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Oscar Shoe

Antilock Brake System (A.B.S.)

The principle of A.B.S.
Driving safety of automobiles has raised its level by improving the efficiency,
power and smoothness of the brakes used in vehicles today.
Anyway and for now remains the driver that determines the movement of your vehic
le, directing, accelerating or braking always limited by the unalterable laws of
Counting current improvements made to the brakes while driving may present a ser
ies of circumstances that cause loss of vehicle control. In particular, the cont
act between the tires and the road is made by four small areas of these tires. T
his contact should not be interrupted at any time, and it will no longer be
grip the car can reach a total imbalance. In the case of performing an emergency
stop will lock the wheels. These will block the more quickly the road is slippe
ry. Vehicles with locked wheels are no longer operable, and also many times the
stopping distance increases, the risk exists
destroy the tire abrasion. As a solution to the danger posed by the continued bl
ocking of the wheels, skilled drivers slow down at intervals, which requires muc
h practice. This maneuver is not an ideal solution, since the four wheels are br
aked at a time, and in the case of driving on a roadway with irregular adherence
, which could cause excessive braking of
No. 4 - APRIL / JUNE 2000
wheel with less grip and can cause blocking and loss of vehicle stability. The t
echnical solution to prevent wheel lockup in violent braking, and keep the steer
ing wheel is the "Anti-lock Brake System, better known as ABS, with the initials
of its name both in German:" Anti Blockier System " , as in English: "Antilock
Braking System."
The origins of systems A.B.S. go back to the beginning of last century, applied
to the rail and made mechanical solutions provided by its entirety. From the 50s
(after the Second World War) are designed anti-lock braking systems, electromec
hanical control of the landing gear of the jet aircraft, designs that were incor
porated later, around 1960, commercial vehicles . In the automotive world, one o
f the first interesting applications
was held in the British sports model "ESRB FF" four-wheel drive. Although the re
sults of its use were good, because of complex and high cost of the device, it w
as impractical for large-series models, getting no continuity in their use. It w
as in 1970 when the German company Bosch develops an effective and with the poss
ibility of large-scale commercialization, with the advent of analog electronics,
due to the simplification of components and reducing costs involved by using th
is new technology. In 1975 he began to implement in heavy vehicles and later,
with the help of digital electronics, BOSCH firm in cooperation with another Ger
man MERCEDES BENZ, ABS installed the first system in a production car (as option
al equipment.) This happened in October 1978 and the model that was installed wa
s the Mercedes S Class Subsequently, in December 1978, the German firm BMW, also
install the ABS system in its 7 Series cars (as optional equipment.) The first
firm that joined the ABS, as standard equipment, it was Opel, which in December
1983 it installed in their vehicles OPEL SENATOR.
No. 4 - APRIL / JUNE 2000
The anti-lock braking system (ABS) is an integrated system in the classic brake
circuit, with the mission to avoid locking the wheels, even if a thorough brake
or braking in situations of danger, as example slippery. The wheel lock prevents
the system to perform a modulation of the braking pressure at each wheel. Braki
ng cycle is intermittent, the frequency and accuracy is about 4-12 times per sec
ond depending on the conditions of the road surface. All this modulation is perf
ormed automatically, while the driver presses the pedal without releasing the br
ake. A driver can detect the operation of the ABS,€moving through a typical pul
se produced in the brake pedal. On older systems is much more pronounced. The op
eration of the system is calculated on a percentage of wheel slip in emergency b
raking conditions, worth about 15 percent, thus
prevents wheel lock and you get the maximum deceleration.
Wheel speed and brake pressure to brake with ABS.
Is reduced
Is increased
There are two types, mechanical control and electronic control. The mechanics ar
e installed only in very old vehicles, and today have almost disappeared. Within
the electronics we can find a variety of systems but the most widespread are th
e ABS Bosch and A.T.E. (Teves). Also in the evolution of control systems has bee
n incorporated into a fault memory. This gives rise to the need for diagnostic e
quipment to communicate with the ECU, and that once repaired the damage it is ne
cessary to erasing it. This deletion in the less modern is done simply by discon
necting the battery. At present, the electronics allows the assembly of integrat
ed hydraulic systems and ECUs, forming a single piece, allowing a reduction in m
anufacturing costs. However, this configuration presents the problem
the replacement of both units when the fault occurs in one of them. The operatio
n of electronic systems will be explained in future articles. Beginning with the
A.B.S. Bosch, which will be both the hydraulic as part electrónica.s
Coefficient of the braking force dependent slip up straight when braking with AB
S regulation margins.
Advantages of A.B.S.
ASSURANCE directional stability. By providing sufficient guidance forces on all
SHORTENING THE BRAKING TRAVEL. Thanks to the optimal use of the coefficient of a
dhesion between tire and pavement).
1 - radial tires on dry concrete. 2 - diagonal winter tires on wet asphalt. 3 -
radial tires on snow. 4 - radial tires on ice. ABS control margins.
No. 4 - APRIL / JUNE 2000