Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

Russian alphabet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Russian alphabet in capital letters
Russian alphabet
Listen to the Russian alphabet
Problems playing this file? See media help.
[] This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering sup
port, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode cha
racters.
The Russian alphabet (Russian: ??????? ???????, tr. rsskij alfavt; IPA: ['rusk??j
?lf?'v?it]) uses letters from the Cyrillic script. The modern Russian alphabet c
onsists of 33 letters.
Contents [hide]
1 Alphabet
1.1 Frequency
2 Non-vocalized letters
3 Vowels
4 Letters eliminated in 1918
5 Letters in disuse by 1750
6 Treatment of foreign sounds
7 Numeric values
8 Diacritics
9 Keyboard layout
10 Letter names
11 See also
12 Notes
13 References
14 Bibliography
Alphabet[edit]
The Russian alphabet is as follows:
Letter Cursive Name Old name IPA Approximate English
example Russian example, romanization, meaning ? Unicode (Hex)
?? 01-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ?
[a] ???
[as] /a/ father ??? dva
"two" 1 U+0410 / U+0430
?? 02-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[b?] ????
['buk??] /b/ or /b?/ bad ??? ba
"both" U+0411 / U+0431
?? 03-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[v?] ????
['v?ed??] /v/ or /v?/ vine ??? vot
"here" 2 U+0412 / U+0432
?? 04-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[g?] ???????
[gl?'gol?] /g/ or /g?/ go ??? god
"year" 3 U+0413 / U+0433
?? 05-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[d?] ?????
[d?'bro] /d/ or /d?/ do ?? da
"yes" 4 U+0414 / U+0434
?? 06-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ?
[je] ????
[jes?t?] /je/, / ?e/ or /e/ yes ?? ne
"not" 5 U+0415 / U+0435
?? 07-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ?
[jo] /jo/ or / ??/ yolk ?? yozh
"hedgehog" U+0401 / U+0451
?? 08-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[?? ] ( listen) ??????
[??'v?et??][a] /?/ pleasure ??? zhuk
"beetle" U+0416 / U+0436
?? 09-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[z?] ?????
[z??'ml?] /z/ or /z?/ zoo ???? znoy
"heat" 7 U+0417 / U+0437
?? 10-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ?
[i] ???
['i??] /i/, / ?i/, or /?/ me ??? li
"or" 8 U+0418 / U+0438
?? 11-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ? ???????
[i 'kratk?j?] ? ?? ???????
[? s 'kratk?j] /j/ toy ??? moy
"my, mine" U+0419 / U+0439
?? 12-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[ka] ????
['kak?] /k/ or /k?/ kiss ??? kto
"who" 20 U+041A / U+043A
?? 13-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ?? or ???
[?l] or [?l?] ????
['l??d??] /l/ or /l?/ lamp ?? li
"whether" 30 U+041B / U+043B
?? 14-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[?m] ???????
[m?'s?l?et??][2] /m/ or /m?/ map ??? mech
"sword" 40 U+041C / U+043C
?? 15-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[?n] ????
[na?] /n/ or /?/ not ?? no
"but" 50 U+041D / U+043D
?? 16-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ?
[?] ???
[on] /o/ or /?/ more ?? on
"he" 70 U+041E / U+043E
?? 17-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[p?] ?????
[p?'koj] /p/ or /p?/ pet ??? pod
"under" 80 U+041F / U+043F
?? 18-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[?r] ???
[rt?s?] /r/ or /r?/ rolled r ???? rek
"river" 100 U+0420 / U+0440
?? 19-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[?s] ?????
['slov?] /s/ or /s?/ see ???? ysli
"if" 200 U+0421 / U+0441
?? 20-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[t?] ??????
['tv?erd?] /t/ or /t?/ tool ??? tot
"that" 300 U+0422 / U+0442
?? 21-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ?
[u] ???
[uk] /u/ boot ??? uzh
"already" 400 U+0423 / U+0443
?? 22-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[?f] ?????
[f?ert] /f/ or /f?/ face ????? frma
"form" 500 U+0424 / U+0444
?? 23-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[xa] ????
