accepted 20 December 1999

Since the power density in a thermoacoustic device is proportional to the square of the acoustic
Mach number, there is strong motivation to design thermoacoustic refrigerators to operate at larger
pressure amplitudes. Measurements are reported of a modified version of the Space
Thermo-Acoustic Refrigerator STAR, driven at peak-to-mean pressure ratios up to 6%. This
pressure ratio corresponds to 30 W of cooling powerfive times as large as reported for STAR in
1993. The results of these measurements are compared to a DELTAE computer model of the
low-amplitude linear performance that matches experimental conditions on a point-by-point basis.
It is found that there is a small but measurable deviation in heat pumping power from the power
predicted with a linear acoustic computer model at moderate amplitudes. This deviation in heat
pumping power at 6% pressure ratio is about 23%. A large disagreement in the acoustic power
needed to attain a specific pressure ratio is found between measured data and DELTAE results. An
overview of the instrumentation, including a measurement of exhaust heat with an absolute accuracy
of 65 mW, is also presented. 2000 Acoustical Society of America. S0001-49660000504-X
PACS numbers: 43.35.Ud HEB

INTRODUCTION acoustic power while the SETAC driver is capable of pro-

ducing up to 100 W of sound power. The SETAC driver
The proliferation in the last 50 years of very reliable and creates large enough pressure amplitudes in the STAR reso-
inexpensive refrigerators and air conditioners has led the nator that nonlinear effects can be measured.
population of many developed countries to regard cooling
machines as a necessity rather than a luxury. Because a ther-
moacoustic refrigerator uses no environmentally harmful I. APPARATUS
working fluids, has very few moving parts, and can utilize a A. The driver
proportional control scheme, the technology may become at-
The SETAC driver has an in vacuo mechanical reso-
tractive for widespread commercial use.
nance frequency of 316 Hz. It is instrumented with a minia-
The fact that the power density of a thermoacoustic de-
ture Endevco piezoresistive microphone Model 8514-10
vice in the linear regime increases with the square of increas-
positioned very near the pusher cone and a miniature Entran
ing pressure ratio provides strong motivation to design ther-
piezoresistive accelerometer Model EGA-125-1000D
moacoustic refrigerators to operate at higher pressure ratios.
mounted directly on the rear surface of the pusher cone. The
This experiment investigated deviations from linear predic-
signals from these two sensors, along with the effective
tions of efficiency and heat pumping power at high pressure
cross-sectional area of the bellows6,7 21 cm2, allow the
amplitudes and determined at what pressure ratio these de-
measurement of acoustic input power as well as the stroke of
viations become significant. The predictions of linear system
the pusher cone and the acoustic impedance that the resona-
performance were made with a computer program called
tor presents to the driver.
DELTAE1,2 that models the performance of thermoacoustic
The pertinent driver parameters are listed in Table I. The
and other one-dimensional acoustic apparatus by numerically
voice coil is attached to a reducing cone that ends in an
integrating a one-dimensional wave equation in the usual
aluminum piston face. This cone is attached to the driver
low-amplitude approximation. housing with a two-convolution electroformed nickel bel-
This experiment was conducted on a small thermoacous- lows that provides a flexure seal for the resonator and elimi-
tic refrigerator affectionately called Frankenfridge be- nates the need for a sliding seal. The main function of the
cause the engine is made of parts3 from other refrigerators, bellows is to seal the oscillating pressure in the resonator
namely the Space ThermoAcoustic Refrigerator4 STAR from the driver back volume. A capillary leak between the
and the Shipboard Electronics Thermoacoustic Cooler5 volume of the resonator and the driver back volume allows
SETAC, both designed and built at the Naval Postgraduate for equilibration of the 10 atm of static pressure.
School. Frankenfridge is the resonator section of STAR, The sinusoidal electrical signal supplied to the driver
which includes the stack and heat exchangers, coupled to a originates from an HP 3314A signal generator and is ampli-
SETAC driver. The STAR driver produced about 10 W of fied by a Techron 7520 power amplifier. The drive frequency
is adjusted to assure a 90-degree phase relationship between
Electronic mail: acceleration and pressurea relationship that is monitored

2480 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107 (5), Pt. 1, May 2000 0001-4966/2000/107(5)/2480/7/$17.00 2000 Acoustical Society of America 2480

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TABLE I. SETAC driver parameters.

