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Angela Cristina Munhoz Maluf

Presentation Every human being can benefit from leisure activities, both by the
aspect of fun and pleasure, as the aspect of learning. Through play activities h
ave developed various skills, explore and reflect on reality, the culture in whi
ch we live, we incorporate and at the same time, we question the rules and socia
l roles. We can say that in recreational activities exceeded the reality, transf
orming it through imagination. The incorporation of play, games and toys in peda
gogical practice, can develop different activities that contribute to many learn
ing and to broaden the network of meanings constructive for both children and yo
ung people. Objectives This study aims to show educators the importance of play
activities for the development of human beings in a social, creative, emotional,
cultural and historical. And to understand and relate the play activities to de
velop children and youth, establishing a link between educational theory and pra
ctice through readings and experiences of specific practical activities, recogni
zing how to use play activities in the school, allowing a better direction to yo
ur pedagogical work. Methodology During play activities, educators can understan
d the student's personality traits, their individual and group behavior and the
pace of its development. The act of having fun will oportunizar the experiences
sometimes innocent and simple essence of the play of children, youth and adults,
enabling increased self-esteem, self-awareness of their responsibilities and va
lues, information exchange and body experiences and cultural , through the activ
ities of socialization. It is still allow the children, youth and adults to enri
ch their own abilities by encouraging initiative, improvement in communication p
rocesses and especially to choose actions that encourage creativity, which is ce
rtainly a feature and a fundamental goal of playing , be it a joke, game or toy
in their various forms of achievement. Any play activity can be applied at diffe
rent ages, but can suffer from interference in its implementation procedure, the
methodology for organizing and delivering their strategies, according to the sp
ecific needs of age groups. We can observe children: 2-3 years (Introduction of
the book: Recreational Activities for Fun and Teaching Voices-2005) • They have
to manipulate various materials; • They need to develop your muscles and your im
agination; • Need to stimulate your creativity; • They need to socialize with ot
her children • They state that your comment is activated, and that knowledge of
objects that surround them are aroused; • They like to play more by themselves a
nd their main interest is to discover your own body. We should enable the observ
ation and awaken to the knowledge of objects that cercam.Gostam playing more lon
ely and his main interest is to discover your own body.
4-6 years • They like to be praised and are prone to extreme emotions; • Love no
velties (places, people and objects). They are little time doing an activity, re
quiring constant and rapid exchange of shares; • They need rules and limits that
will challenge your imagination; • Constantly in need of motivation and when mo
tivated, can entertain himself more time in an activity, thus living her emotion
s quite easily; • They begin to have sexual curiosity and worry about the differ
ences; • Cling to family members, • Requiring self-control of emotions in the fa
ce of fears of things or situations like, dark, beast, and therefore must have o
pportunity to overcome fear. • They love to show what they can do at this stage
are discovering the pleasure of playing with other children. 7-9 years • Has gre
at precision of movement, being one step entirely feasible for the encouragement
of sports activities and those that require physical exertion • Needing motivat
ion in the development of his intellect, with actions that can provide insights
and discoveries; • Requiring Motivation for social contact; • Requires building
activities on the differences between large and small, right and left, light and
dark or other elements. • Activities on the differences between large and small
, right and left, light and dark or other elements, should be strengthened in re
creational activities. 10-12 years • They have great interest (for) and need for
outdoor activities, team games;ۥ They need autonomy and acceptance within a gr
oup; • Need specific activities for boys or girls, due to difference of interest
and the rate of maturation; • They need activities that can contribute to self-
criticism and recognition of their difficulties; • They have great interest in t
he games group activities, songs and actions of the moment of humor; • They must
work the sensitivity and jealousy with the use of techniques and individual and
group dynamics. 13 years onwards • Have an interest in cultural and religious m
atters, trying his ideals; • They tend to improve their motor skills with emphas