[x?er] /x/ or /x?/ loch ??? dukh
"spirit" 600 U+0425 / U+0445
?? 24-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[ts?] ??
[t?s?] /t?s/ sits ????? konts
"end" 900 U+0426 / U+0446
?? 25-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[t?e] ?????
[t??erf?] /t??/ chip ??? chas
"hour" 90 U+0427 / U+0447
?? 26-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[?a] ??
[?a] /?/ sharp ??? vash
"yours" U+0428 / U+0448
?? 27-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ??
[??] ??
[?t??] /??/ sheer (used to be pronounced
as in fresh-cheese) ???? shchek
"cheek" U+0429 / U+0449
?? 28-Russian alphabet-?.svg ??????? ????
['tv??rd?j znak ] ( listen) ???
[jer] (called "hard sign") silent, prevents palatalization of the prec
eding consonant ?????? obykt
"object" U+042A / U+044A
?? 29-Russian alphabet-?.svg ?
[?] ???
[j?'r?] [?] roses, hit ?? ty
"you" U+042B / U+044B
?? 30-Russian alphabet-?.svg ?????? ????
['m?x?k??j znak ] ( listen) ???
[jer?] / ?/ (called "soft sign") silent, palatalizes the preceding consonant
(if it is phonologically possible) ???? vyes'
"all" U+042C / U+044C
?? 31-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ?
[?] ? ?????????
['? ?b?'rotn?j?] /e/ met ??? to
"this, that" U+042D / U+044D
?? 32-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ?
[ju] ?
[ju] /ju/ or / ?u/ use ?? yug
"south" U+042E / U+044E
?? 33-Russian alphabet-? ?.svg ?
[ja] ?
[ja] /ja/ or / ?a/ yard ??? ryad
"row" U+042F / U+044F
letters eliminated in 1917 18
?? ? ????????????
[i] /i/, / ?i/, or /j/ Like ? or ? ????????????? (now ?????????????
) stikhotvorniya
"poems, (of) poem" 10
?? ????
[f??'ta] /f/ or /f?/ Like ? ?????????? (now ??????????) orfogrfiya
"orthography, spelling" 9
?? ???
[jt?] /e/ or / ?e/ Like ? ??????? (now ???????) Aleksy
Alexey
?? ?????
['i??ts?] /i/ or / ?i/ Usually like ?, see below ???? (now ????)
mro
"chrism"
letters eliminated before 1750
?? ????
[z??'lo][3] /z/ or /z?/ Like ? n/a 6
?? ???
[ks?i] /ks/ or /ks?/ Like ?? n/a 60
?? ???
[ps?i] /ps/ or /ps?/ Like ?? n/a 700
?? ?????
[?'m?eg?] /o/ Like ? n/a 800
?? ??? ???????
[jus b?l?'?oj] /u/, /ju/ or / ?u/ Like ? or ? n/a
?? ??? ?????
[jus 'm?l?j] /ja/ or / ?a/ Like ? n/a
?? ??? ??????? ????????????
[jus b?l?'?oj j?'t?ir?v?nn?j] /ju/ or / ?u/ Like ? n/a
?? ??? ????? ????????????
[jus 'm?l?j j?'t?ir?v?n.n?j] /ja/ or / ?a/ Like ? n/a
The consonant letters represent both as "soft" (palatalized, represented in the
IPA with a ???) and "hard" consonant phonemes. If a consonant letter is followed
by a vowel letter, then the soft/hard quality of the consonant depends on wheth
er the vowel is meant to follow "hard" consonants ??, ?, ?, ?, ?? or "soft" ones
??, ?, ?, ?, ??; see below. A soft sign indicates ??? palatalization of the pre
ceding consonant without adding a vowel. However, in modern Russian six consonan
t phonemes do not have phonemically distinct "soft" and "hard" variants (except
in foreign proper names) and do not change "softness" in the presence of other l
etters: /?/, /?/ and /t?s/ are always hard; /j/, /??/ and /t??/ are always soft.
See Russian phonology for details.
^ An alternate form of the letter El (? ?) closely resembles the Greek letter for
lambda (? ?).
