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Q.1. Define Research. What are the characteristics of research?

Ans: According to D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson, Research is defined as the manipulation of

things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extent, correct or verifies
knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.

According to C.C.Crawford of University of Southern California, Research is simply a

systematic and refined technique of thinking employing specified tools, instruments and
procedure in order to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem then would be possible under
ordinary means.

Research is a systematic approach towards purposeful investigation. It always begins

with a question or a problem. Its purpose is to find answers to questions through the application
of systematic and scientific methods. This needs formulating a hypothesis, collection of data on
relevant variables, analyzing and interpreting the results and reaching conclusions either in the
form of a solution or a certain generalization.

Research is an academic activity and a systematized effort to gain new knowledge. It is

one of the ways to find answers to some unanswered questions. Research comprises "creative
work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including
knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new
applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve
new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may
also be an expansion on past work in the field.

To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements
of prior projects, or the project as a whole. There are several forms of research which
are scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner
research, life, technological, etc.

Characteristics of Research:

1. Controlled:
A good research must be able to control all the variables. This requires randomization at
all stages, as for example, in selecting the subjects, the sample size and experimental
treatments. This shall ensure an adequate control over the independent variables.

2. Rigorous:

Research must be scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed to find answers to
questions are relevant, appropriate or justified. Again the degree of rigor varies markedly
between the physical and the social sciences and within the social sciences.

3. Systematic:
A good research study must have various well planned steps, that is, all steps must be
interrelated, and one step should lead to another step.

4. Valid and verifiable:

This concept implies that whatever you conclude on the basis of your findings is correct
and can be verified by you and others.

5. Empirical:
In research, any conclusion drawn should be based upon evidences gathered and
information collected from real life experiences and observation.

6. Critical:
Critical scrutiny of procedures used and the methods employed is crucial to a research
enquiry. The process of investigation must be foolproof and free from any drawbacks.
The process adopted and the procedures used must be able to withstand critical scrutiny.

7. Objectivity:
A good research is objective in the sense that it must answer the research questions.

8. Generalizability:
We should be able to have almost the same result by using an identical methodology so
that we can apply the result to similar situations.

9. Free from personal bias:

A good research should be free from the researchers personal biases and must be based
on objectivity, and not subjectivity.

10. Reproducible (Replicable):

A researcher should be able to get approximately the same result by using an identical
methodology, by concluding investigation on a population having characteristics identical
to the one in the earlier studies.

Q.2. Explain need of the Research in business of social science.

Ans: Social sciences refer to business, commerce, demography, psychology, sociology, etc.
Social sciences directly involve people. Research in social sciences arena deals with
the behavior of people in their different roles, such consumers, competitors, producers,

executives, salespersons, leaders, workers, followers, teachers, students, opinion-makers, etc.
Research in social sciences deals with the systematic method of discovering new facts or of
verifying old facts, their sequence, inter-relationship, casual explanations and the natural laws
which cover them.

The importance that social science research wields today is immeasurable and enlarging. As
social, business and economic problems abound, the significance of social research gets
enhanced as it provides workable solutions. We know the objectives of social research are

The following points bring out the significance of research in social sciences:

Problems solving: Problem solving is the thrust of most researches. Social problems are
felt directly by people and that research by offering solutions to such problems ameliorates
the conditions of people at large. Hence the significance of social research.

Societal Behavior: Social research thrusts on societal behavior which is studied analyzed
and steps needed to modify the same to achieve certain broad goals. All our social problems
could be attributed to certain societal behavior. So, by modifying the same in the right lines,
social good is achieved.

Development of methodology: Development of methodology to deal with social issues

is one of the contributions of social research. Executive stress, worker ethics, leadership
style, child labor women illiteracy, drug addiction, labor absenteeism, etc. are social issues
related to organizations, labor units, and, such other social groups. To deal with these issues
appropriate methodology is needed. Social research provides the same.

Societal development: Social research contributes to societal development. The research

develops scientific temper. Creativity and innovation are developed Basic and applied new
knowledge is developed. All this adds to up-gradation of society. Knowledge is power. And
that power is powered by research.

Formulation of new theories: Formulation of new theories and reevaluation of already

accepted theories are attempted by social research. There are several theories on leadership,

motivation, human attitude and behavior and so on. All these theories help designing suitable
packages for societal behavioral upliftment.

Social planning, prediction and control: Social research is a tool for social planning,
prediction and control. Any constructive action need to be planned, outcome predicted and
deviation of actual from the desirable predicted outcome need to be controlled. Social
research aids in designing appropriate models of social planning, prediction and control.

Social welfare: Social research contributes to social welfare. Social research is generally
normative emphasizing what is good for the society. By stating, what is and what is not good
for the economy, for the industry, for the consumers, for the students, for the stock-market
and the like, social research helps to contribute to social welfare.

Dynamics of social institutions: Social research catches the dynamics of social

institutions and phenomena. Social institutions and phenomena are never static. These keep
changing. To gauge the change research is needed and such research helps in dynamically
responding to social institutions and phenomena.

Q.3. Discuss in detail different types of research.

Ans: Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase
the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this
stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm
the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop
new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field.

Research can be classified into different types. Some of those types of research are:

1. Applied Research:
Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than
to acquire knowledge for just sake. The goal of applied research is to improve the human
condition. It is generally used to solve a particular problem of society or any industrial
business organization.

2. Fundamental Research:
Fundamental research is concerned with generalization and with the formulation of a
theory. It is also known as a basic research. It is the research concerning principles or law
or rules, and aims at the achievement of knowledge.

3. Quantitative Research:
Quantitative research is based on measurements of quantity or amount. This research is
applicable to that phenomenon that can be expressed in quantity.

4. Qualitative Research:
Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e. relating to or
involving quality or kind, as for example, the reasons for human behavior, and techniques
of qualitative research like sentence completion test/story completion test and so on.

5. Descriptive Research:
Descriptive research deals with the description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.
It includes surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. It is usually a fact finding
approach generalizing a cross-sectional study of the present situations. For example, a
study on problems of industrial relations in India with an inter-disciplinary approach.

6. Formulative or exploratory research:

Formulative or exploratory research helps us to investigate any problem with suitable
hypothesis. This research on social science is particularly important for clarification of
any concept and throwing new light for further research on principles of developing a
hypothesis and its testing with statistical tools.

7. Survey research:
Survey research, in one way, may be categorized as a separate research method but in
other way be defined as a tool which we follow in carrying out research of any others

types already mentioned so far. It involves study of population or sample based on some
questionnaires/schedule to find out some intended characteristics.

8. Conceptual research:
Conceptual research is related to some abstract ideas or theory generally used by
philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts.