is on sports activities, • Boys need for higher intensity activities, with actio
ns that require strength, endurance, speed and courage; • Girls are more interes
ted in sports activities less effort and greater skill; • They enjoy outdoor act
ivities, rhythms that are embedded in their social context. It is of great impor
tance to reflection between boys and girls on the activities that have body cont
act; • They need activities that work the major muscle groups, movements and gen
eral flexibility.
Considering the physical and psychological needs of children and young people, s
uggest activities that work with the mind, body and the social. These activities
aim to help children get in touch with the world of knowledge and information a
nd develop their skills to create and relate this knowledge, because then they w
ill be able to develop a language and learn to master all kinds of information.
The recreational activities serve as useful and necessary exercises to life. Ena
bling these exercises is to ensure the survival of dreams and promote the constr
uction of knowledge linked to the pleasure of living and learning in a natural,
fun and enjoyable.
References ABERASTURY, A. The child and its games. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas,
1992. ANTUNES, C. & Handle, UYVÃO. Ludo, São Paulo: ed. Brazil, 1974. Bergeret,
L. Du cote des iudotheques. Paris: Fleurus, 1984. Fingermann, G. El juego y sus
Proyecciones, Buenos Aires: El Ateneo, 1970. Gouveia, R. Recreation, 4th ed. Rio
de Janeiro: Agir (School and Life, 2), 1969. IOBOLI, G. B. Teaching practices:
support for teaching activities, 5th ed. São Paulo: Attica, 1994. MARCELINO N. C
. Pedagogy of the animation, Campinas: Papirus, 1990. MIRANDA N. Organizing recr
eational activities. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1984. STIFF, G. Thousand juegos p
ara la juventud. Buenos Aires: Dnefdr, 1964. VITELLUCHI, S. Learn from jugando l
a realidad. Buenos Aires: Bonum, 1992 types of play and HOW TO HELP A CHILD PLAY
Angela Cristina Munhoz Maluf
(Chapter of the book: pleasure and learning-play voice, 2003) Children need to g
o through several stages in learning to play together before they are able to ma
ke the play group. Even after she gained confidence in playing with other childr
en like her, sometimes returning to play alone or only in the presence of friend
s, without assistance of any party. We can identify different types of play from
the point of view of social participation, each entailing greater involvement b
etween children and a greater ability to relate and communicate with others. Pla
ying solitary play may hold the child's attention completely. There is much to e
xplore in the world: shape, texture (rough, smooth, slippery) consistency (hard,
soft) color, taste. Everything must be explored, felt, smelled, tasted. At the
start of play, does that mean, and the presence of another child offers no inter
est. Absorbed in their own activities, separate from other children, playing wit
h different things. Often quietly, sometimes talking to himself. Play in paralle
l ... Playing in the presence of the other before showing interest in playing wi
th other children, the child who is playing alone will want to spend much time p
laying alongside his new friends, make no effort to establish contact. Content w
ill be in play alongside other children, "in parallel" and absorb into its own a
ctivity. Maximum defend their toys. The speech is usually not directed at anyone
in particular. Until it is possible for children to play in silence. Observing
play a very big change occurs when the child starts to show interest in the acti
vities of other children. At first, this interest will seem quite passive, and g
ood time will be spent simply in observing the games. It may be noted, however,
that this behavior is well
a different look without compromise€because obviously the child will be involved
, too absorbed in his observation. There is no conversation between them. Join i
n the fun ... Playing with others in the group itself. The first moves toward jo
ining the fun of a group can be both calm as stormy, it depends on the group in
question and the child you want to join. Either way, the relationships within th
e group tend to form quickly, perhaps stop as quickly and often, if redo minutes
later. There are two characteristic types of games at this stage: The first inv
olves doing what everyone else is doing, not just to be different, or perhaps as
a means of becoming a member of the group. This may happen, for example, when a
small group of children running together, shouting something. The second arises
when group members are engaged in the same activity, for example, drawing or as
sembling a jigsaw puzzle around a table, but having as main interest to talk to
each other. The subject of the conversation may move away completely from the ac
tivity being developed and include the exchange of information on parents, speci
