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this lesson, you will study a special type of function. The domain and Codomain
this function will be vector spaces over and it must satisfy some conditions of
linearity. Linear transformations appear in differential calculus, related to th
e concepts of differentiability, in which curves in a sense, are approximated by
straight lines.
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to define transformation, give exa
mples of transformations of linelinear is or is not linear, ares, determine whet
her a function to work with the composition of linear transformations, and deter
mine whether the inverse of a given linear transformation.
Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
1
Remember the vector space which is defined by adding
In
and multiplication by
If
We have the null vector, which will be denoted by or simply 0, when it's clear i
n context. etc.. . Is defined by, you studied in school, for some, is
So work with elementary functions that every function called linear.
Example 1
Example 1
Consider defined by
x T y (x)
. Construct the following table:
Note that the range of 1 to 3 of 3 for 5, ie, 2 units, ranges, respectively, fro
m 3 to 9, from 9 to 15, ie in 6 units. More generally, if the variation is const
ant, the variation will also be constant. This is an important feature of a line
ar function. Now, if i) ii) if
2 Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
Then
satisfies the following properties:;
Then and then.
Conversely, if satisfies the properties (i) and (ii) it is easy to see that line
ar. Indeed, using property (ii), we obtain
it is
where
Therefore, we could have said that (i) and (ii) above. is linear, it satisfies t
he properties
Activity 1
The function is defined by a linear transformation?
For i)
and
no, we say that for all, for any and all
is a linear transformation if, that is, that is, the sum preserves, preserves th
e multiplication
ii) for scalars.
is linear, then, can be given in the form Note that it is an array. In fact, for
simplicity, consider, and we have case
,. In this
Remember that
is the canonical basis of
. and such
How and belong to the vector space, we know that can be written as a linear comb
ination of the vectors of canonical basis, ie there are numbers (scalar) that
Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
3
So
(Written as column vector)
Note that Therefore, if function
Then the array is linear, is such that then
Coincides with the number
.
. Thus if a given is not linear.
Activity 2
The function given by linear?
I) ii) linear.
is defined by, for all, by the distributive property of matrices, we have, for a
ll
For some matrix
and all
; Logo
it is
Resolved a year
1
Consider the function defined by which is called "projection" in the plan linear
. . Verify that it is a transformation
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Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
Solution
In fact, if i) and then
and to ii)
We
Therefore, the projection in Note
is a linear transformation. can be written as
Example 2 Example 2
A company manufactures two products, and. For every dollar earned with the produ
ct, the company spends 40 cents with the raw material, 20 cents with hand labor
and 15 cents with any other expenses. For every dollar earned with the product,
the company spends 45 cents with the raw material, 35 cents with hand labor and
10 cents with any other expenses. Are
and
and
represent the "cost per actual production" for the two products. Considering the
columns, and build the array of "unit cost".
Product
raw manpower other expenses
Be real product
a vector of "production" corresponding to, and consider defined by
Actual product
and
Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
5
Total cost of raw material cost of the total manpower of the total cost of other
expenses
The function transforms a list of quantities produced (measured in dollars) a li
st of the total cost. The linearity means that: i) if production is increased by
a factor, say 10, will rise by the same factor of 10 to ii) and it is for 10, t
hen the costs
are vectors of output, then the vector of the total cost associated with product
ion, ie, is the vector sum and cost.
Transformations of the plan are the linear transformations'll show some transfor
mations of this type.
.
Transformations of "likeness"
where
If you note that it takes each vector in a non-null vector of same direction but
smaller in length than (a fraction of the length), and we, in this case, a cont
raction. If it takes each vector in itself, ie is the identity operator. Finally
, if it takes each vector in a non-null vector of same direction but the length
of time. In this case, is a dilation.€In all previous cases, the zero vector is
taken on himself. We say that fixing the zero vector.
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Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
is clearly linear. Note that
.
Transformations "reflection around the origin"
Here, take note that every non-zero vector in a vector of same length, but oppos
ite. There.
is obviously linear. Here,
.
