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Notes History of Philosophy I. The question of ontological archai. The place of


the principles and laws of being, thinking. The Logos of truth into question. Ar
istotle and the pre-Socratics.
It was from the crisis of the Theory of Ideas, as recorded by Plato in "Parmenid
es" and the "Sophist," when the doctrinal elements Pythagoreans began to offer t
he required solution pathways: those that relied on a rational mythology Orphism
scientific dialectical response to the philosophical problems of Platonism. Tha
t the crisis of the Theory of Ideas, the crisis of theory méthesis or participat
ion, was resolved by way of mimesis mythological or imitation, as a link between
ideas and realities sensitive, was a solution involving many implications mytho
logical order, which took the place of the question of truth and the question of
arche: command or law of the first. 1. The realities were no longer sensitive n
ature, left to take the spontaneity and self-legislation that characterizes livi
ng beings with physis and unlike things or devices, to go to become mere copies
of the world of mathematical and geometric models. 2. This occurred through the
intervention of an anthropomorphic god, the demiurge, who had the power-knowledg
e to create life, and could also be said that his creatures are ghost-like shado
w copies "of life. 3. Plato drew on the same reproductive patterns of mythologic
al cosmologies of Homer and Hesiod, invading with the mono-arche (single control
monarch) ontological level of truth, and the field of epistemology, of physis,
which now ceases to be. And invades the field of truth and law of the ontologica
l principles of being open by philosophy. Most serious of all is that the physis
, discovered by the Presocratics as kosmo-order, leaving no more than so; to be
living nature, or being "in itself", as spontaneity autolegislada to become a de
ad thing , a mere copy of the product and rational world-conceptual hypostatized
the "true self", that of Ideas, Paradigms, through the mediation of the old pat
riarchal god gave her beauty, order and intelligibility from the outside. 4. Suc
h nihilism emptied of consistency and life eternal sovereignty of the physis. Th
at will be channeled through the Logos of a diachronic account was consistent wi
th the mythological essence of myth: to create the time, placing the subject of
power-knowledge ahead of time. What myths are about the impossibility of salvati
on is rational, the enthronement of contradiction, his rebellion against the law
of time. The law of being, time ceases to be law and (time) becomes governed by
the parataxis:
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external provision of a beyond untraceable and mythological, that projects along
the line of before and after. So, thanks to the intelligence of the demiurge Ch
orismós solved the problem: the separation between the principles, causes supers
ensible (the archai) and sensitive beings. The paradoxes of ontological truth re
garding the link between thinking and being is solved thanks to a magical god. T
hus was born the onto-theo-logy, in which a knowledge-power anthropomorphic God
takes the place of truth, open space by the Logos, as a language difference betw
een thinking and being, taken up by an archaic mythological language, a fairly n
ew story anthropomorphic shadow on the genesis of order, due to a god-wise to ma
ke copies Pythagorean proportion mixing instructions of paradigms, models with a
morphous material and unintelligible in itself, giving rise to a new world of sh
adows. These are the Platonic pseudoracionales mythologems contained in later wr
itings: Timaeus, Critias, Philebus and Laws, membership marked Pythagorean texts
that openly displayed, many of the secret doctrines of the sect. (Legend has it
that Philolaus of Tarentum, Pythagorean distinguished from the V-IV centuries B
C, teacher of Archytas and Democritus, was forced by poverty to write three work
s with doctrines of the school, which were acquired by Dio at the request of Pla
to, that willingly gave to insert into their texts, greatly in the Timaeus (Thin
king Philolaus and Archytas of Tarentum: Lambros Coloubaritsis "Histoire de la p