9. Empirical research:
Empirical research is undertaken to study certain situation or events based on
experiments, observation and surveys. In empirical research, the researcher develops a
hypothesis and then collects data to prove it or to disprove it.

10. Case study approach:

Case study approach is particularly initiated at the micro level. For example, study of a
particular company. This research is basically intensive in nature and data compilation
requires exhaustive study of units with utmost sincerity.

Q.4.What is research methodology? What are the requisite of good scientific methods?

Ans: Research Methodology is a way to find out the result of a given problem on a specific
matter or problem that is also referred as research problem. In Methodology, researcher uses
different criteria for solving/searching the given research problem. Different sources use different

type of methods for solving the problem. If we think about the word Methodology, it is the
way of searching or solving the research problem.

In Research Methodology, researcher always tries to search the given question systematically in
our own way and find out all the answers till conclusion. If research does not work
systematically on problem, there would be less possibility to find out the final result. For finding
or exploring research questions, a researcher faces lot of problems that can be effectively
resolved with using correct research methodology.

The scientific method is one and same in the branches (of science) and that method is the
method of all logically trained minds the unity of all sciences consists alone in its methods,
not its material; the man who classifies facts of any kind whatever, who sees their mutual relation
and describes their sequences, is applying the Scientific Method and is a man of science.
Scientific method is the pursuit of truth as determined by logical considerations. The ideal of
science is to achieve a systematic interrelation of facts. Scientific method attempts to achieve
this ideal by experimentation, observation, logical arguments from accepted postulates and a
combination of these three in varying proportions. In scientific method, logic aids in
formulating propositions explicitly and accurately so that their possible alternatives become
clear. Further, logic develops the consequences of such alternatives, and when these are
compared with observable phenomena, it becomes possible for the researcher or the scientist to
state which alternative is most in harmony with the observed facts. All this is done through
experimentation and survey investigations which constitute the integral parts of scientific

The essentials of a good scientific method summed up by the Advisory Committee on Economic
and Social Research of the Council of Social Science Research are:

1. Careful logical analysis of the problem, separating its elements, whenever possible,
formulating hypothesis.
2. Unequivalent definition of terms and concepts and statistical units and measures, so that
others will understand exactly and be able to repeat the analysis and test the
3. Collection of data pertinent to the problem under study.
4. Classification of data.

5. Expression of variables in quantitative terms whenever possible.

6. Rigorous and exacting experimental or statistical procedure in summarizing the data and
in isolating the attributes or variables and measuring their relationship and inter effects.
7. Sound logical reasoning as to the testing of hypothesis and drawing generalization.
8. Statement in unassailable terms of the exact conclusion arrived at from the findings.
9. Specific and clear statement of generalization to facilitate checking and testing by others.

10. Complete elimination of personal equation.
11. Complete and careful reporting of the research process, definitions and the methods of
analysis so that others can check the analysis or test the generalization with the new sets
of data.

Q.5. Explain the steps or process in scientific research?

Ans: Scientific research is a systematic process undertaken to study the research problem and to
arrive at conclusions.

Each research problem is unique and requires a special emphasis and approach. One way to face
the uniqueness of every problem is to tailor the research work according to needs of each

The scientific research process consists of a sequence of steps that have to be followed while
undertaking a research project:

1. Identifying and selection of research problem: Identifying or formulation of research

problem is the first and most important step of research process. The problem formulation
is like an identification of a destination before undertaking a journey. It is often said that
a well-defined problem is half solved.
Before formulating the research problem, the research must always think- what the
problem is, why it is problem, and for whom the problem is.

The following are some of the essentials of good problem formulation:

Researchable: The problem can be investigated through the collection and
analysis of data.
Interesting: The problem keeps the researcher involved in it throughout the
research process.
Purposeful: The findings of which must be useful to solve the problem or
Understandable: Well formulated and logically structured with main questions
and sub-questions.
Review of literature: The researcher should undertake extensive literature survey
relating to the problem. He may consider various publications, such as journals,
books, research report, and other published matter. Particularly, the researcher
should go through the similar research studies that were conducted previously.
Such review of literature would provide a good insight into the problem.

2. Formulation of hypothesis: The researcher should formulate the hypothesis. The

hypothesis is a tentative assumption made to test its logical or empirical consequences.
The hypothesis should be formulated on the basis of insight and knowledge about the
problem. The hypothesis may prove to be either wrong or right.

3. Research design: The researcher must prepare a research design. It is a logical and
systematic plan prepared for conducting a research study. It can be called as a blue print
for collection, measurement and analysis of data. The research design provides guidelines
to researcher regarding the time period within which research is to be conducted, the type
of data is to be collected, the techniques of data collection and data analysis and so on.
The research design must include the following aspects:
A clear statement of the research problem.
The source of data collection.
The time period of research study.
The area or place where research is to be conducted.

The resources required to conduct the research.
The techniques of data collection.
The universe of research.

4. Designing the questionnaire: If the researcher cannot solve the problem with the help of
secondary data, observation and experimentation, then he should make efforts to collect
the primary data from the field for which he requires a questionnaire. While designing a
questionnaire, the following points must be kept in mind:
What type of information is required?
What type of technique will be used for conducting the research, i.e., whether
telephone interview, personal interview or mail?
There should be proper wording and proper sequence of questions.

5. Sampling design: Generally, it is not possible to collect data from each member of the
universe or population under study due to limitations of time, effort, and money.
Therefore, the researcher needs to select a sample of respondents that represent the
Sampling design is a plan to select the appropriate sample to collect the right data so as to
achieve the research objectives. Sample represents those individuals chosen from the
population of interest as subjects in an experiment or to be respondents to a survey.
There are certain essentials of a good sampling design:
The sample must be representative of the universe.
The sample size must be economical or cost effective.
The sample size should be suitable to collect relevant data
The sample size must be flexible and not rigid.

6. Collection of data: Problem solving is essentially a process of collecting information.

The data can be collected from various sources- primary and secondary. While collecting
data care should be taken of:
Information is up-to date and free from bias.
It is objective and relevant to the needs of problem.
It is complete in all respects.

7. Processing of data: The collected data is mostly available in a raw form and therefore, it
needs to be processed. Processing of data involves:
Editing: It helps to weed out unwanted and irrelevant data. It also helps to check
errors and omissions in data collection.
Coding: it involves assigning codes to the categories or responses. It is required
especially when sample size is large and when there is large number of responses.

Classification: It refers to grouping of data under different categories or classes
such as age, gender, education, area, etc. It facilitates tabulation of data.
Tabulation: It involves transferring of classified data in a tabular form.
Tabulation of data facilitates analysis and interpretation of data.

8. Data analysis: Organization of data is generally followed by its analysis and

interpretation. The purpose of analyzing data is to establish a relation between the
information and problem. They quite often overlap and so it is difficult to find out the end
of analysis and the beginning of interpretation.