al events like birthdays and outings. The activity itself can be mentioned in co
nversation, but again take place in the larger situation, related to what childr
en like or dislike, or what each is doing. Cooperatives play at some point, the
interest of the group deviates from the exchange of ideas for the game which is
involved. In cooperative play, it is very important to belong to the group. The
child has a definite place, quite different from the result of individual activi
ty that characterizes the solitary play or in parallel, and unlike even the simp
le process of socialization peculiar to join a group. Cooperation (simple). Joke
s cooperatives may be simply a joint activity of assembling objects with nipples
, or make sand castles. The child takes part in shared activities, doing the sam
e things, breaks toys, waiting their turn, work with others. The conversation is
mostly around the activity itself. Cooperation Complex this type of play childr
en assume roles, awaiting the time, and all activity depends more on the joint p
erformance of the group. The child plays with do-believe, assumes a role and rep
resents. It also participates in games with complex rules. Certain games, such a
s imitating mom and dad, for example, can last several days or weeks, with varyi
ng degrees of elaboration and interruptions caused by other interests. The conve
rsation revolves mainly around the roles represented. As it grows, the child wil
l include more types of play activities. Thus, the two years she is not able to
play cooperatively, but the four already get. When grown over it, occasionally p
laying alone or in parallel. The social play will develop in proportion as the c
hild learns how to communicate with each other, using the word. Generally only t
hose two years, she begins to get interested in watching other children playing,
and even try to play together. But when these children are their rivals, and wh
en they encounter problems, look for the mother. At three years she starts to pl
ay more with other children, is happy to be accepted into a Group. four years fr
om participating in games of make-believe, play cooperatively simple, parallel l
onely. At this age your child likes all kinds of activity.
Watching the games of children, we note the development and changes in their int
erests and patterns of social relationships. Such an understanding has added adv
antage of helping a lot in life with a small child. For example, we know that a
birthday party with many children from two years of age will not, ever, a succes
s. Already three years old while some children are ready to participate in group
play, others are still on stage alone or in parallel. When children are sick or
feeling insecure, their play regress to earlier stages and they begin to play t
he way they did six months or a year. This is to be expected and must take steps
to meet the needs of the child. Most children who play alone, it takes longer t
o go through several stages of learning to play together. We should never force
a child to engage play in groups if she does not want, it is perfectly possible
that she does not know how to do this, why was not ready yet.€How can we help ch
ildren play As the child grows she will learn many tricks, get to enjoy playing
with other children and not lose the need nor the interest as it did in earlier
stages. The best way to learn to play the child is respecting their own pace, to
help her and encourage her if necessary. If the child has the opportunity to pl
ay with other children their age, most of them learn, before five years, you kno
w divide, share and live well in groups. We should give the child many opportuni
ties to go through the various stages of learning. Moreover, it is important to
have an idea of what to do during children's activities, to make things easier f
or them all. Adults can, thus, fulfill several functions: • Provide support, • C
hoose the right time to help the child to withdraw from the game, when she is fe
eling insecure. • Always ensure that your child is ready for new experiences, le
aving it to manifest. • Giving ideas: to suggest new activities, and always be p
repared to have rejected ideas, when children become determined and follow anoth
er path. • Stimulate conversations: sometimes the conversation flows naturally f
rom play, diverting attention from the child of the here and now. • Giving advic
e: carefully judge when the child will be able to learn from experience or is it
better to intervene. • Acting as judge, assess situations intervene to resolve
frictions or avoid them. • Taking part in the game: to accept any role he is ass
igned. • Help a child in trouble when a task is beyond their capabilities. We mu
st never forget that play is highly important in a child's life, first by being
an activity in which she is already interested of course, and second, because it
develops their perceptions, their intelligence, their tendencies to trial, thei
r social instincts.
Published em 04/05/2005 12:38:00
Memory Types