hilosophie ancienne et medievale") The place of the truth has been dislocated en
tirely, and no physis, as spontaneity autolegislada there is no longer Logos, un
derstood as immanent laws of multiple unit, and the time has come to be legislat
ed by the Superman, a subject-agent basis,€conceived image of indisputable objec
tive intelligence (the calculation and the metric) of man. It is the model onto-
theo-logical and transcendental metaphysics, which puts legislantes archai or ea
rly out, beyond the physical. While hegemony involves mathematical and scientifi
c knowledge as a paradigm, and rational approach in the hands of technological p
ower, capable of producing a world that copy, as a way to realize the true myth:
the myth that will be true when made the paradigm. Double paradigm, the Ideas a
nd the mythological god-man created by the nature (paradigm) which should begin
to imitate the man immediately in the field of law of the polis. If the "Timaeus
" is nothing but a myth propaedeutic of "Laws", the message is clear, is to repe
at the dialogue, the "Political," that the legislature of the state as the demiu
rge, write the laws of order soul amorphous, chaotic and malleable citizens, man
ufacturing and producing from her childhood, her subjetualidad, desires, impulse
s, and habits, are regulated according to the needs of social division, producti
on and profit required to keep
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autarky and state power, so that later, these subjects - how to create good copi
es, freely and voluntarily submit to the laws of the State, who will defend thei
r own ideals and thoughts, even with life. If the Timaeus is the myth that Plato
invented to serve as a preparation for politics and the paideia of the "Laws",
the analogy is a sad testament that bequeathed us this last message that the dem
iurge is the same as nature politician in the state, a legislator who produces,
manufactures and lays down the laws of order, both in nature and in society. A g
od-man and a man-god who created the law of the same order in nature and in the
city. So unfolds and folds back on itself the Platonic mythological model, relyi
ng on its own copy, as does any standing to be so effective by mere repetition,
until the general custom to forget the origin of the story, the mythological ori
gin of the dogma . That after Plato's death his successor at the Academy Speusip
pus end up being his nephew, representing the trend of Pythagoreanism mathematiz
ing academic confirms the decisive direction of the school towards a metaphysics
of Ideas-numbers, despite criticism Aristotle, who was thereby lost the best of
classic Platonism of Plato: the pluralism of ideas, differences, related to Goo
d ontological, that Plato, Parmenides reformulated so explicitly pluralistic, em
bodied in the philosophy of being or ontology, and philosophy of the principles
or protology, the ancient tradition of Delphi: the cult of the sun god Apollo, s
tressing, "Aristotle thought, the way of Panhellenism struggles against the Gree
ks together. (Aristotle defended the policy of the rhetorician Isocrates Panhell
enism and King Philip II of Macedonia. Alexander the Great, son of Philip and ed
ucated by Aristotle, would betray the ideas of the father and teacher, to break
the unity of the archipelago Panhellenic plural, to the global empire that Class
ical Greece, the city was wrecked forever, just as it was historically possible,
with Philip and Aristotle. The Alexander's hubris led him farther and farther,
to become god. Reference: "To read Aristotle's metaphysics in the XXI century ")
. Plato was a very different direction, towards the foundation of an autarkic na
tion state, governed by philosophers, according to a model where the Spartan mil
itary oligarchy merged with science and Pythagorean mysticism. That had to resor
t to found the mythology of Timaeus, was tantamount to renouncing rationally res
olve paradoxes, perhaps not as intractable, the separation between the supersens
ible world of Ideas, and the sensible world. This amounted to overturn the criti
cal work of the Academy and rigorous effort that discussions of the dialectic ha
d come to ask and to pinpoint each problem, each term and alternative hypothesis
.