9. Hypothesis testing: After analysis and interpretation of data, the researcher must be in a
position to test the hypothesis. Various tests, such as chi-square test, f-test, etc. have been
developed for such testing. The testing of hypothesis will result in either accepting it or
rejecting it.

10. Preparation of research report: The research findings and conclusions are presented
with the help of research report. The research report is divided into three parts:
Preliminary contents: This includes title of the report, letter of authorization,
letter of transmittal, and table of contents.
Main body: This includes introduction, methodology, findings, limitations if any,
conclusions and recommendations.
Concluding part: This includes appendix and bibliography.

11. Follow up of report: The researcher should submit the report to concerned authorities.
For instance, a doctorate thesis is to be submitted to guide for approval and then to the
concerned university. The researcher should find out whether his report is accepted. If
accepted, whether his recommendations are accepted and implemented.

Q.6. Write a note on review of literature?

Ans: Review of literature is an important stage in research activity. Review of literature refers to
extensive review of literature relating to research problem which the researcher intends to
undertake. The researcher reviews previous research studies, relevant reference books, articles in
specific journals and other published sources. Such review of literature provides a good insight
into the research problem. He evaluates the conclusions drawn from the research findings. He
also analysis the impact of the recommendations made by the other researchers.

When to undertake literature review?

The literature review can be conducted throughout the research activity. It starts with the
identification and selection of the research problem. It continues throughout the various stages of
research process and ends with the writing of research report.

Steps in review of literature:

Identify and select the research problem.

Determine the sources of literature relevant to the research problem which may include
doctoral these, articles in journals, reference books, and other published and unpublished
Read and understand the relevant literature relating to the research problem.
Note record the relevant information,
Analyze the relevant information

Purpose of review of literature:

To get background knowledge of the research topic.

To formulate research hypothesis.
To prepare research design to undertake the research problem.
To understand the structure of research report.
To compile bibliography.

Q. 7. What is Research design and explain its essentials?

Ans: The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different
components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively
address the research problem; its constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurements, and
analysis of data.

According to Philips Bernad a research design is defined as a logical and systematic plan
prepared for directing research study. It specifies the objective of the study; the methodologies
and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives.

According to David & Nachmias Research design actually constitutes the blue print for the
collection, measurement and analysis of the data.

A research is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of the data in a manner
that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.

In fact, the research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it
constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of the data. As such the
design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its
operational implications to the final analysis of data. More explicitly, the design decisions
happen to be in respect of:

What the study is about?

Why the study id undertaken?
Where are the types of data required?
Where data can be found?
What techniques of gathering data will be adopted?
In which areas, the study will be undertaken?

The research design must include the following aspects:

A clear statement of the research problem.

The purpose of objectives of the research.
The time period of research study.
The sources of collecting data.
The procedures and techniques of collecting data.
The universe of research design,
The sample size of respondent, if any.
The area where research to be conducted.
The methods or techniques of data processing.
The resources required to conduct the research.

Essentials of a good research design:

1. Focus of objectives: The research design must focus on the research objectives. The
research objective must be very clear to the researcher as well as to the research staff.
The research instance, the research objective of commercial research. For based on
commercial angle, and the social research will have the objective based on social
2. Flexibility: The research design should not be right. The research design must be
flexible depending upon the situation. For instance, a research design indicates a
particular time frame to complete the research work. But the research staff may not be
in a position to collect the relevant the time frame. In such a situation, the time frame
can be increased.
3. Pilot study: It is always advisable to conduct a pilot study for finalizing the research
design. Pilot study is research activity undertaken on a small segment of the research
universe. The pilot study is conducted to find out whether or not the research would
be in a position to collect the relevant data from the sources or areas to selected, and
whether or not the collected data would be relevant to solve the problem.
4. Acceptance: The research design must be acceptable to the persons concerned. For
In the case of commercial research, the research design must be acceptable to
the higher authorities. This is because; the higher authorities are required to
approve and accordingly sanction the resources to conduct the research
In the case of academic research, the research design must be acceptable to
research guide, as he need to approve the research design before the research
activity starts.
In the case of social research, the research design must be acceptable to the
social or other organization that are going to finance or sponsor the research
5. Suitability: The research design must be suitable to achieve research objective.
Certain factors to be considered while finalizing the research design as follows:
The availability of funds.
The availability of time.
The availability of manpower.
The methods of data collection and analysis, etc.
6. Simplicity: The research design should be simple and easy to understand. The
language used in the research design must be clear and simple. Wherever required,
research design must be supported by footnotes. Technical jargons must be avoided.

7. Cost-Effective: The research design should be cost-effective. In commercial research,

the research work based on research design must bring benefits to organization. The
research design should enable proper collection and analysis of data, which in turn
should facilitate proper decision-making.
8. Ease in Implementation: The research design should facilitate proper implementation
of research activity. As far as possible, the research design should avoid complicated
procedures and techniques which are difficult to adopt/follow.
9. Training to the research staff: To conduct effective research, proper training must be
given to the research staff. Training helps to improve: knowledge, attitude, skills and
social behaviour. The research staffs not only require knowledge and skills to conduct
proper research but also the right attitude toward the research work, and good social
behaviour when they interact with team mates and with the respondents.
10. Selection of right techniques/methods: There are various methods of collecting data
such as:
Survey/ Interview

There are various methods of data analysis such as:

Measures of central Tendency
Time series, such as moving averages
Correlation Techniques, etc.

Q.8. Explain different types of Research Design.

Ans: The types of research design can be broadly divided into following categorize:

1. Exploratory Research:
It is conducted to explore information about the nature or causes of research problem. It
is conducted when the causes of the research problem are not known to the researcher.
For instance, management may conduct exploratory research to find out the causes of
declining sales in the past few months. The sales may have declined due to number of
factors such as:
Problems in quality of the product.
Increase in competition.
Ineffective promotion-mix.
Poor management of channels of distribution.
Incompetence of sales force, etc.

Exploratory research can be conducted for the following purpose:

To define the problem more clearly.

To develop hypothesis.

To identify alternates courses of action.
To isolate key variables and develop relationship among the variables for future
To establish priorities for further research.

Methods of exploratory research:

Secondary Data Analysis: The research may analyze the relevant secondary data for
gaining information to solve a particular problem.
Experience Surveys: The surveys may be conducted to get responses from those who
experienced problems or difficulties. For instance, experience surveys may be
conducted on the students who have faced difficulties or problems during the
Case Analysis: The researcher may analyze former situations similar to the present
one, so as arrive at suitable solution to solve the present problem.
Focus Groups: small groups of people discuss a problem its causes and its effects.
The focus group discussion is monitored by moderators.
Projective Techniques: The projective techniques help to gain insights into problem or
situations. The researcher may explore information from a group of participants. They
may be given incomplete sentences to complete, which may help to gain insights into
the problem.