Declarative memory. It is the ability to verbalize a fact. It is classified in t
urn into: the immediate memory. It is the memory that lasts a few fractions of s
econds. An example is the ability to immediately repeat a telephone number that
is said. These facts are completely forgotten after a time, leaving "traces". th
e Short-term memory. It is the memory lasting several hours. In this case there
is the formation of memory traces. The period for the formation of these traits
is called a period of consolidation. An example of this memory is the ability to
remember who dressed the day before, or whom he encountered. the Long-term memo
ry. It is the memory lasting months to years. An example is the ability of learn
ing a new language. Procedural memory. It is the ability to retain and process i
nformation that can not be verbalized, like playing an instrument or ride a bike
. It is more stable, harder to be lost.

LEARNING THE BRAIN X Dulce Consuelo R. Smith
Introduction Throughout history, many researchers have wondered how the man and
learned how the brain worked to learn. For Aristotle, the brain only served to c
ool the blood. The Egyptians kept in pots the viscera and brain were playing out
side because they had no avail. The Assyrians believed that the center of though
t was in the liver. So Hippocrates comes with the demonstration that the brain w
as divided into two hemispheres and in them were all biological functions and th
e mind. Thus arose the modern medicine. Later, with the experiments of Luria and
others, came to the paradigm of the Brain in Action The point mutation lies in
the fact that before the two - and Human Brain - were separated, and now no more
: integrate dynamically, making the system functional Human being in action to l
earn, interact and relate with the environment that surrounds it. The need for k
nowledge about the nervous system has grown fantastically in recent decades. Thi
s demand led the WHO to elect the 90's as the Decade of the Brain. After this br
ief historical account will dwell in the Neurology of Learning. The Relationship
Between the Brain and Learning. According to Johnson & Myklebust the brain work
s in a semi - autonomous, ie, a system can work alone, can operate with two or m
ore systems, or can function in an integrated way (all systems running at the sa
me time). Systems are present at the level of neurogenic disorders are: auditory
, visual and tactile. The aim of this paper is to outline a pedagogical preventi
ve action by the teacher. If ensinante takes note of this brain functioning,€can
reframe their teaching practice by adopting a didactic manner which moves in se
nsorimotor functioning formal operational. (Smith, 2003). The article will be di
vided into three stages by facilitating the explanation. There are three ways of
learning: 1) Learning Intra - Sensorineural 2) Inter-Learning Sensorineural
3) Integrative Learning. It is noteworthy that a type or form of learning is not
exclusively intraneurosensorial, what needs to be rated is that if a system is
compromised, will not necessarily compromise other. It is this sense that learni
ng can be studied as intra - sensorineural. Already learning inter-sensorineural
is the type that most interests us (educators), when establishing a preventive
action. Studies show that some learning occurs when two or more systems operate
in an inter - related. Make use of music in school activities is a valuable reso
urce because there is the possibility to work simultaneously audio systems, visu
al and even tactile system (if the music unleashes a drama). The proposal is to
give a lecture that "facilitates" the inter operation of these systems, without
necessarily having to know the teacher, is the best way to deal with that subjec
t in the external objects are: auditory, visual or tactile. Assemble a planning
with these prerequisites is a healthy form of activity, where education and heal
th can go hand in hand. Therefore, this action from this point of view, facilita
te another type of learning - Integrative. If the teacher is aware of the learni
ng mode his student can become a facilitator of teaching - learning process. Req
uire a performance standard of the students is an unproductive way, each one is,
with its own logical and psychological time and each has a specific way of deal
ing with knowledge. Respect this "vein", this "channel" for the act of learning
is to preserve the brain of a possible overload that only contribute to a total
disintegration of learning. Provide a classroom working with children four learn
ing levels: Body - Body - Desire - Intelligence (Fernandez, 1991) permeated by t
he principles associated with the act of learning: Activity - Creativity - Autho
rity - Freedom (Borges, 1994) certainly favor a psicopedagógica preventive actio
n so as not to build on children learning problems due to unfamiliarity of the r
elationship that exists between the brain and the ways in which people learn. Hi
erarchical Levels of Experience in Learning. The learning process takes place fr
om experiences that can be organized into five levels of increasing degrees of c
omplexity. They are: Sensation - Perception - Image Formation - Symbolization -
Conceptualization. The possibility of the existence of each of these experiences
is tied to pre - existence of the previous level, revealing thus its hierarchic
al character.
If we analyze the evolution of animal species, we see that as we climb the evolu
tionary ladder, are becoming more complex experiences of individuals with the me
ans which are inserted, being uniquely human capacities for symbolization and co
nceptualization. Just as in phylogeny, ontogeny in human also observe the gradua
l acquisition of these skills related to the development of learning.
Sensation => is the most primitive level of behavior, referring solely to the ac
tivation of sensory structures. It is from the sensations that the individual ca
n perceive the world around him. Perception => It is on the awareness on the sen
sations in progress. The efficiency depends on the perception that the neurologi
cal apparatus is able to convert properly for the sensations into electrical imp
ulses. Despite being a behavior neurologically superior to feeling, the psycholo
gical point of view is still very rudimentary. However, it is based on the perce
ption that the individual will form images. Image Formation => refers to sensati