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The path of the mythological-Pythagorean Timaeus, opened an unbridgeable gulf be
tween Aristotle and Plato finally. Aristotle set out to find ways of reframing a
nd resolving the ontology Platonism of Bienesdiferencias, summoning all instance
s for Hellenic cultural philosophy. (For discussions of the Academy, from Speusi
ppus, Xenocrates and Aristotle, see "The Philosophy of Aristotle's cousin, E. Be
rti). This work led him to learn of the pre-Socratics€through whose development
could articulate the critical alternative to dialectics. The pre-Socratic philos
ophy of Aristotle opposes the new dogmatic mythological swept by dialectical rat
ionality, invented by Socrates. Anaximander Aristotle found that: a) The eternal
return was more than a cosmological isonomy theodicy, which contained the princ
iple of the method of rational-philosophical investigations anti-mythological b)
That the accounts of the genetic worldviews are replaced as is accessed in term
s of synchronicity or simultaneous, as governing enclave on the scope of relativ
e opposites; c) That something can not be here and there simultaneously, but her
e and now and then, after (and so, in the For all determinations contrary determ
ine for alternative: top-down, hot-cold, high-low, that is: all relative). These
relationships governing kinetic diachronically in the field of generation, but
not thinking about discovering the other side of the boundary, as the law makes
exclusion of opposites, both here and now, saying they can not be simultaneously
day and night, winter and summer, and so on. To think, in stating the law knows
the link denials of opposites. Opposites belong together in a unity that can no
t occur simultaneously. That unity, that simultaneity prohibited by Chronos, dis
covers the thought of being. Discover, on the other side of the boundary of law,
that non-relative non-counter are not regulated by the diachronic sequence gene
ration time and movement, which may lie in the field of simultaneity plural. The
reflection on justice and the death of Anaximander discover the difference betw
een the order of eternal synchrony of thought-be and the order of the diachrony
of the phenomena and that both orders are linked by the same limit. This experie
nce is at the origin of the "Principle of nocontradicción" ontological law, whic
h made Aristotle in Book IV of metaphysics, as principal Act anhipotético impera
tive principle of all thinking ontological: it must be assumed by all thinking,
because by breaking the law simply does not think, think this law is the same as
the limit-being component. Anaximander Parmenides Heraclitus and Aristotle lear
ned the same thing:
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a) The difference between what is legislated by the principle of non-contradicti
on: the plural simultaneous contradictory not oppose each other, linked by the d
ifference of extreme stress. Parmenides learns: a) That the absolutely indivisib
le (hapla: just) is the arche or the law of self-thinking. b) This is not the sa
me as described by Anaximander, for now the two sides of the critical limit is d
isturbed due to the man's gaze inevitably projecting on the eternal death, filli
ng the continuity of breaks. The way of truth is not to reject either sides of t
he limit, even though their experiences seem to be mutually exclusive, because t
hey are not symmetrical. These two approaches, and both should be respected and
distinguished.
Aristotle will connect these two areas, for it will double or relational potenti
al and generation of movement. The experience of ontological truth without contr
ast (Aletheia, following Parmenides, Aristotle), it is simple actions intensive
contemplation of excellent practice, with dianoetic arete, transmitted, received
without dividing, uniting all those involved in them. You can not learn virtue
without friendship (Nicomachean Ethics); look real good action in another is muc
h easier than in yourself, until it is able to transmit it. There are no absolut
e non-being, no non-being (or falsehood or error, etc..) In the area of the form
er. Enter the non-being in the field of first principles, as did Plato in the "S
ophist," incurring "parricide against Parmenides also means not having understoo
d Parmenides, nihilizar the entire system and to the generation and movement in
the actions rather than ecstatic, turn everything into a field on kinetic and op
ponents, a dialectical field of forces. Heraclitus, Aristotle taught the same as
Parmenides and Anaximander: the opening of ecstatic level of events, beyond the
movement, without moving to another world. He learned of the aphorisms of Herac
litus, the mode of being of full operations, self-expressive and self-increasing
(more is thought the more you think, more you love the more love), which belong
to the regime of intensity (not extension) ... regime that distinguishes Heracl
itus€the intense life of the soul on the eve of the Logos and the innocence of t
he law of being. Aristotle also learned (as Parmenides) the absolute primacy of
the simple plurality. In Empedocles found the starting point for the development
of a causal and non-motor ecstatic from the desire of the beloved by philia and
eros.