Parameter Value Units uncertainty

Moving mass 36.4 g 0.8%

Stiffness 143 kN/m 0.5%
Mechanical resistance 2.10 kg/s 0.6%
Bl 19.1 N/A 0.7%
dc electrical resistance 1.677 negligible
Effective bellows area 21 cm2 3%

with a Lissajous pattern on an oscilloscope displaying the

accelerometer and microphone signals. There are many rea-
sons to stay on resonance, not the least of which is that heat
pumping power is a strong function of stack position in the
standing wave. This position is calculated and designed to be
a constant parameter for the system at resonance and, if the
frequency is not changed to accommodate the changing
sound speed of the gas mixture, this stack position in the
standing wave will vary with temperature. Another reason
for resonant operation the mechanical resonance frequency
of the driver and the resonator are made coincident by ad-
justing the relative concentration of helium and argon in the
resonator is that the driver has the potential to deliver its
maximum power when it operates close to its mechanical
resonance frequency.8

B. Resonator
FIG. 1. Cross-sectional diagram of Frankenfridge. Approximate height is 56
The resonator is instrumented with thermocouples to cm and maximum width at the driver housing is 23 cm.
measure the external metal temperatures near the hot ex-
haust and cold heat load heat exchangers. There are no
sensors mounted directly inside of the resonator. As shown ences, the exhaust heat sink flange was relied upon to mea-
in Fig. 1, the resonator is equipped with a small Minco elec- sure the significant heat leak from the room to the cold parts
trical resistance heater just below the cold side heat ex- of the resonator.
changer. This electrical heater provides an easily controlled To make this measurement of exhaust heat flux, a cop-
and measured amount of heat for the refrigerator to pump. per exhaust heat sink shown in Fig. 1 has been sandwiched
Table II lists parameters that describe the working fluid, between the SETAC driver and the STAR resonator. This
1 1
stack, and heat exchangers. 2-in.-thick flange has two loops of 8-in. copper refrigeration
tubing wrapped and soldered around its perimeter to allow
water to be circulated around the flange. The water that is
pumped through this loop and around the flange absorbs the
C. Exhaust heat sink flange
exhaust heat and therefore experiences an increase in tem-
Even though the cold side of the refrigerator is insulated perature as it travels around the flange. The water circulation
from the room using standard Corning Pink fiberglass insu- loop is instrumented with a ten junction thermopile located
lation, heat leak to the cold side is expected when large tem- directly across the inlet and discharge ports of the flange
perature differences exist between the cold side duct and piping and a Hedland flow meter IR-OPFlow Model 502-
room air temperature. From the first law of thermodynamics 101 located in-line with the Tygon tubing that plumbs the
and the measured power delivered by the driver, knowledge pump, filter, and dissipating heat exchanger in the loop. The
of the exhaust heat flux allows calculation of the heat leak heat flux through the exhaust flange to the water flowing in
and provides an accurate determination of the amount of heat the loop can be calculated from the heat capacity of the wa-
that the refrigerator pumps. However, in the experiment pre- ter, the temperature difference, and the fluid flow rate.
sented here, the cold side was only a few degrees colder than The driver housing is not insulated from the room. For
the room making the heat leak too small to measure. For this reason, thermal insulation between the exhaust heat sink
these measurements, the exhaust heat sink flange allowed the and the aluminum driver housing is critical if a temperature
continuous verification that the measured amount of heat increase is to be directly measured in the exhaust heat sink
supplied by the resistance heater was moved up the stack flange. The resonator, the new exhaust heat sink, and a 81-in.-
from the cold side to the hot side. For other experiments with thick Delrin insulating ring are bolted to the driver hous-
this refrigerator which included larger temperature differ- ing. The exhaust thermal measurement system is shown in

2481 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 107, No. 5, Pt. 1, May 2000 M. E. Poese and S. L. Garrett: Thermoacoustic refrigerator 2481

