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CONTENTS

DISTRIBUTION ................................................ ..................


........................... 01 Distribution System. ............................
...................... .......................... .................... 02 · WITH
LUMBRERAS .................................................. ..................
.... 02 ....................... · WITH ROTARY VALVE ............................
...................... ........ 03 · TO SIDE IN BLOCK VALVES ...................
............... ..................... 03 · overhead valve (IN STOCK) ...........
....... DISTRIBUTION .................................... 04 ......... Multivalv
e butts ............................................ 06 · TWO HEAD VALVE CYLINDE
R BY ................................................ ........ 06 · HEAD WITH th
ree valves per cylinder .................................. ................... 0
7 · HEAD WITH four valves per cylinder ....................... .................
......... 07 · HEAD WITH VALVES PER CYLINDER FIVE ................ .............
...................... 09 elements of the ...... DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ...........
........... 10 · CAMSHAFT ....................... ..............................
.................... ................... 10 · ELEVATION DIAGRAMS, velocity and a
cceleration ...................... ...... ......................................
... 15 · PUSHER .................................................. .... ........
.................................. 17 · hydraulic tappets ......................
........ ................ 22 · pushrod .........................................
......... ............................. .................. 26 · ROCKER .........
......................................... CONTROL SYSTEMS ................... 27
GAME BETWEEN THE CAMS AND VALVE ............ .... 27 "Valvular ................
.................................. .............................................
... 29 · VALVE SPRINGS FOR .............................................. Desmod
romic CONTROL ............................ 32 ................... ..............
.................................... 35 CONTROL SYSTEMS DISTRIBUTION ...........
................................ GEARS ............. ...........................
...... 35 ° .................................................. ........ 35 ° FOR
WARDING TREE .................................... ..............................
................ 36 · BY CHAIN .................................................
. ................................................ 37 · ........................
....................... toothed belt .................................... 38 · C
OMBINATION OF TWO DIFFERENT SYSTEMS ....... ....................................
...... 39 · BELT AND SPROCKETS ... .............................................
..... ................................ 39 · CHAIN AND GEARS ............. ......
............................................ DIAGRAM ................ 40 ANGULAR
DISTRIBUTION OF A FOUR-STROKE ENGINE ..... 41 · INTERPRETATION OF DISTRIBUTION
DIAGRAMS ........ STUDY ....................... 44 DIAGRAM OF A PRESSURE-VOLUME
OTTO CYCLE ENGINE .......... 46 · ADMISSION. ...................................
............... .................................................. .............
.................................. 47 × COMPRESSION ............................
...................... ............................................... 49 · EXPL
OSION .................................................. ... 50 ° USEFUL WORK ..
......................................... ......................................
............ ............................................ ... 51 ° Exhaust .....
............................................. 52 ...........
CONTENTS
DISTRIBUTION OF VARIABLE GEOMETRY ..............................................
53 · .............. ............................... PHASE INVERTER ............
...................................... ........ 53 · OPERATION PHASE CLOSED (FC)
................................. .................... 54 · OPERATION PHASE OPE
N (FA) ..................... .................................. 54 ........... T
IGHTENING OF THE STOCK .................................................. ......
.................. 55 STARTING PROCEDURE PHASE .................... ............
................................. 56 CONTROL AND RECOVERY VALVE KIT ............
................................ 60
DISTRIBUTION
Distribution in a heat engine, is the set of elements that, properly synchronize
d with the rotation of the crank handle to open or close the valves so that the
mixture in the combustion engine and air, diesel engine, entering the cylinder a
t the right time and the burned gas, once used,€flow outward.
Section of the distribution system of an engine
The distribution plays an important role when the calculation of a motor, which
is responsible among other things to maximize the thermal efficiency of the engi
ne and, in turn, the minimum fuel consumption and lower pollutant emissions . Th
erefore, the computation of the exact time of the valve opening, and the time or
degrees of rotation of the crankshaft must remain open, is the result of numero
us studies and tests.
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
-Con-Con-Con-Con ports (two stroke). rotary valve. side valve block. valve head
(the head).
WITH LUMBRERAS
In the two-stroke engines, the admission of the mixture and the burned exhaust g
ases are not done through the valves but through a series of holes in the cylind
er, properly sealed by the piston itself, allows it to meets the distribution (2
-stroke engine).
Admission time of the mixture in the crankcase and compression
Explosion and Expansion
Escape and precompression
Transfer the mixture and sweep
WITH ROTARY VALVE
Also known rotating disk. In some two-stroke high performance, the admission of
the mixture into the crankcase is achieved through a disc integral with the cran
kshaft seals or not the inlet.
Distribution with rotary valve
In these drawings are collected the most significant examples of rotary valve di
sc. The first example concerns a valve mounted directly on the crankshaft, while
others require an auxiliary shaft. Is indicated in red and green rotating disk
flow carbureted mixture.
SIDE WITH THE BLOCK VALVE
On engines with side valves, all organs of the distribution are within the block
. The camshaft, driven by a sprocket chain or several cylindrical, usually with
helical teeth to reduce noise, directly control valves equipped with a push of a
mechanical system to regulate gambling operation.
1.Válvula. 2.Guía valve. 3.Reglaje. 4.Empujador. 5.Excéntrica.