2. Descriptive Research:
It is conducted to obtain descriptive information about certain aspects of problem. For
instance, a researcher may like to know detailed information about students appearing for
M.Com Part II of University of Mumbai in respect of age, income, gender, occupation,
A descriptive research may be undertaken for commercial purpose. A marketer may try to
find answers for questions like:
Who the customers are? (Firms / Competitors)
What they buy? (Quantity, quality, size)
Where they buy? (Place department stores, malls, etc.)
When they buy? ( Time/ Season)
How they buy? ( Cash/ Credit/ installments)
How they use the product?

Through descriptive research, it would be difficult to answer the question why. To

answer the question why people buy certain items causal research is required.

3. Causal (Diagnostic) Research:

Causal research investigates cause/ effect relationship between two or more variables. For
instance, a research may be conducted to find out the relationship between advertising
and sales. For example, a marketer sold the product in two periods say period I (Jan to
March) and period II (April to June). The sales in period II have increased. In period II,
the marketer had also increased advertising. Therefore, the manufacture may like to know
whether advertising has caused the increased sales in period II through causal research.
Objective of Causal research:
To understand the causes-effect relationship between two or more variables.
To focus on those variables or elements having greater positive effects.
To eliminate certain variables or elements having negative effect.
To develop action plans.

Q.9.What is sampling design? Explain essentials of good sampling design.

Ans: Sampling design is a plan designed to select the appropriate sample in order to collect the
right data so as to achieve research objectives. A sample is a part of the universe that can be used
as respondents to a survey or for the purpose of examination, in order to collect relevant
information to solve a particular problem.

Donald Tull and Dell Hawkins define sample as those individual chosen from the population of
interest as subjects in an experiment or to be the respondents to a survey.

Essentials of good sampling: In sampling, a part of the universe is selected for obtaining
information. Therefore, sampling offers several essentials to the researcher, as follows:

1. Time saving: Sampling helps to save time in respect of collection and analysis of data.

2. Overcomes complexities: Sampling helps to reduce complexities in research work. If a

limited sample is used, then fewer respondents are required to collect data. As a result,
the researcher may require less time for editing, coding, and interpretation of data.

3. Motivation to research staff: Limited sample size brings relief to the research staff.
They get motivated to collect the right information. This is because; they get sufficient
time for collection and analysis of data. Secondly, they may get higher rewards due to
good quality research work.

4. Detailed information: Due to sampling, the researcher can collect detailed information
from the sample respondents. For instance, in case of commercial research relating to the
study of customer behaviour, the researcher can obtain detailed information in respect of:
What the consumers buy?
When they buy?
Where they buy?
How often they buy?

5. Economical: Sampling generates economy in conducting research. For any research,

availability of funds is a constraint. A smaller sample requires fewer funds not only for
data collection but also for processing and interpretation of data.

6. Suitability: The sampling technique is suitable in the case of commercial and academic
research. But the sampling technique is not suitable in case of census survey. This is
because, in census survey, relevant data must be collected from every household or every
element of the universe.

7. Optimum use of resources: Sampling helps to make optimum use of resources.

Depending upon the resources, the researcher selects the appropriate sample size.
Therefore, proper sample size will help to make best use of physical, human and financial

8. Quality of research work: The quality of research work may be improved due to
sampling. The field staff will get sufficient time to collect the data from respondents.
They need not rush through the collection of data. Also, data analysis staff gets sufficient
time for data analysis. Therefore, the overall quality of the research work improves.

Q.10. Explain different methods or techniques of sampling design.

Ans: Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non-probability. In probability

samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected.
Probability methods include simple random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified
sampling and cluster sampling. In nonprobability sampling, members are selected from the
population in some non-random manner. These include convenience sampling, judgment
sampling, quota sampling, and accidental sampling.

I. Probability Methods:
Probability sampling is also known random sampling. Probability means possible
chance. Therefore, each element of the population has known chance or opportunity
of being selected or included in the sample.
1. Simple Random Sampling: This is the purest form of probability sampling.
Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being
selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or
impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of
available subjects becomes biased. There are two sub-methods which include
Lottery method and Random tables.
2. Systematic Sampling: It is often used instead of random sampling. It is also
called a 9th name selection technique. After the required sample size has been
calculated, every 9th record is selected from a list of population members. As
long as the list does not contain any hidden order, this sampling method is as
good as the random sampling method. Its only advantage over the random
sampling technique is simplicity. Systematic sampling is frequently used to
select a specified number of records from a computer file.
3. Stratified Sampling: This is commonly used probability method that is
superior to random sampling because it reduces sampling error. A stratum is a
subset of the population that shares at least one common characteristic.

Examples of stratums might be males and females, or managers and non-
managers. The researcher first identifies the relevant stratums and their actual
representation in the population. Random sampling is then used to select a
sufficient number of subjects from each stratum. "Sufficient" refers to a
sample size large enough for us to be reasonably confident that the stratum
represents the population. Stratified sampling is often used when one or more
of the stratums in the population have a low incidence relative to the other
4. Cluster Sampling: Cluster sampling is also called as area sampling. Under
this method, instead of selecting individual units, the researcher divides the
population into clusters or groups and accordingly sample is selected.

II. Non-Probability:
1. Convenience Sampling: This is used in exploratory research where the
researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive approximation of the truth.
As the name implies, the sample is selected because they are convenient. This
nonprobability method is often used during preliminary research efforts to get
a gross estimate of the results, without incurring the cost or time required to
select a random sample.
2. Judgment Sampling: This is a common non-probability method. The
researcher selects the sample based on judgment. This is usually and extension
of convenience sampling. For example, a researcher may decide to draw the
entire sample from one "representative" city, even though the population
includes all cities. When using this method, the researcher must be confident
that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population.
3. Quota Sampling: This is the non-probability equivalent of stratified
sampling. Like stratified sampling, the researcher first identifies the stratums
and their proportions as they are represented in the population. Then
convenience or judgment sampling is used to select the required number of
subjects from each stratum. This differs from stratified sampling, where the
stratums are filled by random sampling.
4. Accidental Sampling: The researcher may select the sample by chance
without following a systematic procedure. Every element of the universe does
not get a chance of being selected.
5. Snowball Sampling: This is a special nonprobability method used when the
desired sample characteristic is rare. It may be extremely difficult or cost
prohibitive to locate respondents in these situations. Snowball sampling relies
on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional subjects. While this
technique can dramatically lower search costs, it comes at the expense of
introducing bias because the technique itself reduces the likelihood that the
sample will represent a good cross section from the population.