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TABLE II. Physical parameters of the resonator and working fluid. and at the most 7 C at the highest operating power.
The water that absorbs heat from the exhaust heat sink
Parameter Symbol Value Units
flange must also be cooled somewhere in the loop if a tem-
Mean pressure pm 1.07 MPa perature difference is going be maintained across the flange
Mean stack temperature Tm 290 K
inlet and discharge. This is accomplished by submerging a
Gas mixture helium/argon 85.5% He
Gas mixture atomic mass M 9.214 kg/kmol coil of copper tubing in a large 50 gal bucket of water. The
Gas mixture density 4.105 kg/m3 dissipator is expected to dissipate this same amount of heat
Gas mixture sound speed a 660.4 m/s from the water loop that is introduced at the exhaust heat
Gas mixture specific heat cp 2256 J/kgK sink flange. The flow loop is diverted to loop twice around
Gas mixture polytropic coefficient 1.667
the driver housing after the discharge from the heat sink
Gas mixture Prandtl number 0.428
Gas mixture kinematic viscosity 2.10105 kg/sm flange in order to reduce Q d by keeping the driver housing
Gas mixture thermal conductivity Kg 0.111 W/mK and the flange at the same temperature. The flow diversion
Stack thermal conductivity Ks 0.161 W/mK also prevents the driver from overheating. No heat flux mea-
Stack specific heat cs 1101 J/kgK
surements are made across the driver cooling coil.
Stack material density s 1348 kg/m3
The accuracy of this measurement system is verified by
Stack plate thickness 2l 0.0762 mm running the closed water loop through two reservoirs of wa-
Stack plate separation 2y 0 0.191 mm ter without the inclusion of the refrigerator. One reservoir is
Stack length x 78.5 mm
Center position of stack ref. from driver xs 106.5 mm
the 50 gal bucket of water mentioned above. For calibration
Stack radius R 19.1 mm purposes, the closed flow loop is allowed thermal contact
Stack spiral perimeter 4846 mm with another very small 41 gal reservoir of water in place of
Stack heat capacity correction s 0.067 the refrigerator that is heated with an electrical resistance
Cold exchanger length x C 6.35 mm heater. The part of the loop that is immersed in this small
Hot exchanger length x H 2.54 mm reservoir is a coil of copper tubing. After the system reached
Exchanger fin thickness 2l EX 0.254 mm steady state approximately 15 min the standard deviation
Exchanger fin separation 2y EX
0 0.508 mm between the measured power to the electrical heater and the
Operating frequency f 328 Hz measured power dissipated by the flow loop is 0.052 W. This
Gas thermal penetration depth 0.108 mm small variability (0.052 W/5.27 W1.0%) is within an ac-
Stack thermal penetration depth s 0.010 mm ceptable limit for these measurements.
Gas viscous penetration depth 0.070 mm

D. Heat exchanger performance model

Fig. 2 the insulating ring has been left out of the drawing for
In order to compare experimental data to the DELTAE
simplicity. The heat flow rate, Q H , is the exhaust heat flux
model, knowledge of the stack end temperatures hot and
of the thermoacoustic engine and Q d is the heat leak from cold side is necessary. Space qualification of the resonator
the copper flange to the driver housing. The heat flux mea- in the STAR project required that no penetrations were made
sured with the thermopile/flow-meter combination is the ex- in the pressurized resonator for signal leads. Since the ther-
haust heat flux less the amount that escapes to the driver mocouples are mounted outside the resonator and not di-
housing. The thermal resistance of the Delrin insulating rectly on the fins, a method to infer the temperature of the
ring was measured to be 1.0 K/W. Two Type-E thermo- fins and hence the stack temperature is needed. A simple
couples, one mounted on the exhaust heat sink flange and the mathematical calculation for the parallel thermal resistance
other on the driver housing, allow measurement of Q d and of the 50 fins of the heat exchanger allows the temperature of
correction for the measured value of exhaust heat flux. The the central fin region of the heat exchanger to be estimated.
temperature difference measured by these thermocouples The hot side thermocouple is located on the copper flange
was at the least experimentally zero at lower input power where the hot heat exchanger is seated and the cold side
thermocouple is located just below the cold side heat
The addition of a fin to a surface is usually motivated by
a need for greater convective heat transfer from or to the
surface. However, the addition of surface area and therefore
material also carries with it some thermal resistance that
depends partly on the fin geometry. Since the potential for
heat transfer to or from a surface depends on the temperature
of the surface and the temperature of the surrounding me-
dium, the best performance from a fin would be realized if
that fin were at the same temperature across the whole length
of the fin. However, because a fin has nonzero thermal resis-
tance, the fin sustains a temperature gradient and performs
FIG. 2. Schematic of the exhaust heat sink flange and heat flux measure-
ment instrumentation. The small arrows show the water flow direction and below this optimum. The fin efficiency is a multiplicative
the large arrows indicate heat flux. constant10 that expresses the degradation of heat transfer due