Valve-side
Overhead valve (IN STOCK)
In the overhead valve engines, the camshaft can be mounted in the block as in th
e stock. If the camshaft is mounted on the block, the motion is transmitted to t
he valves through a pusher, a rod and a rocker arm system equipped with a mechan
ical adjustment or a hydraulic ram.
1.Reglaje. 2ej swing. 3.Balancín. 4.Varilla. 5.Empujador. 6.Excéntrica.
Distribution overhead valve
If the tree (or trees) cam is located in the butt, possible solutions are many a
nd very different. The camshaft may be unique 1ACT = 1 Tree Command in Testa di
(SOHC, English Single Over Head Camshaft = a camshaft in the cylinder head) or d
ouble cylinder 2ACT (English DOHC Double Over Head Camshaft = double shaft cams
on the stock), in which case a tree controls the intake valves and the other the
exhaust. 1ACT type distribution is also called mono-tree, called biárbol of 2AC
T.
`
Distribution aligned with two valves, control mono-direct tree
Distribution with two valves in direct command and V with two trees
The latter two systems are the most currently used in the construction of engine
s for the car.
CYLINDER HEADS WITH DISTRIBUTION Multivalve
The item that particularly characterizes the shape and structure of the cylinder
heads is the number and position of the valves. Currently, engine valves in the
cylinder head are constructed of two to five valves per cylinder.
HEAD OF two valves per cylinder
It is the most used. The valves are aligned if the camshaft is located in the bl
ock, if you are in the stock valves can be aligned, if the distribution is a sin
gle axis (Fig. 45), or available in V, if the distribution is with a tree with s
wings, or two trees (Fig. 46).
Distribution Dib.45 aligned with two valves, control direct monoárbol
Distribution Dib.46 V with two valves, control direct biárbol
WITH STOCK three valves per cylinder
Allows better volumetric efficiency at high engine speeds, at a cost somewhere b
etween two and four valves per cylinder. The distribution can be two trees (Fig.
47) or a rocker only (Fig. 48).
Distribution Dib.47 three V-valve direct command with two trees
Distribution Dib.48 V with three valves and control with rocker with a tree
WITH HEAD four valves per cylinder
Is the solution that is being used in high performance engines and recently prod
uced (Fig. 49). Enables high volumetric efficiency and high engine speeds, but t
he power at low speeds is worse. This problem is reduced by using modular manifo
lds (variable length and capacity) and variable phase. It is more expensive than
the previous.
Distribution with four valves in V with direct command with two trees
In the distribution with two trees, the position of the spark plug is vertical i
n the center of the combustion chamber through the valves (Fig. 50), in distribu
tion with a tree with swings, the spark plug is also central, but is inclined to
not interfere with the camshaft (Fig. 51).
Section Dib.50 spark a four-valve cylinder head with direct control and distribu
tion with two trees
Section Dib.51 plug cylinder head with four valves and a single tree with swings
Under these heads the valves are aligned in pairs and the two couples are placed
in V, forming an angle of 35 º to 45 º between them, the combustion chamber is
more compact. There are also solutions where the valves have a radial position,
thus optimizing the shape of the combustion chamber, but the drive mechanism is
much more complex.
FIVE HEAD WITH VALVES FOR CYLINDER
This solution is very little used, which yields high volumetric raw, but with hi
gh costs. This solution is used on some motorcycles and some racing engines for
Formula 1 (Fig. 52). In the five-valve cylinder head distribution is always two
trees of the three intake valves, the plant is less inclined than the side, so t
hey can be controlled with the same axis. Clearly in this case the advantage of
using hydraulic tappets.
Distribution Dib.52 with five valves in V, with direct drive two-axis
Components of Distribution System
The elements of the distribution system are basically as follows:-Camshaft. -Pus
hers. Pusher-rod. -Rocker. -Regulating system the valve clearance. -Valves. -Spr
ings for the valves.
CAMSHAFT
The camshaft or camshaft engine is the body that controls the opening and closin
g the intake and exhaust. It consists of an axis of forged carbon steel and ceme
nted in which the cams are machined for valve opening and others to give movemen
t to other organs. The camshaft receives motion from the crankshaft.
Camshaft
The eccentric cams or cause an oscillatory movement of the element causing the v
alve opening. The element that causes the opening of the valve, when subjected t
o a linear motion of translation, is called a pusher.
Transformation of the circular movement of the reciprocating pusher cam
1.Excéntricas. 2.Supports.
Camshaft
When at the same time fulfilling a rocking motion of rotation around an axis or
fulcrum, rocker takes its name.
Transformation of the circular motion of the oscillating rocker cam
The camshaft controls the valves opening and closing guide, as each valve follow
s the cam profile by the action of one or two concentric springs.
Closure of the cam-driven valve
The draft camshaft the most delicate phase represents the eccentric design. In f
act, the profile of these determines the timing of valve openings, opening times
and lift them (by determining the distribution chart.)