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Anaxagoras gave theoretical elements for the development of the noetic or theory
of nous, corresponding to the dimension of the principles still and separated (
akinetes kai chorister) first principles of the souls of all living beings. Firs
t principles that were divine (eternal and necessary), which allowed completion
of Aristotle's philosophy in a philosophy of principles, which constituted plura
list theology or ontology of Platonic eide. They had undergone a profound transf
ormation, were no longer conceptual determinations and paradigms to become ways
of being alive or ontological property. They were no longer produced or generate
d from the One and the dyad (the two first principles of the Platonic dogmata Ag
rapha). These (The One and the dyad) were reported as abstract principles in the
abstract materialism Pythagorean. Aristotle says: "(the cause of good) it does
not touch it at all ... the math is for modern philosophy ... for them is delete
d all research on nature" (Metaf. XIII-XIV). Conflicting interests between the d
evelopment of the pre-Socratic philosophy of Aristotle and rationality mythologi
cal (focused on salvation) platónicapitagórica Academy: a) The divine plural, in
the kosmos. The sacred language, physis, knowledge and the arts, of poiesis. Th
e sacred, the divine and God, the rational policy of the differences in Aristotl
e, in opposition to the irrational exclusive deification of man or the soul of m
an. According to Aristotle, the ontological isonomy (discovered by the Presocrat
ics) prevented the hubris of man, defines the de-restraint of anthropomorphism o
f the myths instrumentalists, myths of patriarchal domination, refractory to rat
ional acceptance limit law. No soul-body is divine, just divine principles are s
imple, required of all souls. According to Aristotle's basic thesis: the entitie
s are in themselves their own case first, if they were in other institutions wou
ld not be its cause, would be accidents. (Metaphysical). b) The affirmation of t
he death of the soul, inseparable from the body (against Plato's immortal soul).
The only thing is the immortal divine noetic principle, be spiritual soul, the
nous, self-conscious in man without self-consciousness in other living beings. T
he nous is neither individual nor universal, it is simply necessary-mode (entele
cheia) of the differential action of the soul of every (every) living thing. c)
There is therefore no salvation, no atonement, no supernatural judgments or awar
ds or punishment, or promises of the afterlife, no guilt or redemption, and so o
n., but innocence, blessing and affirmation of being. Well ontological or moral
evil only in the case of man, because of their freedom. There is no ontological
evil or sin, or fault in the being of the nature of language.
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From this core, Aristotle proceeds to the mythologizing of Platonism. Platonism
is critical of Aristotle. Continue the ontology of good and Platonic forms-diffe
rences. Aristotle's ontology is an ontology of differences asumpción critical pa
rt of the principle of plurality, original and irreducible, which can not be rat
ionally refuted. According to the ontological legitimacy of the truth, man can n
ot invade the entire field of other ways of being sovereign: with physis. d) Sit
a Community dimension above politics, Philia, a community of friends dedicated
to research, teaching and practice of ethical virtues and dianoetic. Appear Acad
emy, the Lyceum, or the University. Philosophical science is in critical discuss
ion of the opinions true or false, conservation and documentation of these, meth
ods and discussions to demonstrate. Philia is considered superior to the policy,
the highest level of differentiation of roles, implies a greater freedom, quali
tatively richer than that of civil rights. And because "the truth without otherw
ise" leads to the discovery and transmission of the truth is unknown and the sel
ection criteria of the trials that they can be true or false, in contrast with t
he rationality of power and political justice,€they have to take into account th
e double of truth and falsehood and moral good and evil. e) paideia policy is th
e primary objective of the just city, while the upper paideía academic, institut
ional response to the main purpose of free citizens, whose creativity and commun
icative action reverses over pleasure, wisdom and happiness of the excellent cit
y . THE Middle Ages Christian, Muslim or Jew, recognized in Aristotle irreducibl
e two bastions of paganism: the death of the individual soul and the eternity of
the kosmos. Aristotle was censured by the monotheistic religions and absorbed b
y the combination of categories. The first bodies of Aristotle (inherent to all
living beings as their own ecstatic-noetic principles, causes of actions manners
nonkinetic the souls of the living entities) had been crossed out or converted
to generic concepts. After Plato died, Aristotle left Athens. He traveled with T
heophrastus and other Platonists, in Asia Minor, and dealt with the education of