Q.11.What is Secondary data? Explain its limitation.

Ans: The secondary data is readily available data from published printed sources. The secondary
data is generally used in the case of academic research and to a certain extent in case of social

Generally the researcher first makes an attempt to obtain information from secondary sources to
solve the problem. However, when the secondary data is insufficient and outdated, the researcher
resorts to primary data.

There are certain limitations of secondary data collection methods such as follows:

1. Problem of accuracy: The quality of secondary data is affected due to the problem of
accuracy. One cannot be certain of the genuineness of data. The records may not be well
maintained or organized. Therefore, one must be cautious in using secondary data.

2. Problem of reliability: The secondary data lacks reliability. The published data may be
outdated, and therefore, it may not serve the purpose of the current research work
undertaken by the researcher. Also, the reliability of the source that provided the
published data may not be genuine. At time, some sources provide unreliable and biased

3. Problem of adequacy: At times, the secondary data may be accurate and reliable, but
the data may be insufficient to solve the current research problem. The secondary data
may not provide complete data to solve research problem.

4. Lack of In-depth information: The secondary data not only may lack adequacy, but it
may not provide in-depth information to solve the research problem. For instance,
commercial research requires in-depth knowledge of consumer behaviour which can be
obtained more through in-depth questioning of the target respondents.

5. Problem in quality decision making: The secondary data may affect the quality of
decision making. This is because the data may be inaccurate, insufficient and unreliable.
Therefore, the decisions made purely on the basis of secondary data would bring poor

6. Problem of specific data: The secondary data may be more general in nature rather than
specific. The researcher needs specific data to solve specific problems. Therefore, the

researcher cannot depend merely on secondary data, but instead collect specific data to
solve the specific problem.

7. Unsuitability: The secondary data may not be suitable in certain cases. Secondary data
may be of less use in case of commercial research. To solve business related problems, a
researcher may require more of primary data rather than secondary data.

8. Problem of biased information: There is possibility of bias in secondary data. The

researcher has no control over the quality of the secondary data. The secondary data may
be badly influenced by the bias of the respondents and also that of the researcher.
Therefore, one should not blindly depend on secondary data.

Q.12. Explain different methods of collecting primary data.

Ans: The primary data collection methods include:

1. Survey / interview method
2. Observation method
3. Experimentation method

I. Survey / Interview method:

The survey can be census survey or sample method. In case of census survey, the entire
universe is contacted to collect the data. In sample survey method, only a part of the
universe is selected to collect the data. But the sample should be so selected that it
represents the universe.
Under the survey method, the data is collected through interviews can be:-
Personal interview: It is a face to face interaction between the interviewer and the
respondent. The interviewer may ask the questions, and the respondent
accordingly responds.
Telephone interview: It is a method of conducting interview by telephone the
respondents. The series of questions are asked on phone and the answers are
recorded. It is a very popular method extensively used in western countries.
Mail interview: it is another method of data collection. A questionnaire is
prepared containing a list of questions to solicit information from selected
respondents. This questionnaire is sent through post or advertised in a newspaper
or magazine, explaining the purpose of the questionnaire and a request to
complete and return it to the researcher. A reply paid envelop may also be given to
the respondent wherever possible to encourage the respondents to promptly send
the answers.

Advantages of Survey/Interview Method:

Reliability: The primary data collected through survey/interview method provides first-
hand information to the researcher. Therefore, this type of data is more accurate and
reliable. However, the accuracy and reliability of primary data largely depends on the
quality of survey / interview method.
Detailed Information: Survey or Interview method can provide detailed information. The
researcher can obtain in-depth information by asking relevant questions.
Helps in Hypothesis formulation: The use of documentary sources helps in formulation of
research hypothesis. When an investigator has more than one hypothesis in hand, primary
data supports the selection of correct hypothesis.
Flexibility: The survey / interview method permits flexibility in collecting the data. The
interviewer can restructure or modify the questions depending upon the situation. The
interviewer may delete or add certain questions depending upon the situation.

Disadvantages of survey / interview methods:

Time consuming: The survey method is time consuming, as lot of time is required to
interview the respondent and collect the data.

Expensive: The survey method is expensive as there is a need to appoint field staff.
Salary and perks to be paid to the staff.
Paper work: There is lot of paper work involved, because the interview required
questionnaires to be filled in.
Respondent Bias: The respondents may not give proper responses. They may withhold
certain data or may provide fake responses in respect of certain sensitive aspects such as
salary/income, investment, payments of taxes.
Interviewer Bias: There is a possibility of interviewer bias. The interviewer may fill the
questionnaire on his own, or may edit the questionnaire as he likes.

II. Observation Method:

The researcher obtains information of the subjects under study with the help of
observation rather than by way of interviewing. For instance, a researcher studying
customer buying behaviour at shopping malls; then he would visit the shopping malls
observe the behaviour of the customers in terms of:
What they buy / prefer?
How much they buy?
How they react to sales promotion schemes offered by the shop owners?
Whether or not the haggle for the price?
Whether or not they complain on their previous purchases?

Advantages of Observation Method:

There is no respondent bias. The respondents are not interviewed. They are only
observed, and they may not be aware that they are observed.
First-hand information about people/customers reactions.
The information collected is reliable and accurate, because the info is collected at the
point of action or reaction.

Disadvantages of Observed Method:

Time consuming, as lot of time is required for observing the action / reaction of the
people under study.
It is expensive method, as competent and trained staff is required to record the
observations of the subject under study.
In depth interviewing is not possible, and therefore, the researcher may not get complete
There may be bias of the researcher, as he may record certain observation as per his own
judgement or feeling.

III. Experimentation Method:

The experimentation method is mostly used in the case of scientific research study. With
the help of experimentation, the researcher may like to study the cause-effect relationship
between two or more variables.
The experimentation method can be also used in development of a new product. For
instance, a firm may like to introduce fuel efficient bike or some other product.
Therefore, R & D experiments may be required so as to develop the fuel efficient
product. The newly developed product may be subject to trials before it is launched in the

Advantages of Experimentation Method:

It provides first-hand information.

It provides reliable and relevant information.
The researcher may be in a position to develop new techniques / methods.

Disadvantages of Experimentation Method:

It may be very expensive as lot of money may be required for experimentation.

At times, lot of time and effort is required on the part of the researcher.
The delay in results may generate frustration on the part of the researcher.


Ayurveda or Ayurveda medicine is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian
subcontinent. Globalized and modernized practices derived from Ayurveda traditions are a type
of complementary or alternative medicine. In the Western world, Ayurveda therapies and
practices (which are manifold) have been integrated in general wellness applications and as well
in some cases in medical use.