Profile of an eccentric cam
The profiles of the cams for the intake valves are often different to those for
the exhaust cams. The cam profile is divided into three parts: "A circular outli
ne which is defined as lying area that corresponds to the closing of the valve (
which is part of the base circle). "A circular line of smaller radius, called th
e head of the cam, which corresponds to the zone of maximum openness. "Two strai
ght or curved lines tangent to two circles before (base-maximum aperture), calle
d cam flanks which correspond to the rise and fall of the valve (open-close valv
e). The rest area is reduced to a certain value to allow for some operating clea
rance between the valve and the pusher, so in an expansion of this area due to o
perating temperatures. The circular outline binds reduced, therefore, with the e
dges of the cam ramps through approach, so as to minimize the
clash between the cam and the pusher, ensuring quiet operation.
Areas of a cam profile
In the four-stroke engines the camshaft rotates at half the crankshaft turns. Th
e valve starts and completes its movement in opening and closing rotation of the
camshaft during a working cycle equivalent to two turns of the crankshaft. The
angular position of the camshaft with respect to the crankshaft is determined at
the time of assembly with the development of the distribution. The transmission
of movement to the tappet or rocker is always accompanied by vibrations at high
engine speeds, are particularly important because it profoundly alter the law o
f motion that determines the cam and can cause breakage of valves, springs, rock
ers, etc. The operating noise is an index of such vibrations. Finally it is note
d that many systems have been studied distribution providing employment variable
cam phase, to extend the operating range of the engine getting maintain a high
percentage of maximum engine torque over a wider speed range.
ELEVATION DIAGRAMS, velocity and acceleration
The elevation and timing of valve opening defined in the diagram of the distribu
tion, taking into account the kinematic chain between the cam and valve, are obt
ained by giving the appropriate profile and dimension to the cam.
H. Elevation of the cam.
Cam Profile
Theoretically, you get maximum results if it can instantly open and close valves
and held in maximum lift position during the entire period of intake and exhaus
t. The valves open and close change gradually due to mechanical stress, the size
of the return springs and to reduce operating noise. Therefore eccentric used t
o a certain form when the valves open as possible, start the tour is closed. Con
sequently, the diagram of valve lift depending on the angle of rotation of the c
am is of the type shown in the drawing.
February 1 March 4
-5 -4 -3 -2
Acceleration Acceleration Acceleration Acceleration
positive. negative. positive. negative.
Lift Chart
The valve begins to open in correspondence of a point when there is no clearance
between the eccentric and the powertrain. During the displacement of contact po
int 1 to 2, the valve movement accelerates (positive acceleration), while point
2 to 3 is stopped (negative acceleration), indeed the speed of the valve goes fr
om zero at the point a maximum value at the point 2 and then released at point 3
where the negative acceleration reaches its maximum value. The same happens whe
n you close the valve. Establishing an appropriate acceleration diagram through
a series of calculations, you can get the diagram of valve lift which is obtaine
d after the eccentric profile.
1.Aceleraciones. 3.Elevaciones 2.Velocidad
Diagram of elevation, velocity and acceleration
This method has the advantage that the preset acceleration inertia is defined al
so to be developed in the movement of the entire kinematic chain of distribution
. This is very important to study the vibrations of the powertrain, which is a n
oise problem of the distribution, the effective implementation of the planned li
fting of the valve and hence the volumetric efficiency of the engine. In fact, h
igh regimes can happen because of the elasticity of the various bodies that make
up the kinematic chain of distribution and burdens of the docks and inertia, th
e movement of the valve is not anticipated, according to shape of the eccentric.
You can reduce the intensity of these phenomena to explore ways and values of t
he eccentric accelerations imposed on the powertrain.
PUSHER
It is one of the elements interposed between the cam and valve stem. The pusher
also called tappets are cylindrical glasses that have the mission of transformin
g rotary motion into linear motion cam, shifting the valve directly or indirectl
y through auxiliary mechanisms.
Adjustment 1.Tornillo .. 2ej rocker. 3.Balancín. 4.Varilla. 5.Empujador. 6.Excén
trica.
Pusher block provisions
1.Excéntrica. 2.Espesor adjustment. 3.Empujador.
Pusher direct drive cup
Hydraulic pusher finger-rocker
1.Excéntrica. 2.Balancín. 3. Hydraulic pusher.
Hydraulic swing pusher
1. Adjustment. 2. Rocker. 3. Eccentric.
Pusher Beam indirect control
Hydraulic pusher-cup
In each of the systems identified the pusher has a mission to absorb the side th
rust generated by contact with the cam. Due to good lubrication conditions betwe
en, this lateral thrust is reduced.
Lateral thrust
Normally used in pusher car engine are substantially flat surface and are made o
f hard cast iron, hardened, nitrided cemented or later. To prevent sliding cam p
rovided on the same site, which could result in wear, the center of the pusher i
s slightly off-center of the cam, thereby obtaining a twisting motion.
1. 2.
Pusher Axle Shaft cam
Thruster axis deviation to facilitate their rotation
The expansion of the organs of the distribution in the different operating tempe
rature fields are not uniform: the valve stem expands in a different magnitude t
han the structure around it by having different expansion coefficients and forci
ng it to leave a a game to prevent the closing of the valves rest on the body of
your drive, rather than relying on his seat, causing the lack of sealing requir
ed.