ons or information already received and perceived. Is related to memory processe
s because it corresponds to a record of aspects of life experiences, even if the
y do not associate words (nonverbal aspects) The images formed are not restricte
d to the visual level, records are coming from any perceptions of sense organs.
Included here, beyond the images of daily life, social non-verbal sounds (noise
of cars and machinery, animal sounds, etc.), characteristic odors of different t
hings, the typical flavors of different foods, textures and objects,€as well as
social perception, ie facial expressions and body perceived in various situation
s. Symbolization => Ability described as unique to humans and which is the capac
ity to represent an experience of verbal or nonverbal. The symbolizations there
are no verbal symbols through visual or auditory, in artistic, musical, religiou
s and patriotic. Included in this category to assess the capabilities and recall
situations, issuing judgments such as: close - far - big - small - high - low -
full - empty - fast - slow, etc.. The symbolizations verb are related to words.
The human being has three verbal systems: spoken, written and read. Both in the
history of the species on the development of each individual, the first such sy
stems to be installed is spoken. One of the probable reasons for this should be
the ease of acquisition of this system, as related to audibilização can not be "
off" or requiring a focused attention, as with the preview. Moreover, the maturi
ty Psychoneurology required here is lower than in reading and writing systems. T
hese considerations lead us to understand why the language occupies a prominent
position in our lives, prevailing not only in childhood. Some modifications on t
hese verbal systems can be observed in special circumstances such as sign langua
ge used by the deaf or Braille writing code used by the blind. The verbal system
s cover three aspects. The internal language, receptive language and expressive
language, which will be discussed later. The conquest of the ability to symboliz
e paves the way for the domain conceptualization. Concept => complex mental proc
ess that involves skills of abstraction, classification and categorization. It s
hould be noted that conceptualize and abstract are not synonymous. The abstracti
on contarpõe to the implementation, assuming a greater degree of distance from a
n observable fact. Still, the experience can be abstracted, and at some point ha
s certainly been observed. However, to conceptualize, it is also necessary to cl
assify and categorize, and these factors are critical of the process as classes
and categories, which are critical factors of the process as classes and categor
ies are not in themselves observable. "(...) The teacher must be aware that some
children form concepts spontaneously when they acquire verbal fluency required.
Moreover, many need to be helped to learn to generalize and categorize.
Often these children have difficulty with the multiple meanings of a word, with
proverbs and metaphors. "(Johnson and Myklebust, 1987). It is worth mentioning t
hat the permanent acquisitions in each level of experience, through times of dif
ferentiation - differentiation - segregation - integration (Bennett, 1994) in th
e same way that the successive levels represent each of these moments, in relati
on to each other . Thus, for forming an image, for example, an individual will g
o through each moment of this movement, and reaching to integrate it, you may fi
nd yourself undifferentiated in relation to symbolization of this experience. Th
e development of individual skills at various levels will gradually give up and
will be in dependence on physical, cognitive and emotional subject. This is clea
r if we recall the placement of Alicia Fernandez about the four levels involved
in learning: body - body - intelligence - desire. By asserting that the body is
constituted by the body transversalized by intelligence and desire and that is t
his body that starts the task of learning, is telling us, in other words, that w
e experience for each hierarchical level of experience we have a framework physi
cal, cognitive and affective that ultimately are the one who learns. Eliciting t
he Epsitemologia Convergent proposed by Jorge Visca, we can not fail to mention
also the social aspect of learning. The transit through experience levels will a
lso, in relation to socio-cultural environment to which the individual belongs.
Thus, a child who is raised in a wild environment, for example, should have prob
lems with symbolization and conceptualization, irrespective of any cerebral dysf
unction, since the environment where they live is not conducive to acquiring the
se skills. As stated earlier, these levels of experience are maintained within a
hierarchical relationship. Disorders exist in any of these levels will be refle
cted in subsequent levels, and may€even block them, depending on the degree of d
isorder. It should be noted that the brain is a structure with a certain plastic
ity and can adapt certain regions to perform the task since he would otherwise b
e payable, in normal situations, as a result of demand caused by dysfunction in
other brain areas.
Cerebral dysfunctions - verbal and nonverbal. The brain acts as an interconnecte
d whole, the receiver, processor and coordinator of all environmental stimuli th
rough the nervous system. Making an analysis of the variables involved in the pr
ocess of learning, brain function would be inserted into the organic category. A
ny changes observed in it, will be reflected in the embodiment of the subject. A
ccording to Fernandez, in 1991 this graph represents the levels of learning: Fou
r levels of Learning
Four levels of learning
Learning is based on hierarchy of experiences. Give it dialectical spiral, with
overlapping functions and linked. Thus, learning disorders resulting from cerebr
al dysfunction also have a sphere of activity related to the hierarchical level
where the disorder is observed. In the above diagram, we can observe how a distu
rbance in the training images affect the levels of symbolization and conceptuali
zation, and will not work in the most primitive level (sensation and perception)
. We look here in the discussion of procedures for the acquisition of language s