2482 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 107, No. 5, Pt. 1, May 2000 M. E. Poese and S. L. Garrett: Thermoacoustic refrigerator 2482

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to the addition of the thermal resistance of the fin material TABLE III. Heat exchanger model summary.
and is defined as Parameter Hot exchanger Cold exchanger
qf qf Ac 6
1.6210 m 2
6.45107 m2
f , 1 1.32102 m 5.59103 m
q max hA f T b T Pc
h 530 W/m2K 1000 W/m2K
where q f is the actual heat transferred by the fin, q max is the m 104 m1 147 m1
amount which would be transferred if the fin resistance were R 0.17 K/W 0.30 K/W
zero, h is the convective heat transfer coefficient, A f is the
surface area of the fin, T b is the temperature at the base of
the fin, and T is the temperature of the medium surrounding
the fin. By symmetry we assure that the end of the fin is
insulated from the medium, therefore q f is
u 1/2
u 1/2



sin x 1/2 dx0.763. 6

q f h P c K f A c T b T tanh mL , 2
A more rigorous approach, which produces a similar numeri-
where P c and A c are the cross-sectional perimeter and area cal value, has been obtained by Mozurkewich.13
of the fin, K f is the thermal conductivity of the fin material, The fin efficiency, a value less than 1, increases the
and the critical length 1/m is defined by m 2 h P c /K f A c . value for the effective thermal resistance of the fin,
With a little manipulation, the fin efficiency Eq. 1 can be
expressed as
R fin , 7
tanh mL
f . 3 h f A f
All of the parameters that make up the critical length, 1/m, where h is the convective heat transfer coefficient aver-
are geometric or tabulated except for the convective heat aged over the length of the fin and over time. The time av-
transfer coefficient, h. A common dimensionless parameter erage heat transfer coefficient corresponding to the hot side
that includes the convective heat transfer coefficient is the and cold side flow at a 3% pressure ratio is shown in Table
Nusselt number which can be thought of as the ratio of total III. With these values of h , the characteristic length, 1/m,
heat transfer to conductive heat transfer. This is expressed in can be calculated using values for the fin cross-sectional area
Eq. 4 spatially averaged over a plate of length L, and cross-sectional perimeter, A c and P c , respectively. The
results are shown in Table III. Since each fin has a different
h L length, the total parallel thermal resistance, including the fin
Nu , 4
K efficiency, is calculated with a computer. Since the resonator
body is thin copper, it is assumed that there is very little
where K is the thermal conductivity of the fluid. Scaling thermal resistance from the inside of the resonator body to
arguments11 similitude suggest that the Nusselt number the external thermocouple.
over the length of a plate is correlated to the Reynolds num-
ber over the length and the Prandtl number a nondimen-
sional ratio of a fluids viscous to thermal diffusivity. The
standard correlation10 for steady, laminar flow that allows
calculation of the heat transfer coefficient over the length of E. Measurement procedure
the plate, h , in terms of these dimensionless parameters is
The performance of Frankenfridge was measured in
Nu0.664 ReL1/2Pr1/3. 5 eight controlled experiments. The device was operated in the
same manner for each of these experiments. First, the refrig-
The above expression leads to a value of the convective heat erator was turned on with no heat load and the cold side was
transfer coefficient over the width of a fin in the heat ex- stabilized at 17.2 C by adjusting the acoustic pressure am-
changer. The value for h H at the hot side heat exchanger is plitude created by the driver. This modest temperature dif-
700 W/m2K for a flow velocity that corresponds to a pressure ference was chosen to minimize the heat leak from the room
ratio of 3%. to the cold resonator parts. The frequency of the driver piston
However, in oscillatory flow the validity of this correla- oscillation was adjusted so that an in-phase relationship be-
tion is not clear. In this case, a time-averaged convective heat tween pressure and velocity at the face of the driver piston
transfer coefficient, h , may have more relevance and the was maintained. Once the machine reached a steady state at
standard laminar correlation is modified as follows. Since the the preestablished cold side temperature, the electric heat
Nusselt number depends on the square root of the free- load was activated to dissipate 21 W at the cold side. The
stream flow velocity the Reynolds number is proportional to acoustic pressure was readjusted to keep the cold side at
velocity and this velocity is oscillating sinusoidally, a time 17.2 C. Once this new state stabilized taking about 6 to 8
average value over half a period because the heat transfer is mins, the heat load was again incremented by 21 W and the
independent of the sign of the velocity is used. This time acoustic pressure adjusted accordingly to maintain a constant
average is12 cold resonator temperature.