Internal clearance
By contrast, at the opening, the contact between plunger and valve can not be do
ne with zero forward speed, the presence of that game, but with a bang by produc
ing the characteristic sound of tappet noise, the sound will increase over the g
reater the game is above the value given by the manufacturer. In correspondence
of the existing game, the valve opening is delayed a certain angle and similarly
anticipated the closure will result if the game exceeds the prescribed value an
d engine performance will be reduced by not complied with the diagram of the dis
tribution.
Lack of engine performance by an incorrect setting of the valves
Hydraulic tappets
Pushers or tappets have the task of connecting the valve stem with the respectiv
e eccentric cam. In the event of hydraulic tappet, cups are made automatically r
etrieve mode the game between the valve stem and the cam with the advantage of r
educing "maintenance interventions. "The engine noise level.
OPEN STAGE OPERATION
Hydraulic Pusher
When the cam shaft acts on the glass (1) and therefore the plunger (2), the oil
trapped in the chamber (6), closing the ball valve (4), transmits the movement o
f the piston (2) directly to the sleeve (3) and therefore to the valve. At this
stage, due to the high pressure that is subject, of the oil in the chamber (6),
filtered through a minimum port between the piston (2) and sleeve (3).
2.Pistón 1.Taza 3.Manguito 4.Válvula a sphere inside 6.Cámara 5.Resorte
Hydraulic Tappet: download phase
CLOSED PHASE OPERATION
At the closing of the valve, so that the pusher, due to the action of the spring
(5), follow the cam profile, it creates a vacuum inside the chamber (6) causing
the opening of the ball valve (4), allowing the entry of oil. The oil that ente
rs the camera (6) replaced the filtering into the upstream opening of the valve.
2.Pistón 1.Taza 3.Manguito 4.Válvula a sphere inside 6.Cámara 5.Resorte
Hydraulic Tappet: load step
As seen so far, it is understood that when operating the lever or the rocker arm
on the pusher, for the property of incompressibility of liquids, oil acts as a
transmitter of the movement and it can not flow outward by the action of valve.
The thermal expansion of the system are offset by the strictly calculated oil le
aks between the piston and the body of the pusher. When the pusher is mounted di
rectly on the tail of the valve, the greater weight of the ram against a normal,
limiting the maximum number of rpm the engine to have more inertia hydraulic pu
sher. The hydraulic tappets can be:-Fixed mounted on the head and form a lever w
ith a finger-shaped swing. -Mobile, mounted between the camshaft and a rocker or
instead of a push type cup, in the case of direct control.
1. 1. 2.
Pusher. Rocker. Eccentric.
Hydraulic pusher finger-shaped rocker
1. 2. 3.
Eccentric. Pusher. Rocker.
Hydraulic swing pusher
1. 2.
Eccentric. Pusher.
Hydraulic pusher-cup
The possibility of eliminating periodic adjustment and less noise due to the abs
ence of slack are the advantages of hydraulic ram and a little noisy particularl
y useful in multi-valve engines.
Pushrod
The pushrod is an intermediate element which is mounted between the pusher and t
he rocker, his mission is to translate the linear motion of pusher to swing for
it to transform it into oscillation. They are constructed of carbon steel or spe
cial alloys including titanium, in order to lighten its weight and avoid the ine
rtia.
Pusher rod and rocker.
ROCKER
Their mission is to transform the linear motion of pusher or possibly circular c
am with an oscillating movement which directly drives the valve. They are usuall
y constructed of steel or aluminum alloy. At one end there is usually a device f
or regulating the valve clearances.
Different types of swings
CONTROL SYSTEMS OF THE GAME BETWEEN THE CAMS AND VALVES
To regulate the functioning game there are different procedures depending on the
drive system used. The manual control system may be of two types: indirect-driv
e: In this case, acting on an adjusting screw located on the swing or at the pus
her.
Different adjustment screw systems.
Direct Action: In this case the adjustment is made with thicknesses of various m
easures interposed between the cam and the pusher, or between the plunger and va
lve.
Through thickness adjustment
Using the hydraulic tappet is removed from the game between the valve and the pu
sher, significantly reducing the noise characteristic of tappets. Therefore adju
stment between the valve and the push is done automatically due to oil pressure
engine lubrication. The hydraulic tappets can be mounted in the same way that a
normal ram.
VALVES
Valves
The valves of internal combustion engines are the organs that control the intake
and exhaust of gases in the combustion chamber by opening and closing. They hav
e a reciprocating motion, opening into the combustion chamber. A watertight clos
ure is facilitated by the pressure of the gases in the combustion chamber which
influence them.
The pressure rise occurs when the piston during compression favors the closing o
f the valves
The valve is a mushroom-shaped piece, in which the head cap or valve is the seal
ing element. The surface of its outer edge (top of valve seat) is of conical sha
pe to improve the seal, this area is based on the stock seat also has a conical
shape and is duly rectified at an angle slightly less than valve head, achieving
improved sealing closure between the two elements during operation.
Taper of the valve and seat
The head is integral with the rod or tail of the valve with a wide range of unio
n to reduce the effect of the notch and thereby facilitate the flow of heat to t
he stem itself. This last element is cylindrical and serves to guide the movemen
t and transmit to the head load spring return, through the cotters fixing one or
more grooves located at the end.