Frequency[edit]
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve th
is article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be ch
allenged and removed. (August 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template
message)
The frequency of characters in a corpus of written Russian was found to be as fo
llows:[4]
Letter Frequency Other information
? 11.07% The most frequently used letter in the Russian alphabet.
? 8.50% Foreign words sometimes use ? rather than ?, even if it is prono
unced e instead of ye. In addition, ? is often replaced by ?. This makes ? even
more common. For more information, see Vowels.
? 7.50%
? 7.09%
? 6.70% The most common consonant in the Russian alphabet.
? 5.97%
? 4.97%
? 4.96%
? 4.33%
? 4.33%
? 3.30%
? 3.10%
? 3.09%
? 2.47%
? 2.36%
? 2.22%
? 2.01%
? 1.96%
? 1.84%
? 1.72%
? 1.48%
? 1.40%
? 1.21%
? 1.01%
? 0.95%
? 0.72%
? 0.47%
? 0.39%
? 0.36% Foreign words sometimes use E rather than ?, even if it is prono
unced e instead of ye. This makes ? even less common. For more information, see
Vowels.
? 0.30%
? 0.21% The least common consonant in the Russian alphabet.
? 0.20% In written Russian, ? is often replaced by E. For more informati
on, see Vowels.
? 0.02% ? used to be a very common letter in the Russian alphabet. This
is because before the 1918 reform, any word ending with a non-palatalized conson
ant was written with a final ? - e.g., pre-1918 ???? vs. post-reform ???. The re
form eliminated the use of ? in this context, leaving it the least common letter
in the Russian alphabet. For more information, see Non-vocalized letters.
Non-vocalized letters[edit]
The hard sign (???), when put after a consonant, acts like a "silent back vowel"
that separates a succeeding iotated vowel from the consonant, making that sound
with a distinct /j/ glide. Today it is used mostly to separate a prefix from th
e following root. Its original pronunciation, lost by 1400 at the latest, was th
at of a very short middle schwa-like sound, /u/ but likely pronounced [?] or [?]
. Until the 1918 reform, no written word could end in a consonant: those that en
d in a ("hard") consonant in modern orthography had then a final ?.
The soft sign (???) acts like a "silent front vowel" and indicates that the prec
eding consonant is palatalized. This is important as palatalization is phonemic
in Russian. For example, ???? [brat] ('brother') contrasts with ????? [brat?] ('
to take'). The original pronunciation of the soft sign, lost by 1400 at the late
st, was that of a very short fronted reduced vowel /i/ but likely pronounced [?]
or [j?]. There are still some remnants of this ancient reading in modern Russia
n, in the co-existing versions of the same name, read differently, such as in ??
??? and ????? (Mary).
Vowels[edit]
The vowels ??, ?, ?, ?, ?? indicate a preceding palatalized consonant and with t
he exception of ??? are iotated (pronounced with a preceding /j/) when written a
t the beginning of a word or following another vowel (initial ??? was iotated un
til the nineteenth century). The IPA vowels shown are a guideline only and somet
imes are realized as different sounds, particularly when unstressed. However, ??
? may be used in words of foreign origin without palatalization (/e/), and ??? i
s often realized as [] between soft consonants, such as in ??? ("toy ball").
??? is an old Proto-Slavic close central vowel, thought to have been preserved b
etter in modern Russian than in other Slavic languages. It was originally nasali
zed in certain positions: ???? ['ka.m?~]; ?????? ['ka.m??n?] ("rock"). Its writt
en form developed as follows: ??? + ??? ? ??i? ? ???.