ystem, receptive and expressive, punctuating some of the disorders that may occu
r in relation to each. Internal language is the first thing to be acquired, corr
esponding to the internalization of lived with the mother tongue in building the
ir own language. The child is born into a symbolic world without knowing it symb
olizing thus is from the organization of their language which makes the regulati
on of this process. Vygotsky tells us that "the word is not meaningless word" to
be meaningful, must represent an experience, ie the language with which to thin
k. The internal language is always structured in the native language, even if th
e person uses more than one language code. In this example, we have to have bili
ngualism in their organization of thought linked to the native language, the dea
f to the language of signs, etc.. As the internal language can be changed? • Dif
ficulties of the ability to acquire concepts - does not categorize or classify o
r conceptualize. (Affecting the conceptualization) • The child reads well but ca
n not understand the meaning. (Affecting the symbolization) • Difficult to get t
he meaning, reads, hears, sees and does not decode the experience (verbal or non
- verbal).
Examples: • central or Global Aphasia - difficulty of organizing the internal la
nguage. (Affects perception) • symbolic Dyslexia - difficulties of decoding symb
ols (symbolization affects). In disturbance of internal language, symbolization
and imaging should be altered, leaving only the individual level of sensation an
d perception. Therefore it is considered one of the most complex disorders, alth
ough no necessarily mental impairment. Receptive Language Second facet of langua
ge to be acquired, is responsible for the ability to understand the spoken word
composed of visual and auditory feedback. There is an intrinsic and reciprocal r
elationship between reception and expression. With regard to the spoken word, un
derstanding the preceding expression, it is necessary to understand before the w
ord can be used with meaning in communication. Likewise, in terms of verbal visu
al system, reading before writing. How receptive capabilities are comprehensive,
they may be affected in several ways: • The deaf and blind child who does not r
eceive stimuli at the auditory and visual (affecting the sensation) • The child
erroneously perceives what he hears and sees as a result of: Hearing loss - diff
iculty hearing capacity via area - peripheral (does not affect the auditory nerv
e) Poor visual and auditory discrimination, not realizing the words that sound s
o alike or have similar shapes. Eg phonemes with the same point of articulation
(/ p / and / b /, / q / and / g /, / f / and / v /), with similar forms phonemes
(/ b / and / d /, / q / e / g /). The child does not understand complex orders,
getting stuck not knowing what to do. Ex: "Go upstairs, take off your coat, han
g on a hanger, grab your book and bring it to me." The child with memory sequent
ially changed in the mechanism of repetition of words, numbers and sentences, an
d with momentary memory impaired. (Imaging). The perception as a process recepti
ve, not only implies discrimination, the ability to distinguish between the soun
ds or visual stimuli,€but also the ability to organize in any meaningful sense,
the ability to structure the information being received. The overall process of
reception is a complex facet of experience, requiring attention, organizing, dis
crimination and selection. In this sense, the perception is what is most changed
. Expressive Language. When the child acquires meaningful units of experience an
d understanding when there is established, it is ready to communicate with other
people using his expressive language. The expression assumes the receipt, so if
the child can not discriminate between sounds or words that have similar appear
ances, his expressive language is deficient. Moreover, as we saw, the reception
can be intact and only the poor expression; since the systems of expression and
reception of the brain are interdependent in a semi-autonomous. However, it is r
are for a child to express a pure condition. How can it be changed?
Apraxia - disconnection of brain systems uncoordinated action of the child both
verbally and non - verbal. • expressive aphasia - Broca's area injured - the are
a of spoken word (affecting the symbolization) • dysphasia - due to damage to th
e central nervous system and / or peripheral, the paralysis of the muscles inner
vated have hampered its action, affecting the production of articulatory speech.
• taxis - because of injury only in the central nervous system, without paralys
is, the muscles are innervated, but the motor activity can not normally be coord
inated. Certain areas of the brain may be more responsible than others, as well
as the hierarchical levels involved, but it seems that any brain dysfunction tha
t alters learning can destroy the ability to conceptualize what is the highest a
ttainment of man, embracing all facets of their learning and experience, is vuln
erable correlated with the variables of the act of learning to question affectiv
e, cognitive, organic, unconscious, conscious and transcendental. It is importan
t to signal how they are interdependent and inextricably linked, since the human
being, paradoxically, is what makes us always be in search of ever-evolving and
, apart from ourselves. After all, science knows a lot about childhood, adulthoo
d and the elderly. Just do not know, hopefully, teach everyone the best recipe t
o build the Self learner, active and independent in the construction of the act
of learning and their knowledge as it is in respect of not knowing that knowing
x gives the beauty of human life .
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ust, H. R. The brain and learning. São Paulo. Pioneer, 1987. VISCA, J. Clinical
Psychopedagogical - Convergent Epistemology. Porto Alegre. Artes Medical, 1987.
SOARES, D. The Bonds as a passport Learning: An encounter D 'EUS .. Rio de Janei
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onstruction of Being" In Sargo, Claudette. The Praxis Psychopedagogical Brasilei
ra. São Paulo. ABPP, 1994. Vygotsky, L. The Social Formation of Mind, [organizer
s Michael Cole ... [et all]; translation José Cipolla Neto, Luiz Silveira Menna
Barreto, Solange Castro Aclosed - 5th edition] São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1994