1.Semiconos. 2.Platillo superior. 3.Muelle. 4.Platillo lower.
Valve and springs cotters
The end of the rod surface is flat and is hardened or is built with other materi
als, since it must support the push for openness.
Different types of valves
Valves during operation are subject to a solicitation heat too high and must wit
hstand the temperatures generated during combustion and an average temperature o
f work of about 700 º to 800 º C in the exhaust valve and 200 º to 300 º C in th
e valve admission. The intake valves are usually made of steel and chrome-silico
n steel in the exhaust chrome - nickel is a more heat-resistant material. The va
lve seats are coated with Stellite is an alloy of cobalt and chromium, to increa
se resistance to wear. In high performance engines exhaust valves in order to im
prove cooling, are made hollow and filled with sodium.
Cooled exhaust valve Sodium
Because of good thermal conductivity of sodium is achieved that the heat of the
head of the valve is best to evacuate the shaft, thereby avoiding hot spots in t
he combustion chamber and thus obtaining a reduction in thermal solicitation.€Th
e valves are cooled much better if the diameter is small (less the surface being
exposed to exhaust gases to the surface of contact with his seat) and the lengt
h of the guide and the shank are larger (the be greater the heat transfer surfac
e).
Heat dissipation
This is one reason why the exhaust valves are smaller in diameter than the inlet
. It is therefore better to use two exhaust valves for a single larger diameter.
The valve receives heat from the hot gases is dissipated by 75% per seat and 25
% by the guide.
VALVE SPRING FOR
The spring is a mechanical element that can store energy due to the elastic prop
erties of the material that has been manufactured. Whatever the shape and materi
al of the spring, their behavior is highlighted by its characteristic curve, whi
ch expresses the relationship between applied load and deformation to the dock i
t will produce.
Valve spring
Their mission is to close the valves and cam keep them closed while not open. Th
ey must be strong enough so that the closing is effected as soon as possible and
to avoid the rebound valve. If, however, are extremely strong, the valves tend
to dig in their seats. The valve springs are used for the helical type and are m
ounted with a certain load. They are constructed, given the high mechanical stre
sses to which they are tested with high quality special steels. The valve spring
s are usually polished to remove stretch marks, which may cause fatigue failure.
In the sections where the acceleration is positive, ie the ram increase speed,
inertia opposes this motion and therefore adds to the loading dock, which starts
to compress. Conversely, where the acceleration is negative, the ram is slowed,
the momentum favors the movement of the pusher. This force must be under spring
load must maintain contact with cam pusher. So you have to size the valve sprin
g for maximum speed of rotation of the motor, the inertia varies with the square
of the angular velocity, and therefore it increases with increasing while loadi
ng dock, to be proportional compression remains constant for a given valve lift.
In engines that spin at high rpm level, rapid changes in acceleration caused by
the levy imposed, because of the elasticity and resonance of the springs along
with the masses in motion, floating the valves (valve bounce) prevented from clo
sure at the time preset by the distribution diagram, or even touch the valve hea
d
schemes piston engine revs high. To avoid this, spring is mounted concentrically
to a second pier thinner but with the winding in the opposite direction opposit
e to the vibrations produced by it, absorb the vibrations of the main spring, th
us preventing the valves and floating .
Internal spring with winding in the opposite direction to absorb vibrations of t
he outer dock.
The vibrations of the powertrain also influence the docks. In fact, when a sprin
g is loaded slowly, equally affects all turns. If the load is rapidly changing t
he spring (impulse load), because of the inertia of the coils, the deformation i
s greater in the part where the load is applied and transmitted to the coils adj
acent to the opposite end.
A. Pier no load. B. Successive deformations of the spring loaded with momentum.
Valve spring vibration
This can cause breakage of the spring and is reduced to acceptable levels by cal
culating the dimensions of the dock promptly, adopting double springs with varia
ble distance between each turn.
Desmodromic DRIVE
To operate the valves to a higher number of revolutions of the motor drives are
often used desmodromic where to dispense with the standard spring valve, the mov
ement of them is linked to a mechanism, being forced to close as a mechanical ,
which gives no alternative.
Desmodromic distribution control
CONTROL SYSTEMS DISTRIBUTION
The control system of distribution depends essentially on the position of the ca
mshaft, the possibility of constructive and physical space. The systems are used
in engines, "Spur. "In forwarding tree. -In chain. "The timing belt. "With the
combination of two different systems.
BY GEAR
In systems of gears are used whenever a pinion integral with the crankshaft and
at least one integral with the camshaft with double the number of teeth on the c
rankshaft. You can also use a powertrain gear, this is sometimes used to give mo
vement to various subsidiary bodies (oil pump, pump, servo-direction, diesel inj
ection pump, etc.).
To achieve greater uniformity and lower noise level in the operation, the teeth
of helical gears is for even further decrease the noise level can be mounted in
synthetic fibers manufactured, provided that the torque transmission is not very
high.
Command distribution gear
FORWARDING BY TREE
The system by forwarding tree is commonly used in engines to reduce moving parts
and avoid the drawbacks alternative dimensional other drive. It consists of an
axis perpendicular to the crankshaft, which receives and transmits the movement
through a few gears.