Alexander, son of Philip II. Aristotle wrote three books against-Pythagoreans t
o have been lost. His numerous and rigorous refutations of Pythagoreanism and it
s position on the conflict between the Lyceum and the Academy, Plato makes it a
critical continuation of Platonism purged of myths and contradictions, contrary
to Pythagoreanism, as opposite as the pre-Socratics. Aristotle relied on them an
d learned from them, began as the continuation of the pre-Socratics against the
Academy, now in the hands of eschatological myths of anthropomorphic technology,
dramatically Pythagorean trend. The Presocratics were the first to criticize th
e positions of Pythagoreanism and offered alternatives on behalf of the wisdom o
f the limits, the same as
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Aristotle uses mythological rationality against the will to power or will to sal
vation which is represented in the tradition of philosophical rationality as the
will of truth and love, friendship wisdom. It is for this that does not stand c
onveniently known thesis of the passage from myth to logos, as widespread as a d
ogma, which identifies all the revealed religions religion or biblical god and a
ll the anthropomorphic gods of power, without further assimilate the divine with
and the religious with the mythological. This ethnocentric and reductionist vie
w can not be applied to Greece and the birth of philosophy. You need to understa
nd the religion that is at the root of Greek philosophy in order to understand A
ristotle, according to the Presocratics, arguing for a rational political and un
derstand that philosophy in Greece was created as a rational theology pagan Firs
t Philosophy or first principles ontological. The wisdom of the limits, as the e
ssence of rationality immanent ontological pre-Socratic: Delphic matrix. The uni
t of gnomic sentences is that they all form one piece of advice: moderation, sel
f control and "nothing in excess", respect for boundaries. This is the common wi
sdom of the Seven Sages, including distinguished Zlon of Salamis and Thales. Bot
h operate the business of wisdom, they discovered the establishment of an immane
nt law, both: a) The cops b) The living nature: the physis c) Language, the Logo
s.
When Heraclitus of Ephesus explains that the word (logos) is the common reason,
the triple bond becomes obvious civic nature in future and the language of Herac
litean dialectic, rational unit-linked differences. The word is intended to mean
what the word makes, when differential binding action when breaks and contacts
(connects, binds) the diverging point, then it is logos. This is the case of lig
htning Heraclitean between heaven and earth, which lets you see at once the dark
of night and the sky lighting up. This is the case of the word into action to c
ommunicate and distinguish, to share the differences and divergent interests. He
re again the bond-logos differentiate extreme closeness and distance of the divi
ne and mortal, giving rise to a rational theology and rational anthropology, whi
ch are in the physis and the polis.
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Differential ends linked by their difference are crossed, are cross-cutting divi
ne mortals find necessary, simple and eternal, not being them, only to discover
when they assume that they are mortal, when assuming the limit. The divine is op
en to the mortal, as absolute limit for unlimited excess mortal, the other side
of the border. (Who knows? The madness and mayhem? Innocence of chance? "The des
ire of the other,€the word can be fatal to the divine in the presence of kairos
(the favorable time) the aion (eternal moment) the most beautiful ceiling?) What
are the various wisdoms each other (the public policy and the theoretical praxi
s of Pissis) resides in the discovery and establishment of peace in the cosmos-o
rder, due to the wisdom of knowing the limits. Solon and Yales are part of the l
ist of the Seven Wise Men because they discovered and established the boundaries
, the immanent laws. In the case of Solon, who carried out land reform in a peac
eful way of Athens, when the soil was in the hands of a few Eupatridae, and expl
oitation was widespread even individuals to sell to pay for land leases. Solon w
isely stuck to the limit in two ways: in favor of landlords, who would not have
consented to surrender their land, and enact laws to Athens to constitute a poli
s. When discovered Such laws limit the reality that from it were considered as p
hysis, or nature, open space order, kosmos, and peace sound, freeing the men fro
m the capricious and arbitrary will of the gods Anthropomorphic and mythology. M
en could know what to expect and rely on the reasonable prospect of the behavior
of phenomena. Science had been born, the first side of the triangle of wisdom,
comprising: physical laws and policies. the sound of the divine plural unavailab
le, and the thought of being-philia ethical or spiritual erotic). The link that
connects with the wisdom of linking the limit and Solon and Thales of Miletus, l
eads to the center of Hellas, the shrine of the sun at Delphi. Prejudice likely.