Learning Disabilities
1. Etiology 2. Identification of children w / learning disabilities 1. Developme
nt Areas 1. - Group 1 - (0-5 years) 2. - Group 2 - (5 - 6 - 7 years) 3. - 3rd Gr
oup - (+ 8 years) 2. Aetiological factors of a learning disability. Two factors
of organic origin. Three educational factors. Environmental factors 3. Problems
of students w / learning disabilities 1. Key Features 2. Typical behaviors commo
3. Combating learning difficulties and school failure
(Herculaneum Rafael, 2001)
Today the area of Learning Disabilities is a group that includes children with d
elayed speech acquisition, perceptual motor problems, visual problems, calculus
problems, reading problems (not including mental retardation). All these childre
n have a discrepancy on their estimated intellectual potential and their academi
c achievement. 1 - Etiology

In the 30
Minimal brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction.

From the 60
Began to be challenged in the late '60s, becoming the term "minimal brain dysfun
ction" a useless term, used indiscriminately to label all those who had no acade
mic success€although it still continued to be used in a clinical setting. Howeve
r, it is since 1962 that the term "learning difficulties" will be used frequentl
y by Samuel Kirk. 2 - Identification of Children with Learning Difficulties are
divided into three phases: 1. Pre-school children (0-5 years) 2. Start of school
activities (5-6 - 7 years) 3. Those who are already integrated into the school
(more than 8 years). There are great difficulties in identifying the 1st. And 2.
Group, because you can not define a discrepancy. However we can take into accou
nt the child's development, or development patterns. 2.1 - Areas of development
2.1.1 - 1. Group (0-5 years)
• • • • •
Cognitive Motor Language Socialization Autonomy
The development scales most used in our country are programs PORTAGE - has 450 i
tems and involves parents. Other rating scales:
o o o o o
Bayley Carolina Griffiths Denver Brazelton
When approaching five years, we use more rigorous testing (eg test readiness - l
anguage perceptual-motor). 2.1.2 - 2. Group (5 - 6 - 7 years) are identified thr
ough an informal evaluation. They use tests which can give an idea of their achi
evement in relation to the curriculum. It is a difficult to characterize it or s
ay that a child has learning difficulties. They can use various tests such as WI
SC-R. 2.1.3 - 3. Group (over 8 years) this age can already be considered a defin
ition of Learning Disabilities. In this case we have to make an assessment of th
eir intellectual capabilities: comprehensive evaluation. 2.2 - Etiologic Factors
of Learning Disabilities We consider three broad groups: Organic Determined num
ber of factors:
• • •
• Educational Delay maturation

pre-natal peri, post natal hereditary
Cognitive styles
• • • • •
Environmental malnutrition differences in socio-cultural climate emotional dispe
dagogias adverse environmental toxicants

biochemical irregularities
2.2.1 - Factors of organic origin

Prenatal Brain areas whose maturation takes place in last place, are responsible
for cognitive abilities and academic rationale for the call. When this area suf
fers an injury may then lead to mental retardation or learning difficulties. One
factor may be one of the possible causes of injuries in the prenatal period is
the RH factor. Other likely to lead to learning difficulties or mental retardati
on in prenatally: Mother:
o o o o o o o o
excess radiation very old number of children (many) placental insufficiency hypo
thyroidism drug, smoke (tobacco) drugs premature kidney failure There are also m
inor physical anomalies that occur in the prenatal period that may cause learnin
g disabilities. Not disappear with age and can predict school failure: minor phy
sical anomalies facial asymmetry (strong) provisions atypical ear index fi
nger longer than normal the little finger of the hand curved and shorter than
normal large spaces between the toes toes big and long

Peri-natal anoxia;
Delayed childbirth; Cases premature separation of placenta, obstetric trauma - g
ives rise to bleeding (9% to 12% of all babies have suffered an obstetric trauma
, says Colletti (1979)).

Head trauma Post-Natal; severe brain damage (Colletti: 20% of all children suffe
r any brain insult). Strokes - brain injury, high fevers (indicators of meningit
is, encephalitis, febrile seizures), dehydration: brain tumors:

Hereditary causes Werner, Strauss and Orton say that there exists a possibility
of correlation between genetic factors that give rise to DA has to do with brain
structures with different patterns of maturation. Such factors can be transmitt
ed genetically or - hereditary factors.

Biochemical causes of irregularities known to some biochemical irregularities ca
n cause brain damage. They can also give rise to behavioral states of hyperactiv
ity or hypoactivity that can be transmitted genetically (not shown). Connors (19
70) Denckla Heilman (70/80)
These authors identify seven types of irregularities arising Hyperactivity:
• • • • •
Alcohol brain injury, drug intoxication Anxiety (lead intake) emotional disorder
even as the hyperactivity:

extended periods of reflection (daydreaming)
• •
give too much importance to the details of a specific task incapable of making d
...€yet about the biochemical irregularities: neurochemical transmissions are ab
normal biochemical existing inequalities in the brain that can not be measured.
Use is usually drugs intending to establish a relationship between abnormal bioc
hemical transmissions and behaviors that they produce. Other types of biochemica
l deficiencies: - hyperactivity caused by food (dyes and preservatives). - Vitam
in deficiencies Cott (1970), studied biochemistry that irregularity which may gi
ve rise to DA and even behavior problems. - Glandular disorders has to do with h
ormonal inequalities. Inequalities hormonal appear that the sooner the child's l
ife, plus there is the possibility of acquiring a brain injury. The best known a
• •
Thyroid calcic
The thyroid has to do with inadequate production of thyroxine. When there is an
excess of thyroxine, there is hyperactivity. Metabolic disorders can cause high
levels of production of calcium can cause brain damage or DA - Hypoglycemia (due
to this issue, 75% of children at an early age who suffer from hypoglycemia, ha
ve abnormalities of the central nervous system.). It is a significant drop in bl
ood sugar. Studies indicate that in the first two months of life, can prevent br
ain development. You mean this issue, if not treated, can cause brain damage and
one of the signs are convulsions. Can cause motor problems, reduced brain size
and mental disabilities or profound.
(Some studies estimate 75% of children who had suffered from hypoglycemia, showe
d abnormalities of the central nervous system.). 2.2.2 - Factors Educational