??? was introduced in 1708 to distinguish the non-iotated/non-palatalizing /e/ f
rom the iotated/palatalizing one. The original usage had been ??? for the uniota
ted /e/, ??? or ??? for the iotated, but ??? had dropped out of use by the sixte
enth century. In native Russian words, ??? is found only at the beginnings of wo
rds or in compound words (e.g. ??????? "therefore" = ?? + ?????). In words that
come from foreign languages in which iotated /e/ is uncommon or nonexistent (suc
h as English, for example), ??? is usually written in the beginning of words and
after vowels except ??? (e.g. ????, poet), and ??? after ??? and consonants. Ho
wever, the pronunciation is inconsistent. Many words, especially monosyllables,
words ending in ??? and many words where ??? follows ???, ???, ???, ???, ??? or
??? are pronounced with /e/ without palatalization or iotation: ???? (seks "sex"
), ?????? (proekt "project") (in this example, the spelling is etymological but
the pronunciation is counteretymological). But many other words are pronounced w
ith /?e/: ????? (syekta "sect"), ????? (dyebyut "debut"). Proper names are usual
ly not concerned by the rule (??? "Sam", ?????? "Pamela", ??? ?????? "Mao Zedong
"); the use of ??? after consonants is common in East Asian names and in English
names with the sounds // and /??r/, with some exceptions such as ???? ("Jack") o
r ?????? ("Shepard"), since both ??? and ??? are not palatalized in cases of ??
("che") or ?? ("she"), yet in writing ??? usually prevails.
???, introduced by Karamzin in 1797 and made official in 1943 by the Soviet Mini
stry of Education,[5] marks a /jo/ sound that has historically developed from /j
e/ under stress, a process that continues today. The letter ??? is optional (in
writing, not in pronunciation): it is formally correct to write ?e? for both /je
/ and /jo/. None of the several attempts in the twentieth century to mandate the
use of ??? have stuck.
Letters eliminated in 1918[edit]
Grapheme Name Description
? Decimal I identical in pronunciation to ???, was used exclusively
immediately in front of other vowels and the ??? ("Short I") (for example, ?????
?????? [p?tr??'arx], 'patriarch') and in the word ?????? [m?ir] ('world') and it
s derivatives, to distinguish it from the word ?????? [m?ir] ('peace') (the two
words are actually etymologically cognate[6][7] and not arbitrarily homonyms).[8
]
? Fita from the Greek theta, was identical to ??? in pronunciation, but
was used etymologically (for example, ???????? "Theodore").
? Yat originally had a distinct sound, but by the middle of the eighte
enth century had become identical in pronunciation to ??? in the standard langua
ge. Since its elimination in 1918, it has remained a political symbol of the old
orthography.
? Izhitsa from the Greek upsilon, usually identical to ??? in pronunciatio
n, as in Byzantine Greek, was used etymologically for Greek loanwords, like Lati
n Y (as in synod, myrrh); by 1918, it had become very rare. In spellings of the
eighteenth century, it was also used after some vowels that have since been repl
aced with ???. For example, a Greek prefix originally spelled ?????? is now spel
led ??????.
Letters in disuse by 1750[edit]
??? and ??? derived from Greek letters xi and psi, used etymologically though in
consistently in secular writing until the eighteenth century, and more consisten
tly to the present day in Church Slavonic.
??? is the Greek letter omega, identical in pronunciation to ???, used in secula
r writing until the eighteenth century, but to the present day in Church Slavoni
c, mostly to distinguish inflexional forms otherwise written identically.
??? corresponded to a more archaic /dz/ pronunciation, already absent in East Sl
avic at the start of the historical period, but kept by tradition in certain wor
ds until the eighteenth century in secular writing, and in Church Slavonic and M
acedonian to the present day.
The yuses ??? and ???, letters that originally used to stand for nasalized vowel
s // and /?/, had become, according to linguistic reconstruction, irrelevant for
East Slavic phonology already at the beginning of the historical period, but wer
e introduced along with the rest of the Cyrillic script. The letters ??? and ???
had largely vanished by the twelfth century. The uniotated ??? continued to be
used, etymologically, until the sixteenth century. Thereafter it was restricted
to being a dominical letter in the Paschal tables. The seventeenth-century usage
of ??? and ??? (see next note) survives in contemporary Church Slavonic, and th
e sounds (but not the letters) in Polish.
The letter ??? was adapted to represent the iotated /ja/ ??? in the middle or en
d of a word; the modern letter ??? is an adaptation of its cursive form of the s
eventeenth century, enshrined by the typographical reform of 1708.