2483 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 107, No. 5, Pt. 1, May 2000 M. E. Poese and S. L. Garrett: Thermoacoustic refrigerator 2483

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FIG. 3. Comparison of heat pumping power. The outside cold metal tem- FIG. 4. Comparison of acoustic input power. The outside cold metal tem-
perature is 17.2 C. perature is 17.2 C.

B. Performance at high amplitudes P A p m 6%

The high-amplitude data from 3% to 6% pressure ratio
A. Performance at low amplitudes P A p m 3% is presented in Figs. 3 and 4 as well. The data in Fig. 3 show
the nonlinear degradation in cooling power between the mea-
The performance of the refrigerator is illustrated in Figs.
sured data and the linear DELTAE results above a 3% drive
3 and 4. Figure 3 shows the measured and modeled cooling
ratio. This nonlinear performance degradation is modest
power as a function of the ratio of peak-to-mean pressure in
enough that the gain in power density associated with opera-
the resonator. Figure 4 is a plot of the input acoustic power
tion at higher pressure amplitudes may be worth the sacrifice
required to attain a certain pressure ratio. In the presence of
in efficiency for some applications.
a stack and heat exchangers, this acoustic power is respon-
The discrepancy in the acoustic power required to attain
sible for pumping heat from the side of the stack that gets
a specific pressure ratio evident in Fig. 4 is greater in this
cold to the side that gets hot.
high-amplitude region than is seen in the data below 3%
The DELTAE model was generated by entering each ex-
pressure ratio. The cause of the discrepancy is undetermined
perimental datum into the model, one at a time, and letting
at this time. In the following section we explore some pos-
the model generate a solution for each point. For the com-
sible loss mechanisms that may explain the disagreement
parisons in Figs. 3 and 4, the hot and cold side heat ex-
between model predictions and measured data.
changer temperatures were targets for DELTAE and the pro-
gram was allowed to solve for the input acoustic power and
C. Resonator losses
heat pumping power that correspond to the target tempera-
tures. The acoustic pressure at the specific datum point was In an attempt to explore the disagreement between
given to DELTAE as an invariant input parameter, allowing model predictions and measured data, DELTAE models were
DELTAE to very accurately model an experimental condition. created that include the effects of turbulent flow, a larger
The acoustic power required to attain a certain pressure surface area for enhanced thermoviscous loss, and a different
ratio as seen in Fig. 4 under the experimental condition is stack geometry that may more closely represent the rolled
approximately 25% greater than DELTAE predicts it to be in Mylar and fishing line stack used in this refrigerator.
the low-amplitude region. In Fig. 3 at low amplitudes, the Instead of using a STKS1ab segment in DELTAE which
graph of heat pumping power or cooling power shows models a parallel plate stack and does not account for spacers
agreement with DELTAE to within the accuracy of this ex- that support and separate the plates, a STKREct which
periment. models the stack as rectangular pores was substituted. It is

2484 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 107, No. 5, Pt. 1, May 2000 M. E. Poese and S. L. Garrett: Thermoacoustic refrigerator 2484

