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# SAINT MARYS UNIVERSITY

A Critique Paper

Presented to:

(Instructor )

Presented by:

## October 22, 2016

Article Reviewed: Homogeneous Differential Equations

## on October 14, 2016

Brief Summary

There are different types of differential equations, and each type requires its own

particular solution method. One of the method is the homogeneous Differential Equations. As it

was define in the article, a differential equation is an equation with a function and one or more of

its derivatives. In this article, it focus on one of the special method for solving homogeneous

differential equations. A first order differential equation is homogeneous when it can be in this

form

dy y
dx = F( x )

y
We can solve it using separation of variables but first we create a new variable v = x

y
v= x is also y = vx

dy d (vx ) dx dv
And dx = dx =v dx +x dx (by the Product Rule)

dy dv
Which can be simplified to dx =v+x dx

dy dv
Using y = vx and dx =v+x dx we can solve the Differential Equation.

## An example will show how it is all done:

2
dy x +y
Example: Solve dx = xy

x
Can we get it in F( y ) style?
x + y
xy
x y
Separate terms: xy + xy

x y
Simplify: +
y x
y y
Reciprocal of first term: ( x )-1 + x
dy y
dx = ( x )-

y
1
+ x
v dy dv dv
y= x and dx =v+x dx v+x dx = v-1 + v

dv
Subtract v from both sides: x dx = v-1

## Now use Separation of Variables:

1
Separate the variables: v dv = x dx

1
v
Integrate: 2 = ln(x) + C

v
Then we make C = ln(k): 2 = ln(x) + ln(k)

v
Combine ln: 2 = ln(kx)
Simplify: v = (2 ln(kx))

y y
Substitute v = x : x = (2 ln(kx))

Simplify: y = x (2 ln(kx))
And we have the solution.

## (Review) Strength and Weaknesses of the Article

This article shows how to solve differential equation using the method of homogeneous

differential equations. As on the article says, homogeneous method is applied when equation is in

dy y
the form, dx = F( x ). With our past lesson on homogeneous as I have remember,

homogeneous is applied when the degree of each term are all equal and that we can substitute x =

v
vy, and dx = vdy + ydv otherwise, y = vx and dy= vdx + xdv. But as to this article, y = x

dy dv
and dx =v+x dx which is more complicated one compared from the explanation of

ideas by our instructor. Moreover, if in our previous lesson, we directed to come up with y = vx

or the other way around, here, in the article, it has to go more steps. But as it goes down, it shows

## simpler steps just like what it is shown on the given example.

One of the article that I appreciate much. Aside from giving lots of examples, (I only

gave one on the summary but on the article, there are lot of examples) every step in the solution

has its corresponding explanation how the next step was obtained. Maybe, for me, its weakness

is that, it appears very basic explanation and definition of terms are given shortly.
Over all, the article is very straight forward that it is easy for a critic to understand what