The main classical Ayurveda treatises begin with legendary accounts of the transmission of
medical knowledge from the Gods to sages, and thence to human physicians. Thus, the Sushruta
Samhita narrates how Dhanvantari, "greatest of the mighty celestial," incarnated himself as
Divodsa, a mythical king of Varanasi, who then taught medicine to a group of wise physicians,
including Sushruta himself. Ayurveda therapies have varied and evolved over more than two
millennia. Therapies are typically based on complex herbal compounds, while treatises
introduced mineral and metal substances (perhaps under the influence of early Indian alchemy
or rasastra). Ancient Ayurveda treatises also taught surgical techniques, including rhinoplasty,
perineal lithotomy, the suturing of wounds, and the extraction of foreign objects.

Although laboratory experiments suggest it is possible that some substances in Ayurveda might
be developed into effective treatments, there is no evidence that any are effective as currently
proffered. Ayurveda medicine is considered pseudoscientific. Other researchers consider it
a protoscience, or trans-science system instead. Close to 21% of Ayurveda U.S. and Indian-
manufactured patent medicines sold through the Internet were found to contain toxic levels
of heavy metals, specifically lead, mercury, and arsenic. The public health implications of such
metallic contaminants in India are unknown.

Some scholars assert that Ayurveda originated in prehistoric times, and that some of the concepts
of Ayurveda have existed from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization or even earlier. Ayurveda
developed significantly during the Vedic period and later some of the non-Vedic systems such as
Buddhism and Jainism also developed medical concepts and practices that appear in the classical
Ayurveda treatises. Humoral balance is emphasized, and the suppressing of natural urges is
considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness. Ayurveda names three elemental substances,
the doshas (called Vata, Pitta and Kapha), and states that a balance of the doshas results in health,
while imbalance results in disease. Ayurveda has eight canonical components, which are derived
from classical Sanskrit literature. Some of the oldest known Ayurvedic texts include the Surutha
Samhit and Charaka Samhit, which are written in Sanskrit. Ayurveda practitioners had
developed various medicinal preparations and surgical procedures by the medieval period.

Eight Components:
The earliest classical Sanskrit works on Ayurveda describe medical science as being divided into
eight components. This characterization of the physicians' art as the teaching found in "the
medicine that has eight components" is first found in the Sanskrit epic, the Mahbhrata. The
components are:

Kyacikits: general medicine, medicine of the body

Kaumra-bhr tya: the treatment of children, paediatrics

alyatantra: surgical techniques and the extraction of foreign objects

lkyatantra: treatment of ailments affecting ears, eyes, nose, mouth, etc. ("ENT")

Bhtavidy: pacification of possessing spirits, and the people whose minds are affected
by such possession

Agadatantra: toxicology

Rasyanatantra: rejuvenation and tonics for increasing lifespan, intellect and strength

Vjkaran atantra: aphrodisiacs and treatments for increasing the volume and viability of
semen and sexual pleasure.


Ayurvedic doctors regard physical existence, mental existence, and personality as a unit, with
each element being able to influence the others. This is a holistic approach used during diagnosis
and therapy, and is a fundamental aspect of Ayurveda. Another part of Ayurvedic treatment says
that there are channels (srotas) which transport fluids, and that the channels can be opened up by
massage treatment using oils and Swedana (fomentation). Unhealthy channels are thought to
cause disease.

Ayurveda has eight ways to diagnose illness, called Nadi (pulse), Mootra (urine), Mala (stool),
Jihva (tongue), Shabda (speech), Sparsha (touch), Druk (vision), and Aakruti
(appearance). Ayurvedic practitioners approach diagnosis by using the five senses. For example,

hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech. The study of the lethal points
or marman marma is of special importance.

Treatment and prevention:

Two of the eight branches of classical Ayurveda deal with surgery (alya-cikits and lkya-
tantra), but contemporary Ayurveda tends to stress attaining vitality by building a
healthy metabolic system and maintaining good digestion and excretion. Ayurveda also focuses
on exercise, yoga, and meditation. One type of prescription is a Sattvic diet.
Ayurveda follows the concept of Dinacharya, which says that natural cycles (waking, sleeping,
working, meditation etc.) are important for health. Hygiene, including regular bathing, cleaning
of teeth, skin care, and eye washing, is also a central practice.

Substances used:
Plant-based treatments in Ayurveda may be derived from roots, leaves, fruits, bark, or seeds such
as cardamom and cinnamon. In the 19th century, William Dymock and co-authors summarized
hundreds of plant-derived medicines along with the uses, microscopic structure, chemical
composition, toxicology, prevalent myths and stories, and relation to commerce inBritish
India. Animal products used in Ayurveda include milk, bones, and gallstones. In addition, fats are
prescribed both for consumption and for external use. Consumption of minerals,
including sulphur, arsenic, lead, copper sulfate and gold, are also prescribed. The addition of
minerals to herbal medicine is called rasa shastra.

Current Status in India:

According to some sources, up to 80 percent of people in India use some form of traditional
medicine, a category which includes Ayurveda.
In 1970, the Indian Medical Central Council Act which aimed to standardise qualifications for
Ayurveda practitioners and provide accredited institutions for its study and research was passed
by the Parliament of India. In 1971, the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) was
established under the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and
Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, to monitor higher education in
Ayurveda in India. The Indian government supports research and teaching in Ayurveda through

many channels at both the national and state levels, and helps institutionalise traditional medicine
so that it can be studied in major towns and cities. The state-sponsored Central Council for
Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) is designed to do research on Ayurveda. Many clinics
in urban and rural areas are run by professionals who qualify from these institutes. As of 2013,
India has over 180 training centers offer degrees in traditional Ayurvedic medicine.
To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, in 2001 the government of India set up the Traditional
Knowledge Digital Library as a repository for formulations of various systems of Indian
medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. The formulations come from over 100 traditional
Ayurveda books. An Indian Academy of Sciences document quoting a 2003-04 report informs
that India had 4,32,625 (equivalent to 432,625 in Western numbering) registered medical
practitioners, 13,925 dispensaries, 2,253 hospitals and a bed strength of 43,803. 209 under-
graduate teaching institutions and 16 post-graduate institutions. Insurance companies cover
expenses for Ayurvedic treatments in case of conditions such as spinal cord disorders, bone
disorder, arthritis and cancer. Such claims comprise 5-10 percent of the country's health
insurance claims.

Classification and efficacy:

Although laboratory experiments suggest it is possible that some substances in Ayurveda might
be developed into effective treatments, there is no evidence that any are effective in
themselves. According to Cancer Research UK, no significant scientific evidence has shown
effectiveness of Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of any disease, although massage and
relaxation are often beneficial for some cancer patients and there are indications from animal
studies that some herbal products used in Ayurveda might be explored further.

