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PEMP

RMD510

Design of Hydraulic
Turbines

Session delivered by:

P f Q.
Prof. Q H.
H Nagpurwala
N l
Dept. of Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering

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Session Objectives
To understand the importance of various parameters involved in
the design
g of Pelton,, Francis and Kaplan
p turbines
To discuss the design guidelines and various empirical design
relations
To carry out design of a typical low power Pelton turbine, a
Francis turbine and a Kaplan turbine

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Design of Pelton Turbine

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Schematic of Pelton Turbines


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Pelton turbine with single


g jjet

Pelton turbine with two jets

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Pelton Turbine Installation


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Net Head for Power Generation RMD510

In practice the penstock is


sized so that at rated power the
net head is usually 85-95% of
the total head

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Jet Velocity and Energy Transfer


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(Value of is 165-170
to avoid interference)

Jet impingement Double hemispherical shape of bucket

and from Euler turbine equation,


equation the
energy transferred to the wheel is

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Working Design Proportions


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Working Design Proportions


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Working Design Proportions


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Working Design Proportions


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M = 1.1 to 1.5d

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Working Design Proportions


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Vertical Pelton Wheel with Six Jets


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Fig 5.11 Vertical Pelton Turbine with 6 jets


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Jet Runner Interaction


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Time dependent flow visualization


visualization, taken by a high speed camera in
a typical model Pelton turbine
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Design of a 1.5MW Pelton Turbine


Given:
Water head = 500 m
Generator power
po er output,
o tp t Pg = 1500 kW
Generator speed, Ng = 750 rpm
Generator efficiency, g = 0.8
Mechanical efficiency, m = 0.85

1. Brake power
p of turbine: 2. Absolute velocityy of jet:
j

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Design of a 1.5MW Pelton Turbine


3. Velocity of bucket:

4. From Euler equation

Assume: K = 0.85, reduction of relative velocity due to friction


= 165,
165 vane angle
l

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Design of a 1.5MW Pelton Turbine


5. Required flow rate, Q from 6. Nozzle dimensions:
power equation:

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Design of a 1.5MW Pelton Turbine


7. Diameter of Pelton wheel: 8. Dimensions of bucket
B = 4 Dn = 4 x 0.08367 = 0.3347m
D = 0.9 Dn = 0.9 x 0.08367 = 0.0753m
M = 1.1Dn = 1.1 x 0.08367 = 0.092m
L = 2.4Dn = 2.4 x 0.08367 = 0.2008m

Number of buckets

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Choice of Materials

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1. Manifold
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2. Nozzle
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3. Deflector
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4. Runner
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5. Turbine Shaft
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6. Housing
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Design of Francis Turbine

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Francis Turbine
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Guide vanes

Runner blades

Rotation

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Work Done and Efficiency


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Euler Turbine Equation

If the flow at runner exit is without swirl then the equation reduces to

Hydraulic
y Efficiencyy

If c3 = 0, then

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Important Design Relations


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Ratio of width to diameter of the runner,


runner n = b2/D2 = 0.1
0 1 0.4
04
Flow ratio, ca2 /sqrt (2gH) = 0.15 0.3
Speed ratio, U2 /sqrt (2gH) = 0.6 0.9

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Francis Turbine Design


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The following data is given for a Francis turbine.


Net head, H = 60 m
S d N = 700 rpm
Speed,
Shaft power = 294.3 kW
o = 84% ; h = 93%
Flow ratio = 0.20
0 20
Width ratio n = 0.1
Outer diameter of the runner = 2* inner diameter of runner. The thicknesses of
vanes occupy 5% of circumferential area of the runner, runner velocity of flow is
constant at inlet and outlet and discharge is radial at outlet. Determine:
(i) Guide blade angle
((ii)) Runner vane angles
g at inlet and outlet
(iii) Diameters of runner at inlet and outlet, and
(iv) Width of wheel at inlet

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Francis Turbine Design


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Francis Turbine Design


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Francis Turbine Design


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Francis Turbine Design


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Francis Turbine Design


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Francis Turbine Design


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Francis Turbine Design


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Francis Turbine Design


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Choice of Material
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1. Spiral Casing, Stay Ring and Stay Vanes


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2. Covers

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3. Draft Tube Cone

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4. Draft Tube

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5. Guide Vanes

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6. Runner

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7. Labyrinth Seals

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8. Turbine Shaft

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Design of Kaplan Turbine

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Definition of Heads of Kaplan Turbine

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Design Specifications

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Power and Specific Speed


Power

= 97.806
97 806 W = 98 kW

Specific Speed
H = Gross head
Hn = Net head

H
Hence, Correlation by
y F. Schweiger
g
and J. Gregory

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Rotational Speed

E = Specific
p hydraulic
y
energy

This speed is optimal because it


is synchronous to the generator
Therefore
Therefore, speed Thus,
speed. Thus the turbine can be
directly coupled to the
generator.

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Runaway Speed
The runaway speed is the max. speed which the turbine can theoretically
attain. It is achieved during load rejection.

The following guideline can be used to determine the runaway speed.