The trend of historicism and positivism illustrated diachronism enter "before"
and "after", is dominant in Western rationality from the eighteenth century unti
l the second half of the twentieth century. This is the case of JP Vernant, devi
ces that enable you to understand the birth of philosophy as an emancipation iso
nomy (equality of the law, by, to, by law) achieves about domain of myths, also
lead you to think the birth of philosophy as an event that results in the polis.
Vernant is among the dilemma of reductive political thesis and the thesis of se
lf-Law of the physis. It is continually forced to correct a whole thesis: the si
multaneous birth of the legislation in the polls with Solon and Thales, without
any outside "before" or "after."
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Vernant is in the situation of not knowing what to do with the thesis of the dis
covery of the physis as the birth of philosophy. Here is a law of nature pagan a
nd sacred theology, but not mythological but rational. To view this isonomy Vern
ant has to break the prejudice that treats religion, myth and theology, to be op
ened to Greek alterity. Aristotle and the pre-Socratic understanding of first pr
inciples, divine laws immanent, eternal and necessary, as principles limit, and
not as objects of consciousness of the phenomenal reality that is born and dies.
The birth of philosophy must be understood as the radical transformation that a
ffects the divine. It is not limited to criticism of the false gods, but once do
ne, returns to ask the question: what is the divine?: The Divine is not generate
d or projected by man in his image and likeness and according to the story genes
and diachronic narrative and uncritically to live the time-motion. What is divi
ne? It is proposed that asks what philosophy is born, not only as a critique of
dogmatic and mythological cultures (own and despotic patriarchal societies) but
also like to know an alternative. The philosophy was born as anti-dogmatic theol
ogical position or counter-mythology of the divine, altered by the discovery of
the divine sound, the Physis kai logos, being of nature and being of language. B
-30's aphorism of Heraclitus: "The cosmos, or some god, or any of the men did, b
ut in each case it was, is and will be ever-living fire, going on and off as far
as tailor . This paragraph illustrates the emergence of philosophy and how it p
assed from the realm of the real to the anthropomorphic gods, much as the idea o
r reproductive mythological creations of the world by supernatural forces.
Some lessons lucid Jaeger Waern on the notion of the divine in the pre-Socratics
. "... Does not intend a complete history of the first period of Greek philosoph
y.€I concentrated on one particular aspect of this issue ... investigators minim
ized by the positive school ... others, have presented all the cosmological thou
ght of Greece as an offshoot of Orphic mysticism and something absolutely irrati
onal. If we avoid both extremes, the fact remains that the ideas developed these
Greek thinkers about the nature of the universe, had a direct effect on their w
ay of thinking about what they called God or the divine. These terms must be und
erstood not in the Christian sense, but in the Greek. The history of philosophic
al theology of the Greeks is the story of his rational way to approach the natur
e of reality itself. " He adds later: "Theology is a specific creation of the Gr
eek spirit, this fact has not been heard accurately and affects the word and the
thing that the word expresses. theology is a characteristically Greek attitude
of mind has anything to do with the great importance which the Greeks attributed
to the Logos. the word theology means "closer to god or gods (theoi), through l
ogos."