Control system of distribution by forwarding tree
CHAIN
The control system of the distribution roller chain is used to transmit motion t
o the camshaft, to adapt better to the physical space of the engine to operate i
n addition to several subsidiary bodies at a time. When the chain length is rela
tively long is coupled to maintain a constant tensor tensiónde operation. The ch
ain is tensioned by an adjustable spring or by pressure of the lubricant (hydrau
lic tensioner).
Control system of the distribution chain
The elasticity of the chain itself and the film of lubricating oil tend to absor
b shock and vibration. The load is spread over several teeth of the pinion, whic
h means less wear. The string may be double-row (duplex chain) or the silent typ
e (string morse).
Control system of the distribution chain
Toothed belt
Distribution belts were introduced by their greater simplicity of construction a
nd the reduced operating noise. They are made of molded neoprene inner reinforce
ment fiber and coated with a friction-resistant fabric. The fibers ensure longit
udinal stability, neoprene is the elastic portion of the teeth, while the coatin
g serves to protect the belt. There are of single or double-toothed gear teeth,
if the dorsal part of the belt controls certain engine accessories (shafts syste
m).
Shafts system
Also in this system, are mounted belt tensioners to maintain the proper tension
during operation, the tension of these can be controlled by a dynamometer, by sp
rings morons (two systems being blocked in the assembly of the belt) or the oil
pressure engine lubrication circuit.
Control system of distribution by toothed belt
Are currently riding a tensioning systems starting from a predetermined loading
dock, can maintain a constant tension to the belt during their lifetime.
COMBINATION OF TWO DIFFERENT SYSTEMS BELT AND SPROCKETS
Sometimes in distribution with two trees, the belt moves only one axis, while th
e movement is transmitted to another tree by gears or a chain. This arrangement
is advantageous when the camshafts are very close to each other because of the s
mall angle between the valves. In this case, in fact, the use of two outside whe
els necessarily small diameter to avoid interference between them, requires the
adoption of a pinion on the crankshaft diameter too small, not compatible with t
he characteristics of the belt. The same applies to the command string.
1.Engranaje abroad. 2.Correa gear. Internal 3.Engranajes. 4.Árboles cam.
Distribution control forwarding internal gears
CHAIN AND GEARS
In this system the drive from the crankshaft to the intake camshaft is provided
by a string, while the transmission between the intake camshaft and exhaust is d
one by means of a gear.
1.Engranaje driven. 2.Engranaje driver. 3.Patín mobile. 4.Patín fixed. 5.Cadena
distribution.
Chain Control by
Forwarding by gears
DIAGRAM OF THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF A FOUR-STROKE ENGINE
A graph which represent the angles of opening and closing the valves of an engin
e. It is a pie chart which represent the angles of rotation of the crankshaft, r
eferring to dead piston, during which remain open: the intake valve and / or exh
aust valve.
Diagram of the distribution of a four-stroke Otto engine
In an ideal cycle of operation during opening and closing of the valves coincide
with the arrival of the piston to dead. In practice it is necessary for some ti
me that the valve can be opened or closed completely. Moreover, the diagram open
ing inlet valve always studied to allow maximum cylinder filling at a certain sp
eed of rotation of the crankshaft (crankshaft rpm). It is therefore necessary to
anticipate the start of the opening phase for the PMS (Advance of Opening Admis
sion valve AAA) so that the valve is sufficiently open, having already begun the
aspiration of the mixture when the piston begins to descend. Instead, the valve
closure is delayed with respect to PMI (Delay Closing the intake valve RCA), in
order to exploit the inertia of the mixture (which continues to enter even when
the piston begins to rise), the faster the motor turns, the greater is the iner
tia of the mixture and the greater should be the delay in the closure of the val
ve.
Advance of the opening of the intake and delay the closure of admission
Similarly, the exhaust valve begins to open before the piston has reached the PM
I (Advance of Opening Escape valve EPA). This development determines the decreas
e in pressure allows the piston cylinder and expel gases more easily burned. The
release also is enhanced by the fact that the valve when the exhaust phase begi
ns, is now fully open. The valve is closed with a delay compared to PMS (Close D
elay Escape valve CERs) and this enables you to maximize the inertia of the comb
ustion gases.
Advancement of the exhaust opening and exhaust closing delay
Therefore, close to TDC there is a short time in which both valves are open. At
this time the depression in the exhaust manifold favors the evacuation of combus
tion gases and facilitates the entry of the inlet of the fresh mixture or air, d
epending on what type of engine concerned. The angle for the arc of the diagram
in which both valves are open is called crossover valves.
Cross Valve
The values of progress and delay in opening and closing of the valves depends on
the type of engine and its intended use. An engine designed to develop maximum
power at high speed systems, you need a larger valve cross an engine that develo
ps maximum power at low speeds.
Much crossing
Shortly crossing
A highly cross-distribution, allows systems to work well high, it causes partial
reflux of the mixture in the inlet at low revs. Furthermore, prolonged opening
of the throttle provokes a low revs, pumping power losses, reduced turbulence in
the combustion chamber and low air flow velocity in the intake duct.
INTERPRETATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION DIAGRAMS
The advancement and delay in opening and closing valves can be measured at angle
s of rotation of the crankshaft with respect to the position of the piston and w
ith reference to the handle, in correspondence with the top and bottom dead cent
ers. Angles are set as follows: "AAA: The angle of advance of the opening of the
intake valve with respect to PMS -RCA: Angle of delayed closure of the intake v
alve with respect to PMI
Positions of the crank and piston corresponding to the beginning and end of the
stage of admission
-EPA: The angle of advance of the opening of the exhaust valve with respect to P
MI -RCE: Angle of delayed closure of the valve with respect to PMS
Positions of the crank and piston corresponding to the beginning and end of the
exhaust phase
A. B. C. D.
Home admission. Final admission. Home escape. Final escape.
Diagram of the distribution of a four-stroke Otto engine
On the distribution diagram depicted know the degrees of rotation of the cranksh
aft for opening and closing the valves. Looking at the diagram we see that the i
ntake valve is open 250 degrees of rotation of the crankshaft, because: The prog
ression of the intake valve opening is done before TDC 9th and delay closing the
intake valve occurs after the PMI 61st If we add the 9th of improvement on the
P.M.S. + 180 º turn from it to P.M.I. + 61 º delayed respect to PMI, the total a
ngle of opening of the intake valve is 250 º. If we add the degrees that rotates
the crankshaft since the intake valve closes,€note that until it reaches the P.
M.S. has traveled 119 º (180 º +61 º = 119 º), plus 131 degrees from the PMS up
to 49 º before P.M.I. (180 º +49 º = 131 º) at which time the exhaust valve begi
ns to open. Summing these values have a tour of the crankshaft angle of 250 º. S
imilarly since the exhaust valve opens 49 ° before BDC, until it closes 21 ° aft
er TDC, the crankshaft rotates 250 degrees: If we add the 49 th of progress with
respect to PMI + 180 ° from it until P.M.S. + 21 º delayed respect to PMS, the
total angle of opening of the exhaust valve is 250 º. The sum of the angles of p
rogress in opening the intake valve and delay in closing the exhaust valve angle
is called crossover. Therefore in this diagram crossing angle valve opening is
the sum of 9 of progress compared to PMS intake valve delay + 21 º to closing wi
th respect to PMS exhaust valve, this being 30 degrees.
DIAGRAM OF PRESSURE-VOLUME STUDY OF OTTO CYCLE ENGINE
In a Cartesian diagram (drawing which graphically represents something, in this
case pressures and volumes of the internal combustion engine) is shown in the x-
axis (horizontal line) values of different eldesplazamiento volumes generated by
the piston, and Ordinate (vertical line) for different values of the pressures
that are formed inside the cylinder during the various stages of operation. Diag
ram is also called dynamic, because the area drawn cycle represents the total us
eful work generated inside the cylinder. Thus, the more cylinder filling and com
pression ratio engine has more area and cycle described above, therefore, the wo
rk available in the output shaft made for each complete cycle.
Handy chart area
Linking distribution diagram above, regarding the movement of the crank rod asse
mbly is formed we will see pressure-volume diagram at different stages of operat
ion of a motor.
ADMISSION
Admission Phase
In the pie chart above the intake valve opens 9th before the piston reaches TDC.
These degrees of crankshaft rotation are represented in the graph by the line a
b dynamic point AAA (Advance Admission Opening). In the next 180 ° of rotation o
f the crankshaft, piston travel over from the PMS the MIP is formed inside a cyl
inder below atmospheric pressure (depression). These grades are represented by t
he line bc in PivotChart. Over the next 61 ° of rotation of the crankshaft (RCA,
Delay Closure of admission) pressure increases, reflected in the line cd PivotD
iagram because of the inertia of the intake gases continued flow even when the p
iston of the PMI , the PMS.
COMPRESSION
Compression phase
After closing the inlet valve and the exhaust will also be closed during the 119
º of crankshaft rotation (dark green) to the PMS, the compression is done in th
e PivotChart represented by the stroke.
EXPLOSION
Time of the explosion
During compression, a few degrees before the piston reaches TDC, calculated by t
he ignition, the spark plug thus resulting in the explosion, showing a nearly in
stantaneous increase in pressure (Point 1 in the pivot chart on stroke). The cra
nkshaft makes a turn that will depend on the degree of spark advance with respec
t to PMS PivotChart represented in the line 1-e yellow.
USEFUL WORK
Work Phase
Once the piston reaches the P.M.S. and begins its race to the PMI, the gas press
ure still pushes it continues to grow as they move to PMI. At this stage the cra
nkshaft rotates 131 degrees, represented by the dynamic graph mauve line ef.
ESCAPE
Phase exhaust
With an advance of 49 ° to the PMI, the exhaust valve begins to open getting a d
ischarge pressure of the cylinder to the exhaust, so that at the stroke from the
PMI to P.M.S. find less resistance by the residual pressure of combustion gases
(curve fg). During the 180 th following the piston pushes the gas to the outsid
e by ensuring that they acquire a considerable inertia in the exhaust duct (trac
e gh). After P.M.S. valve still open 21 ° (trace hi) to take advantage of the in
ertia of the exhaust gases along with the admission, obtaining a sweep of the co
mbustion chamber and more complete.