Transformation "by 90"
Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
7
Note that it takes a non-zero vector in a vector of same length but located is o
btained through a rotation of 90 of the vector. For this, the 90th of, or notice
that the lines that contain and are perpendicular.
the
Here,
. .
In this case, we still have the zero vector is fixed, ie
Transformation "reflection around the axis of"
Note that if, then, reflects every vector around the axis. Then, the vector is t
aken in itself, that is, any vector on the axis is left invariant.
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Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
Here,
.
Activity 3
Verify that the changes "rotation of 90" and "reflection around the axis of the"
linear.
Are
and
two linear transformations.
Remember that the composite function, that is first applied across
is defined by (and then.
To
Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
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2 year fixed
1
Let a "reflection around the axis" and "rotation of 90". Determine.
Solution
Here, by definition we have.
Therefore, Note that it is linear. In fact, see that if i)
Then
,
and, ii)
We have:
In general, the following applies
Theorem 1 If compound
and are linear transformations, then, is a linear transformation.
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Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
Proof
Now if mother and all, is linear, then. Now, how. So, all and, for some array, i
s linear, we have, for some
In this case, we already know,
is linear.
Be
a linear transformation.
with, then remember that it is injective, if data, ie it is injective, it takes
distinct values at different points. Another equivalent way to say it is. Of cou
rse, the identity transformation
is injective, for if then. The problem is not always easy to conclude that it is
injective or not. In the next lesson, we will give a criterion that will facili
tate such analysis for linear functions. Now is surjective linear, if given, is
such that
Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
11
, Ie is surjective if every element is the image of some element through. Rememb
er that the whole image, denoted by, of is given by:
, Ie, where is a subset of or equal. Another way of saying that is surjective is
that
denotes: is contained
3 year fixed
1
Demonstrate that the "reflection around the axis" is injective and surjective.
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Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
Solution
Are such that, ie
and so that pairs of equal, it follows that (multiplied by). So. This proves tha
t is injective. Now be it. Take note and that, proving that it is also surjectiv
e. When is injective and surjective, it says it is bijetora. Soon, the three yea
r resolved tells us that "reflection on the axis is a linear transformation bije
tora. In this case, there is an inverse function such that and see that the inve
rse of "reflection on the axis is given by
ie, is itself. In fact, and
Conclusion - The inverse of a "reflection around the axis of" is "a reflection o
n the axis." Therefore, their inverse is also a linear transformation. Note - It
will be shown in class 14 (and core image of a linear transformation) is linear
and bijetora then. Corollary 3, which
In general, it is the following theorem.
Theorem 2 Let
a linear transformation bijetora. Then the inverse function is a linear transfor
mation.
Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
13
Proof
Are and and. As. Now, being bijetora is there only linear, such that we
and by definition of inverse function, note that
and
Soon, and proving that it is linear.
Summary
be linear; you this lecture, which means we have a function known examples of li
near transformations and learned the criteria for deciding if it is not linear.
He noted that every transformation is linear in shape, for all, for any matrix.
In addition, we saw that the composite of two linear transformations is a linear
transformation and the inverse of a linear transformation is a linear transform
ation.
Are
and
defined
by
i) Show that ii) Determine iii) Find
and
are linear. and.
.
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Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
Proposed exercises
1) Show that the following functions are linear. defined by, where) "shear paral
lel to the axis." Describe it geometrically. b) defined by In. are linear? Warra
nted. . is called
2) Which of the following functions a) b) c) 3) are i) Find ii) linear? . . . .
and
two defined functions, respectively.
ANTON, Howard; rorro, Chis. Linear algebra with applications. 8.ed. Porto Alegre
: Bookman, 2001. BOLDRINI, J. L COSTA, S. R. C FIGUEIREDO, B. L, Wetzlar, H. G.
Linear algebra. São Paulo: Editora Ltda Harbra, 1986.
Reminder: we ask the student who does not check the answers before solving them.
Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I
15
Responses of the proposed exercises
1) Check that satisfies the conditions (i) and (ii) of the definition. . . .
2) a) is not linear. Note that b) is not linear. Calculate c) is not linear. Cal
culate 3) i) ii) Yes.
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Lecture 13 Linear Algebra I