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possible that this stack model more closely represents the model correct the acoustic power discrepancy to within ex-
Mylar film/fishing-string stack used in Frankenfridge. This perimental error, nor do they destroy the agreement of cool-
modification decreases the acoustic power discrepancy by ing power for a given pressure ratio below pressure ratios of
only a few percent and is not shown on a graph. 3%.
Because the discrepancy of DELTAE predictions and
measured data at low amplitudes suggests an inaccurately III. CONCLUSIONS
modeled thermoviscous loss, comparison of the quality fac-
tor of the resonator to the quality factor predicted by the There is a measurable deviation in heat pumping power
DELTAE model should reflect the discrepancy in input acous- of Frankenfridge from the power predicted with a linear
tic power. By driving the resonator with a negligibly small acoustic computer model for the same pressure amplitude.
pressure oscillation, Q was measured to be 11.0. The Fran- This deviation in heat pumping power at 3% pressure ratio is
kenfridge model in DELTAE can be programmed to produce about 8% and at 6% pressure ratio is about 24%. For some
a frequency sweep at very low pressure amplitudes to applications, the correspondingly poorer coefficient-of-
allow a determination of the model resonators Q. This performance may be an acceptable sacrifice in the face of a
sweep was executed at a constant volume velocity and at dramatically increased power density. This rolloff in heat
pumping power could be due in part to the fact that the
such very low pressure amplitudes so as not to cause DEL-
acoustic particle displacement is four to five times higher
TAE to form a temperature gradient across its stack. A half-
than the heat exchanger lengtha high-amplitude design
power point fit for Q from this pressure response curve yields
would likely have longer heat exchanger fins which might
a value of 11.75.
lessen the cooling power degradation.
Since the stack provides the dominant thermoviscous
The exhaust heat flux measurement system has allowed
loss in the resonator and it seems to be modeled well in
the device to trade the complicated vacuum insulation used
DELTAE, the effects of smaller thermoviscous losses in the
in the STAR experiments for a simple fiberglass insulation
resonator could be magnified if the stack is removed. With
shield and to increase the rate of data acquisition. The new
the stack removed from the resonator of the refrigerator and
driver can create stack power densities which are almost six
the heat exchangers left in place the input power required to
times greater than could be obtained with the STAR driver.
attain several values of pressure ratio was measured. The
While these experiments have shown excellent agree-
results of this experiment are compared to a DELTAE model
ment with computer models of the stack, the resonator per-
that includes HX**** finned heat exchanger segments but
formance shows significant deviations from the DELTAE
no stack segment. The model uses the same values for acous-
model. The computer model predicts the acoustic power re-
tic pressure that were imparted into the physical resonator.
quirements to be almost 32 of the measured acoustic input
The quality factor of the physical stackless resonator was
power needed to reach a certain pressure ratio. This deviation
measured to be 56. The model predicts Q to be 66 for the
is consistent in experiments with and without the stack. The
model that has no stack. The fact that the measured quality
discrepancy is greater in the stackless resonator model be-
factor for the stackless refrigerator is smaller than the model
cause the stack is the dominant loss mechanism and reduces
predicts leads us to believe that there is some part of the
the effect of the resonator model inaccuracy.
resonator that is not understood, or not modeled in DELTAE
A preliminary analysis shows that the power discrep-
correctly. ancy may be caused by minor losses in the stack, heat ex-
Along these same lines, the surface area of the cold re- changers, and horn outlet of the machine. The term minor
ducer, cold duct, and trumpet was increased by 30% in DEL- loss refers to nonlinear loss that occurs in the flow around
TAE. This model, with a lower value for Q, causes the dis-
obstacles, through orifices, and at abrupt changes in cross-
crepancy to shrink by only 2% across the entire amplitude sectional area or flow direction: this loss mechanism is not
range. accounted for in the surface-roughness/turbulence module in
The parameter that DELTAE uses to quantify the turbu- DELTAE.
lence of the flow is the relative roughness. In a duct, this is Not reported in this paper are measurements of the co-
defined11 as the ratio of the surface roughness, e, to the di- efficient of performance for Frankenfridge. These measure-
ameter of the duct: e/D. A typical value11 of surface rough- ments exhibit a disagreement with DELTAE predictions simi-
ness e for drawn tubing is 5106 in. The result from the lar to that shown in this paper. Interestingly, a comparison of
DELTAE model with turbulence that best matches the mea- 1993 STAR coefficient of performance data with a DELTAE
sured cooling power degradation corresponds to a relative model of STAR shows the same disagreement.
roughness value of 0.1 as shown in Fig. 3. This value was
assigned to the cold reducer, the cold duct, and the trumpet.
A relative roughness of 10% is outrageously large for hard-
ware of the size and type in this refrigerator but it is a way to The authors gratefully thank the Office of Naval Re-
get DELTAE to model a nonlinear loss that is on the order of search, NASA through the Pennsylvania Space Grant Con-
that measured in Frankenfridge. In this only academically sortium, and the Applied Research Lab through the Explor-
interesting limit, the discrepancy in acoustic power becomes atory and Foundation Program for generous financial
as low 10% at the highest measured amplitude as compared support. We thank Robert Smith for his effective technical
to almost 40% in the linear model. assistance and Greg Swift and Bill Ward of Los Alamos
In summary, none of the above changes to the DELTAE National Laboratories for providing several upgrades to

2485 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 107, No. 5, Pt. 1, May 2000 M. E. Poese and S. L. Garrett: Thermoacoustic refrigerator 2485

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