Today, Ayurvedic medicine is considered pseudoscientific on account of its confusion between

reality and metaphysical concepts. Other researchers debate whether it should be considered
a proto-science, an unscientific, or trans-science system instead.

A review of the use of Ayurveda for cardiovascular disease concluded that the evidence is not
convincing for the use of any Ayurvedic herbal treatment for heart disease or hypertension, but
that many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners could be appropriate for further research.


In India, research in Ayurveda is undertaken by the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda
and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes.

In Nepal, the National Ayurvedic Training and Research Centre (NATRC) researches medicinal
herbs in the country.

Research into Ayurveda has been characterized as pseudoscience. Both the lack of scientific
soundness in the theoretical foundations of Ayurveda and the quality of research have been


The origins of Ayurveda have been traced back to around 5,000 BCE, when they originated as an
oral tradition. Some of the concepts of Ayurveda have been discovered since the times of Indus
Valley Civilization. The first recorded forms of Ayurveda as medical texts evolved from the
Vedas. Ayurveda is a discipline of the upaveda or "auxiliary knowledge" in Vedic tradition. The
origins of Ayurveda are also found in Atharvaveda, which contains 114 hymns and incantations
described as magical cures for disease. There are various legendary accounts of the origin of
Ayurveda, e.g. that it was received by Dhanvantari (or Divodasa) from Brahma. Tradition also
holds that the writings of Ayurveda were influenced by a lost text by the sage Agnivesa.

Ayurveda is one of the few systems of medicine developed in ancient times that is still widely
practiced in modern times. As such, it is open to the criticism that its conceptual basis is obsolete
and that its contemporary practitioners have not taken account of the developments of Modern
Establishment Medicine. Responses to this situation led to an impassioned debate in India during
the early decades of the twentieth century, between proponents of unchanging tradition
(uddha "pure" ayurveda) and those who thought ayurveda should modernise and syncretize
(auddha "impure, tainted" ayurveda). The political debate about the place of ayurveda in
contemporary India has continued to the present (2015), both in the public arena and in
government. Debate about the place of Ayurvedic medicine in the contemporary
internationalized world also continues today (2015).


The process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making business decisions.
The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research
techniques, and could include both present and historical information.

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be

understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various
steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the
logic behind them. It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research
methods/techniques but also the methodology. Researchers not only need to know how to
develop certain indices or tests, how to calculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard
deviation or chi-square, how to apply particular research techniques, but they also need to know
which of these methods or techniques, are relevant and which are not, and what would they mean
and indicate and why. Researchers also need to understand the assumptions underlying various
techniques and they need to know the criteria by which they can decide that certain techniques
and procedures will be applicable to certain problems and others will not. All this means that it is
necessary for the researcher to design his methodology for his problem as the same may differ
from problem to problem. For example, an architect, who designs a building, has to consciously
evaluate the basis of his decisions, i.e., he has to evaluate why and on what basis he selects
particular size, number and location of doors, windows and ventilators, uses particular materials
and not others and the like. Similarly, in research the scientist has to expose the research
decisions to evaluation before they are implemented. He has to specify very clearly and precisely
what decisions he selects and why he selects them so that they can be evaluated by others also.
From what has been stated above, we can say that research methodology has many dimensions
and research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology. The scope of research
methodology is wider than that of research methods. Thus, when we talk of research
methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the

methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular
method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of
being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. Why a research study has been
undertaken, how the research problem has been defined, in what way and why the hypothesis has
been formulated, what data have been collected and what particular method has been adopted,
why particular technique of analyzing data has been used and a host of similar other questions
are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or


Research can be classified in many different ways on the basis of the methodology of research,
the knowledge it creates, the user group, the research problem it investigates etc.
1. Basic Research:
The research which is done for knowledge enhancement and does not have immediate
commercial potential. The research which is done for human welfare, animal welfare and
plant kingdom welfare. It is called basic, pure or fundamental research.

2. Applied Research:
Applied research is designed to solve practical problem of the modern world, rather than
to acquire knowledge for knowledge sake. The goal of applied research is to improve the
human condition. It focuses on analysis and solving social and real life problems.

3. Empirical Research:
Empirical Research is undertaken to study certain situations or events based on
experiments, observations and surveys.

4. Descriptive Research:
It explains the state of affairs which involves non controllable variables through survey
and fact finding. e.g.: frequency of shopping.

5. Case Study:
It is an in-depth contextual analysis which helps to solve problems.

The type of research which I have undertaken is Case study.


Objective means the purpose. No study is undertaken without any objective. It is the purpose
which the researcher wants to achieve. Following are the objectives of the current study:

1. To understand the uses of Ayurveda.

2. To understand the demand for Ayurveda medicines.

3. To review promotional activities of Ayurveda.

4. To understand the benefits of Ayurveda.

5. To understand the increasing awareness about the use of Ayurveda Medicines.

6. To understand the level of customer satisfaction by the use of Ayurvedic products.


Hypothesis means assumptions. In every study for one research problem, researcher will have
some assumptions. My assumptions relating to my topic are as follows:

1. Ayurveda has no side effects.

2. Lack of scientific knowledge has hurdled the acceptance of Ayurvedic products.

3. Use of Ayurvedic products differ according to the age groups. Adults prefer Ayurvedic
products more as compared to youths.


Data plays an important role in research. Facts, information on premises systematically collected
and formally presented for the purpose of drawing inferences may be called data. Data can be
collected from primary or secondary sources.

Primary Data:

Primary data refers to the information obtained first hand by the researcher on the variables of
interest for the specific purpose of the study. It is the data which is collected afresh and for the
first time, and therefore it happens to be original in character.

I have collected this data by circulating questionnaire and I have circulated the questionnaire to
40 people.

Secondary Data:

Secondary data refers to second hand information gathered from the existing is the
data which has already been collected by someone else and which has already been passed
through the statistical process. The secondary data is readily available data from published or
printed sources.

I have collected this data from various websites on the internet.

Sample size is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to include in
a statistical sample. The sample size is an important feature of any empirical study in which the
goal is to make inferences about a population from a sample. In practice, the sample size used in
a study is determined based on the expense of data collection, and the need to have
sufficient statistical power.

The sample size that I have selected for my study is 40 respondents.


Limitation in research is the lack of adequate information on a given subject due to

variables. Limitation in research most often applies to academic research; however, there is
limitation to all forms of research because it is impossible to control all variables. The limitations
of my study are as follows:

1. Problem of selection of right information available from various sources.

2. The sample size in this study is 40 respondents only. So it is difficult to generalize.

3. Lack of prior research studies on the topic.

4. Lack of time horizon.


Ayurveda, India's gift to world:

IANS | Mar 28, 2016, 11.40 AM IST TIMES OF INDIA

Ayurveda is India's gift to the world and it should be promoted across the globe, Union minister
Shripad Naik said here on Saturday while inaugurating the Arogya Fair. The four-day event is
being organized by the Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha
and Homoeopathy) in association with the Goa government and the Confederation of Indian
Industry (CII) at Goa University Campus at Bambolim near Panaji.