DISTRIBUTION OF VARIABLE GEOMETRY FOR PHASE INVERTER
Distribution in an internal combustion engine represents a compromise between th
e requirements of a good performance at low speeds and high performance high vol
ume systems. To adapt the distribution diagram of a particular engine and get th
ese requirements phase inverters are used.
Phase inverter
There are different types of variable phase, which is normally used modifies the
phase of intake camshaft between two values, altering the angular position of t
he tree, set a few degrees with respect to gear drag. The control system of vari
able valve timing is managed by an electronic unit (usually the injection system
), depending on the load and the system required the engine.
3.Muelle sliding 2.Válvula 1.Electroimán antagonist. 4.Pistón. 5.Piñón. 6.Árbol
cam. 7.Muelle antagonist.
Phase inverter
OPERATION PHASE CLOSED (FC)
When you need a closed phase (idle and maximum power zone), the electromagnet (1
) is not excited, therefore the slide valve (2) pushed by the pressure spring (3
), remains high, preventing the oil coming through the duct (A) to reach the dri
ve. In this case the phasing of the intake valves remains unchanged (closed).
OPERATION PHASE OPEN (FA)
When you need open phase (top pair media systems), the electromagnet (1) is exci
ted, thus pushing down the slide valve (2). In this position, the oil through th
e conduit (A), enters the chamber (B) of the piston and from there through a spe
cific hole, get to the duct (C) internal to the plunger. The oil can only leave
that tube through the top hole (in communication with the conduit (D) shipping o
il to the drive), since the bottom hole to lower the slide valve (2), is not in
communication with the discharge line (E).
Oil through the conduit (D) and (F) reaches the chamber (G) thrust toward the en
gine, the piston (4) that have helical teeth on the outside is forced to rotate
clockwise. Its rotation is transmitted through a grooved profile straight teeth,
the pinion (5), screwed into the threaded neck of the camshaft (6), transmits t
he rotation to the tree, varying from 25 ° engine and commissioning phase the in
take valves. To energize the electromagnet, the valve housing (2) returns to its
starting position, stopping the flow of pressurized oil to the piston (4), but
allowing the oil return to the download, thanks to the boost pressure spring (7)
. The duct (L) allows grease the bolt of the camshaft at different operating co
nditions. The oil reaches the infiltration chamber (H) of the coil is discharged
through the drain line (E).
TIGHTENING OF THE STOCK
Put the stock centering sleeves in the block. Replace a new cylinder head gasket
in its seat. The head gasket is of type Astadur. The material is manufactured u
ndergoes polymerization during engine operation, thus significantly hardens with
use. To produce the polymerization of the meeting is necessary: "Keep the board
sealed in its packaging until installation. "No grease or oil stain seal and co
ntact surfaces. 1. Place the cylinder into 1 P.M.S. 2. Mount the head on the blo
ck, ensuring that the cylinder valve 1 are closed. 3. Tighten the screws to spec
ified torque (1a) of the stock using the tool (1b) for tightening angle. 4. For
each tightening sequence, follow the order shown in the figure. The value of 4.0
daNm should apply a torque to 2.0 daNm first and then increase 2.0 daNm pair to
reach the nominal value of 4.0 daNm.
Value for tightening cylinder head bolts (daNm) + ángulo3.0 + 90 ° + 90 ° + 90 °
SETTING THE STAGE PROCEDURE
The phasing procedure of the organs of the distribution can not be generalized t
o all types of motor view the different characteristics of each engine. Here is
just a procedure by way of example, specific references to the need to use the t
echnical manual of the car.
1.Montar the instrument (1a), complete with proximate comparator (1b) in the sea
t of the spark plug of cylinder 1. 2.Hacer turn the crankshaft to get the piston
from 1 cylinder to TDC phase of explosion.
3.Aflojar (1) the timing belt (2) and remove it.
4.Aflojar screws (1a) of the guide disk control of the distribution of the sucti
on. 5.Loosen the screw (2a) of the guide disk control of distribution of the exh
aust using appropriate instruments (2b) and (2c).
6.Aflojar screws and remove the cap third camshafts. 7.Montar, instead of the be
aring of the camshaft removed, the instrument (1a) and fasten with the screws (1
b) to the specified torque.
8.Montar toothed belt drive distribution and apply full voltage value. 9.Apretar
the pair planned screws (1a) of the guide disk control of distribution of the s
uction side.
10.Apretar the pair planned the screw (2a) of the drive pulley control the distr
ibution of escape. 11.Montar the camshaft caps previously cleared and fix the sc
rews with the pair expected.
12.Hacer turn the crankshaft two turns. 13.Hacer match the mobile index (1a) of
mobile tensor distribution with the reference hole (1b) using the instrument (1c
).
14.Apretar mobile locking nut to specified torque. 15.Desmontar the instrument t
o control PMS centesimal complete comparator.
CONTROL AND RECOVERY VALVE KIT
With a feeler gauge (1) and cold engine can be controlled if the valve is within
the tolerance referred. If necessary it will be necessary with the help of the
tool (2), lower the plunger and replace the game control pill (3) with a suitabl
e thickness.
Measure (1) Admission [mm] 0.25 0.35 ÷ Escape [mm] 0.30 ÷ 0.40