Late maturity
As the theory of late maturation, it is said that a slow maturation process visu
al, speech or attention. Are the basis of cognitive development and therefore du
e to this slow maturation, combined with the requirements of the curriculum in t
hese cases will be at a level of readiness of the child, will cause problems of

Cognitive Style
Cognitive style is the way the individual perceives to solve the problems confro
nting it in the various environments in which it interacts. In this theory, says
that the individual's abilities are intact. Except that these basic capabilitie
s are different from other normal children said, regarding the styles of capturi
ng and organizing information in memory. The educator should try various strateg
ies to adapt to the learning styles of children. 2.2.3 - Environmental Factors
• • • • •
Malnutrition and poor stimulation Differences socio - cultural climate emotional
adverse environmental toxicants Dispedagogias Malnutrition and poor pacing One
of the major factors that can cause learning difficulties (DA) may be poor nutri
tion (child or parent). Deficiencies affect the maturation of the central nervou
s system. When poor nutrition is during pregnancy, one can generate several situ
ations: - Abnormal development of the fetus;
- If after pregnancy, especially the first few months of life the child (six mon
ths), the effects of malnutrition can be devastating, causing severe brain damag
e (massive) - In the case of poor pacing, too, their lack can affect the maturat
ion of the brain. Therefore, can potentially lead to learning problems. The visu
al stimulation, auditory and language stimulation are those that should be taken
more into account in terms of stimulation. Differences - Social and Cultural As
for shortcomings socio - economic disadvantage are Learning Difficulties are mo
re frequent. It is thought that due to the large number of children in these gro
ups and also to housing conditions, hygiene and medical care. Adverse weather Em
otional The emotional adverse weather, can cause an environment (emotional stres
s) unfavorable, going to activate blood circulation in the brain, going to cause
a reduction or inattention of the child. The family disorganization is also con
tained in this issue (ie books to one side, another for shoes, etc.).. Also, the
lability of one of the spouses or divorce, you can create an emotional climate
adversely. Stress during pregnancy (middle class) can also be a cause or a facto
r for the fetus. The personality of the parents in terms of punishment to childr
en, may be considered causes and even contribute to head injuries. Environmental
toxic fumes and alcohol and essentially the lead in paints or may be factors ca
using brain damage and mild or severe.€This can happen breathing particles suspe
nded in air that contains toxic elements. These products can cause AD or mental
disability. Dispedagogias Education inappropriate. Prejudices and expectations o
f teachers. Like more than one child than another, can affect learning ..
Training of educators and teachers is important that educators and teachers to k
now the developmental stages of children, taking into account their individual d
ifferences. The ecological education is important that the educator and teacher
to take into account the environment in which the child interacts. Having regard
to the curriculum, the differences of children. 3 - Problems of students with L
earning 3.1 - Main features: - Learning difficulties in symbolic processes:

Speech Reading Writing Calculation, etc..

- Discrepancy in their potential for learning - diversity of behaviors - Difficu
lties in the reporting process at both receptive and expressive as integrative 3
.2 - Typical behaviors frequently - Hyperactivity - psychomotor problems - probl
ems of general guidance - attention disorders - disorders of memory and reasonin
g - Impulsiveness - Emotional problems - specific learning difficulties (dysgrap
hia, dyslexia, dyscalculia) 3.3 - Anti-Learning Disabilities and School Failure


Individualization (synonym of plastic and adaptive learning); Design curriculum
Positive reinforcements; Learning specialist, systematic reviews. To overcome th
e failure: the GET for something that we know beforehand that the student can le
arn (skills inventory), the Simplify or subdivide the level of difficulty of hig
hly motivating and components which could be solved by successive approximations
(instead of waiting for the student exceeds the requirement of educational task
s) Finding the most appropriate method (the method that adapts to the student an
d not vice versa); Use the detailed plans and specific, provide the alternative,
the Select materials, the Working purposes, the set objectives in operational t
erms, the check whether they are being achieved; Apply positive reinforcement; s
ystematize the learning in a hierarchical sequence, generalize and transfer the
acquisitions already made for new situations, the Find and create materials reso
urces that fit the needs of the student.
o o o o o
Rafael, H. (2001)
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