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On the other hand, is not the same physis physis logos kai kai polis. The laws o
f the polis is not ontological but human, and human is not divine but mortal, wh
ich safeguards the scope of freedom and contingency. The Logos is not of man, ne
ither universal nor taken individually, logos refers to the free subjetualidad t
hink that responds to be: noein-einai. Plato fell into the mistake of confusing
the two areas of law through dialogue the "Political." Aristotle distinguished c
arefully, practical rationality, political (rhetorical knowledge and economic) a
nd theoretical rationality (ontology: first philosophy or theology of polytheism
rational ontological philosophy or physical science second and third as abstrac
t mathematical philosophy). Aristotle put the reasons for radical pluralism, acc
ording to Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Democritus (the Presocratics pluralistic) a
lso against the political dangers of the monologue of the single thought, and pa
rticularly that of Plato's dialectic and its claim to be the only rational scien
ce. Delphi. There is a passage from Plato which is one of the earliest reference
s to the legend of the Seven Sages: "Since ancient times there have been scholar
s, among whose number were counted Thales of Miletus, Pittacus of Mytilene, Bias
of Priene, and our Solon Cleobulus of Cnidus, Misón of kenas and the seventh wa
s Kilón of Sparta, all of them devoted to the temple of Apollo at Delphi ... tho
se words that everyone celebrates, "Know thyself" and "Nothing in excess" ... th
is was the way the philosophy of the ancients: laconic concision "(Protagoras 34
3d). There is an analogy between the space in which to express the human kosmos,
and the physical and ontological space in which the Milesians project the natur
al kosmos. Among the Milesians the design of a symmetric space and geometric rel
ationships isonomy legislated for is no longer at the summit, but the inn is pla
ced in the center, in the middle, in the Agora. "For my part, I put the arche is
meson and proclaim to you isonomy (Meander, the successor of the tyrant Polycra
tes, on his death). "The ancients imagined the earth round, in central Greece an
d Delphi in central Greece." (Agatémeros). The center is an inn, as a fixative,
around which are arranged in the city and nature, spaces. Since the laws of Solo
n placed in the center of the agora, and in the center of the sanctuary of Apoll
o and maps Hecataeus making visible the center of Greece at Delphi, cosmic fire
Philolaus of Taranto, around the solar axis, the same religion runs the resonanc
es of the wisdom of the boundaries: the axis of Delphi, which was also the tradi
tion Aristotle declared or lineage of Na philosophy. The sanctuary of Apollo and
Dionysus. A mystery religion, mythology and fables, divination and oracular, lo
cated in the center of the birth of the logos of the polis and the physis.
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Delphi as the center of Hellas is a reference unit and convergent character, a u
nit-limit reference to which, the various Greek polis refer freely, for love of
Sophia. "If the city goes to the wise to ask the solution to their woes, it's be
cause they are presented as a divine man whose whole life has kind of puts the m
argin of the community. When the Wise goes to the city in speech or writing is t
o convey a truth that comes from above, which belongs to a different world from
the ordinary world.€The first wisdom is a sort of paradox: free to the public to
know that she proclaims inaccessible to the majority. Wisdom reveals a truth hi
dden from the eyes of the populace, brings the mystery to the public square. " (
Pierre Vernat). Linking the birth of philosophy in writing, P. Vernant says, "th
rough writing the dike, while being an ideal value may be embodied in a human le
vel, performing in the law. (...) The truth of the wise is the revelation of the
essence, the discovery of a higher truth which surpasses the common man. By ent
rusting the writing, is the start of the sacred circle of sects; is exposed in f
ull light before the entire city accessible to all (...) with the hope that, ult
imately, be accepted and recognized by all " . If the phronimos, wise or prudent
to put it (wisdom) in the word and passes it, is because the assumed upper limi
t, ie a public good, as leylenguaje. Law is communicated, community social ties.