"Ayurveda is India's gift to the globe. We have entered into an agreement with World Health
Organization to popularise this traditional system of medicine across the world," Naik said in his
inaugural address. "We have also signed a MoU with US for a joint research under AYUSH in
the field of cancer," he added. The minister said that the central government is contemplating to
open one AYUSH hospital in every district of the country.

On the occasion, Naik also released the yoga protocol for the second International Yoga Day
falling on June 21 this year. The fair aims to create awareness among the members of the public
about the efficiency of the AYUSH systems, their cost-effectiveness and the availability of herbs
and plants used for prevention and treatment of common ailments, according to officials.

Efforts on to standardize Ayurveda:

Sudha Nambudiri| TNN | Feb 22, 2016, 11.57 AM IST TIMES OF INDIA

The Ayurveda manufacturing industry, practitioners of Ayurveda medicine and academia across
the country have started discussions to set standards for Ayurveda medicines produced in the
country. The debates have been initiated by the ministry of Ayush, after questions were raised
about the quality of Ayurveda medicines sold in the south Indian states. Regional discussions are
being led by officials of Ayush and the central council for Ayurveda research, which also
monitors the clinical trials in Ayurveda.

The confusion is also triggered by the different styles followed in North and South India. While
North Indian Ayurvedic system has a lot of medicines in the forms of bhasmas (powders), Kerala
and to some extent Karnataka have got more medications in the form of thailams (oil-based
preparations). The oils used in the preparation of some medicines in Kerala is coconut oil while
elsewhere it is sesame oil. This is enough to make a legal objection.

Ayurveda medical association of India (AMAI) vice president Dr Manoj Kaloor said that it had
become important to come up with standards as there were major issues when it comes to
exporting to countries in Europe. "Their rules are very difficult. It would require a lot of
investment, but having a common standard in the country would help the industry at least in its
domestic market."

The Ayurvedic Diet to Improve Your Health and Well Being:

Anoothi Vishal | Updated: July 22, 2016 15:41 IST NDTV NEWS
"Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what you are." Food is the basis of life; what we eat
makes up our physical, emotional and social selves.

Ayurveda, the ancient "science" of medicine and food, is the basis of much of Indian cuisines. As
an early body of knowledge, it was not the first one to recognize that food plays a big part in our
wellbeing. Like other theories of ancient and medieval medicine in Europe and the Arabic world,
it divided all matter according to a theory of humors and postulated that disease was just an
imbalance in these humors. The humors could be balanced by following a correct diet.

However, Ayurveda, which is not just one work but a unified philosophy of various theories and
postulations handed down orally from ancient times, is significant in the fact that it is quite a
comprehensive system, relevant even today. It may not be categorized as science in the modern
world but it certainly is an "alternative" system of living-more holistic than much of what we
practice. Many of the Ayurvedic principles of eating and cooking are already well entrenched in
the Indian kitchens, even if we don't quite know these. Most of these are practical and rational
and worth following-consciously.

Chef Manjit Gill, corporate chef, ITC Hotels, has been following the Ayurvedic way of cooking
and eating even in his personal routine. One of the leading spokespersons of this way of life -
and eating, Gill explains a few of the principles that we can incorporate easily in our own
approach to food.

Ayurveda Should be recognized as a Way of Life: PM Modi:
IANS| Updated: July 29, 2015 13:22 IST NDTV NEWS
The 6th World Ayurveda Congress (WAC) and Arogya Expo was held recently in New Delhi
with the aim of integrating Ayurveda with the mainstream public health system and also
propagating it globally as a safe and cost-efficient health care alternative.

The event was organized by the AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and
Homoeopathy) department under the Union Health and Family Welfare Ministry, in collaboration
with the World Ayurveda Foundation (WAF) and the Delhi government. It was graced by Prime
Minister Narendra Modi who stressed on the fact that Ayurveda can acquire global recognition,
like yoga, if it is presented in the right spirit and recognized as a way of life.

He further added, "The biggest challenge for promoting Ayurveda is finding physicians who are
completely committed to Ayurveda. Unless practitioners believe in it fully they will not be able
to convince the patients." There are times when doctors may prescribe allopathic medicines
initially and then switch to Ayurvedic cures. Such 'cross-pathy' is legally not allowed to be

He also explained that Ayurveda and Allopathy should not be considered as competing streams
of medical science as the former is to do with prevention while the latter only deals with cures. A
disease can be cured by Allopathy, but if a person adopts Ayurveda, he can protect himself
against various infections and lifestyle diseases for life.

He recommends, "Space has to be created in international medical and science publications, for
articles on Ayurveda. But some effort needs to be made by practitioners and researchers of


Book on Research Methodology Methods and Techniques by Dr. D. R. Kapoor and Ms. Puja

Book on Research Methodology by Manan Prakashan.



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o Business

Q.6. Income (p.m.) in Rs:

o Less than 20,000

o 20,000 - 50,000
o 50,000 1,00,000
o More than 1,00,000

Q.7. Do you use Ayurvedic Products?

o Yes
o No

Q.8. How frequently do you use Ayurvedic Products?

o Everyday
o Once in a week
o Once in a month
o Once in a year

Q.9. What type of Ayurvedic products do you use?

o Medical products
o Beauty products

Q.10. For what purpose do you use Ayurvedic products?

o Hair Treatment
o Skin Treatment
o To cure any disease
o Beautification

Q.11. Amount you spend on Ayurvedic products.

o Rs.50 Rs.100
o Rs.101 Rs.250
o Rs.251 Rs.500
o Rs.500 and above

Q.12. From which sources have you heard about Ayurvedic products?

o Newspapers
o Magazines
o Hoardings
o TV Advertisements

Q.13. Do you have scientific knowledge of Ayurveda?

o Yes
o No


Given below are several statements. Indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree with each
statement by placing tick in the appropriate column. Please note that there is no right or wrong

Sr. Statement Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly

No Disagree Agree
1. There is a wide variety of products
available in Ayurveda.

2. Ayurvedic products are very useful.

3. There is an increasing demand for

Ayurvedic products.

4. Ayurvedic products are beneficial.

5. I am satisfied with the use of

Ayurvedic products.

6. Ayurveda promotes its products


7. I am completely aware about the

Ayurvedic products.

8. Ayurveda has no side effects.

9. There are hurdles in the acceptance of

Ayurvedic products.

10. Adults prefer more Ayurvedic

products as compared to youths.

Please give your suggestions for improvement.