Choosing double regulation for the turbine


turbine,

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Runner Diameter

Hub Diameter

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Suction Head
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The suction
Th i head,
h d Hs, isi the
h head
h d where
h the h turbine
bi isi installed;
i ll d if the
h
suction head is positive, the turbine is located above the trail water; if it is
negative, the turbine is located under the trail water. To avoid cavitation,
the range of the suction head is limited. The maximum allowed suction
head can be calculated using the following equation:

Where:
patm atmospheric pressure [Pa]
pv water vapor pressure [Pa]
water density [kg/m3]
g acceleration of gravity
c4 outlet average velocity [m/s]
cavitation
it ti coefficient
ffi i t [-]
[]
Hn net head [m]
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Cavitation
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Given:

Suction head,

Therefore,

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Outlet Velocity
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The outlet velocity c4 can be established via the discharge and the
diameter at the outlet of the water ppassage.g Since the dimensions of
the water passage are not known, the outlet velocity has to be
assumed. An outlet velocity of 2m/s is chosen. Using this velocity, a
ddiameter
a ete ofo 1.38m
.38 would
wou d aarise
se at tthee outlet
out et oof tthee wate
water passage - a
quite realistic value.
As long as the chosen suction head is below the established suction
head, no cavitation occurs.
A suction head of 0.45m is chosen.

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Blade Shape
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Two different views of a blade

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Velocity Triangles
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u tangential velocity [m/s]


c absolute velocity [m/s]
w relative
relati e velocity
elocit [m/s]

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Spanwise Blade Sections


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To define the twist of the blade, the velocity triangles at six different radii
of the blade are determined. The angle of each radius gives information
on the twist of the blade.

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Analysis of Velocity Triangles

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Analysis of Velocity Triangles

Therefore,

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Analysis of Velocity Triangles

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Analysis of Velocity Triangles


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Velocity triangle information at 6 radial locations from hub to tip

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Procedure for Blade Characteristics


Step-1
Lift coefficient at each radius is determined by the following equation:

Where
w2 relative velocity at blade exit [m/s] s efficiency of the energy change [-]
[]
w medial relative velocity [m/s] c3 velocity after the runner [m/s]
patm atmospheric pressure [m] c4 outlet velocity [m/s]
Hs suction head [m] K profile characteristic number
pmin minimal water pressure [m]

The values of the following parameters are assumed as per the guidelines:

pmin = 2 - 2.5, s = 0.88 - 0.91, K = 2.6 - 3


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RMD510

Procedure for Blade Characteristics


Step-2
The ratio l/t is determined using the following relation:

Where:
g acceleration of gravity [m/s2] The angle of slip has to be assumed;
h hydraulic efficiency [-] the range for the assumption is as
H gross head [m] follows:
cm meridian velocity [m/s2]
= 2.5
2 5 - 3
3
angle of slip []
u tangential velocity [m/s2] Using this assumption, an approximate
(180-) inflow angle [] value of the ratio l/t can be established.

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RMD510

Procedure for Blade Characteristics


Step-3

The ratio of the lift coefficients


a/A can
a/ ca be read
ead off
o from
o thet e
given chart.
Using this ratio the lift coefficient
A can be
b established.
bli h d

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Procedure for Blade Characteristics


Step-4
This figure gives
information on the drag
coefficient W of the
different profiles.
Each of the curves
represents one of the
profiles which are listed
beside the chart.
First, it has to be decided
which of the profiles
should be chosen;
following this, the drag
coefficient of this profile
can be determined by y
using the chart.

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Procedure for Blade Characteristics


Step-5
The angle of slip can be calculated using the following equation:

Check whether the assumed angle of slip and the calculated angle of slip are
similar or not.
If the difference is too great, repeat the procedure using the angle of slip
calculated from the above equation.
Steps
p 2 to 5 must be repeated
p until the angles
g of slipp do not change
g anymore;
y
however, it is necessary to always choose the same profile in Step 4.
When the angle is fixed, it can be assumed that the last calculated values of
Steps 2 to 5 are accurate enough.
Thus, the ratio l/t and the profile are determined.

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Procedure for Blade Characteristics


Step-6

The angle of attack of the chosen profile


can now be established using the given
figure.

The Steps 1-6 are to be followed for all the


six radial sections of the blade.
blade

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Calculation of Blade Characteristics


Lift Coefficient

and

Therefore
Therefore, and = 0.08
0 08

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Calculation of Blade Characteristics


Ratio 1/t

Reciprocal
ec p oca of
o l/t

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Lift Coefficient
From the graph

Therefore,
h f the
h lif
lifting
i coefficient,
ffi i A

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Drag Coefficient

From the graph

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Angle of Slip,
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A l off slip
Angle li

It can be seen that the calculated value (= 2.7o) of angle of slip is fairly close to
the assumed value (= 3o).

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Angle of Attack and Angle of Twist

Angle of attack

A l off ttwist
Angle it

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Radial Variation of Blade Parameters


The listed values in the Table are obtained using the profile 430

To get the accurate angle of distortion, the angle has to be subtracted from the
angle (180-).

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Choice of Materials
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1. Spiral Casing
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2. Stay Ring and Stay Vanes


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3. Guide Vanes
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4. Runner
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5. Draft Tube Cone


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6. Turbine Shaft
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Session Summary RMD510

Constructional features of hydraulic turbines are briefly


discussed.
Design guidelines and typical working design proportions of
Pelton Francis and Kaplan turbines are explained.
Pelton, explained
Design examples of the three types of turbines are presented.
Typical materials used in different components of hydraulic
turbines are listed.

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RMD510

Th k you
Thank

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