It is one of the first characteristics of the limits Delphic wisdom: wisdom and
understanding of phronesis as practical rationality and politics, language, com
munication and community. Moreover, the temple as sacred and religious center of
higher learning, which demands to be deciphered, a hermeneutic rationality, as
the archipelago Panhellenic koine. We are dealing with a religion or cult sound
hysterical to the divine love, whose temple is in the middle is to meson, such a
s binding limit Hellenic differences free. Giorgio Colli, in relation to the bir
th of philosophy from the wisdom of the Delphic limits: "... a hypothetical way,
such an interpretation of that suggested by Nietzsche to explain the origin of
Greek tragedy (...) a prospect seems identical open when you consider the source
of wisdom. They are the gods, Apollo and Dionysus when you go back through the
paths of Greek wisdom. The prominence to be granted now Apollo on Dionysus, the
god of Delphi. At Delphi manifested the vocation of the Greek for knowledge. Wis
e is not rich in experience or technical skill: Ulysses is not wise, but one tha
t projects the light in the darkness, who reveals the unknown and unknown, who d
etermines what uncertain. The knowledge of the future of man and the world belon
gs to wisdom, Apollo symbolizes the penetrating vision and so their worship is a
celebration of wisdom. " "The Lord which is the oracle of Delphi, says not hidd
en: notes" aphorism of Heraclitus.
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With the rationality that assumes tragic limits, starting with the death, was bo
rn in Greece, the philosophy and rationale of the Phronesis of understanding (ph
rónein) and point (semainein). Werner Jaeger says: "Heraclitus prefer the tradit
ional griago tçermino phrónein to" think together "or" just intuition. " Phrónei
n called the Delphic wisdom that calls for voluntary restraint on human behavior
and urges all fear of any hubris or excess, beyond the world man. Heraclitus do
es not have the desire to be another Prometheus teaching men new and more ingeni
ous methods to achieve their goals. Rather, he hopes to make them capable of man
aging their lives. according to a talk and act fully aware of the Logos. Delphic
wisdom is not resolved in a mere call for restraint, to avoid the excesses. Onc
e considered the practical aspect of phronesis, is now emphasizing the theoretic
al dimension. Giorgio Colli: "Throughout the Hellenic territory had sanctuaries
for divination, a crucial element in public and political life of the Greeks. Ev
en Dionysus is associated with the knowledge of wisdom, as Eleusinian divinity.
Initiation into the mysteries of Eleusis apopteía culminated with a mystical vis
ion of bliss and purification, which could be called knowledge wisdom. Taking in
to account that mystical ecstasy is achieved through a completely dispossessed o
f individuality (the knower comes to be indistinguishable from the known object)
, be regarded as mystical ecstasy budget wisdom of knowledge. Wisdom Knowledge a
nd wisdom are manifested through the word, and is at Delphi where he pronounces
the word of God, and it is Apollo who speaks through the priestess and Dionysus.
" You can not separate the Delphic Apollo gifts of mania or madness of the prie
stess, according to the four types of mania (ie, the prophetic, poetic and eroti
c mystery) affinity also exists between Apollo and Dionysus, associated both wit
h wisdom and knowledge mania€that is on the back or across the boundary. G. Coll
i continues: "Madness and the prophetic mystery are inspired by Apollo and Diony
sus, both have a fundamental affinity that occurs mainly in the field of mania,
together cover the area of Madness (...) by attaching the word and knowledge Wis
dom of Apollo, and the immediacy of the life of Dionysus, the poetic madness wou
ld be the work of the first and second erotic. If the investigation of the origi
ns of wisdom in ancient Greece leads in the direction of the Delphic oracle (...
) mania is presented as more primary to the bottom of the phenomenon of divinati
on. Madness is the parent of wisdom. " Rather go to the limits, to find and see
what happens there, stick to them, to warn the strange logic of his two sides: t
he co-belonging in the limit, as well as the asymmetry of the two areas which li
mit unites and separates, as the same and that. Know where it ends and begins th
e same thing the other is the minimum condition of knowing, or projecting the kn
own into the unknown, covering it with ghosts that prevent the emergence of diff
erences. hubris, excess to avoid the limits is to fail, neglect or surpass them,
at risk of straying into madness. The sage has to be situated on the edge, know
ing both sides, looking out the other, to interpret their signals and make light
in the darkness.
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The "Know thyself Delphic is played is played well by Heraclitus:" Going all the
way will not get to find in your career, the limits of the soul so profound log
os you have. " What to do to be between the limits? How can you listen to the Lo
gos of the soul?
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