Until 1708, the iotated /ja/ was written ?ia? at the beginning of a word. This d
istinction between ??? and ?ia? survives in Church Slavonic.
Although it is usually stated that the letters labelled "fallen into disuse by t
he eighteenth century" in the table above were eliminated in the typographical r
eform of 1708, reality is somewhat more complex. The letters were indeed origina
lly omitted from the sample alphabet, printed in a western-style serif font, pre
sented in Peter's edict, along with the letters ??? (replaced by ???), ???, and
??? (the diacriticized letter ??? was also removed), but were reinstated except
??? and ??? under pressure from the Russian Orthodox Church in a later variant o
f the modern typeface (1710). Nonetheless, since 1735 the Russian Academy of Sci
ences began to use fonts without ???, ???, and ???; however, ??? was sometimes u
sed again since 1758.
Treatment of foreign sounds[edit]
Because Russian borrows terms from other languages, there are various convention
s for sounds not present in Russian. For example, while Russian has no [h], ther
e are a number of common words (particularly proper nouns) borrowed from languag
es like English and German that contain such a sound in the original language. I
n well-established terms, such as ???????????? [g?l?uts?'nats?j?] ('hallucinatio
n'), this is written with ??? and pronounced with /g/ while newer terms use ???,
pronounced with /x/, such as ????? ['xob??] ('hobby').[9]
Similarly, words originally with [?] in their source language are either pronoun
ced with /t(?)/), as in the name ?????? ('Thelma') or, if borrowed early enough,
with /f(?)/ or /v(?)/, as in the names ????? ('Theodore') and ?????? ('Matthew')
.
Numeric values[edit]
The numerical values correspond to the Greek numerals, with ??? being used for d
igamma, ??? for koppa, and ??? for sampi. The system was abandoned for secular p
urposes in 1708, after a transitional period of a century or so; it continues to
be used in Church Slavonic.
Diacritics[edit]
Russian spelling uses fewer diacritics than those used for most European languag
es. The only diacritic, in the proper sense, is the acute accent ??? (Russian: ?
??? ???????? 'mark of stress'), which marks stress on a vowel, as it is done in
Spanish and Greek. Although Russian word stress is often unpredictable and can f
all on different syllables in different forms of the same word, this diacritic i
s only used in special cases: in dictionaries, children's books, language-learni
ng resources, or on minimal pairs distinguished only by stress (for instance, ???
?? 'castle' vs. ????? 'lock'). Rarely, it is used to specify the stress in uncomm
on foreign words and in poems where unusual stress is used to fit the meter. Uni
code has no code points for the accented letters; they are instead produced by s
uffixing the unaccented letter with U+0301 ? combining accute accent.
The letter ??? is a special variant of the letter ???, which is not always disti
nguished in written Russian, but the umlaut-like sign has no other uses. Stress
on this letter is never marked, as it is always stressed, except in some loanwor
ds.
Unlike the case of ???, the letter ??? has completely separated from ???. It has
been used since the 16th century, was removed in 1708 but reinstated in 1735. S
ince then, its usage has been mandatory. It was formerly considered a diacritici
zed letter, but in the 20th century it came to be considered a separate letter o
f the Russian alphabet. It was classified as a "semivowel" by 19th- and 20th-cen
tury grammarians but since the 1970s it has been considered a consonant letter.
Keyboard layout[edit]
The standard Russian keyboard layout for PC computers is as follows:
Russian keyboard layout
However, there are several choices of so-called "phonetic keyboards" that one ma
y use on a PC that are often used by non-Russians. For example, typing an Englis
h (Latin) letter on a keyboard will actually type a Russian letter with a simila
r sound (A-A,O-O,F-?,...). See virtual keyboard and Russian keyboard layout (Wik
ipedia).
Letter names[edit]
Until approximately the year 1900, mnemonic names inherited from Church Slavonic
were used for the letters. They are given here in the pre-1918 orthography of t
he post-1708 civil alphabet.
The great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin wrote: "The letters constituting the Sl
avonic alphabet do not produce any sense. ??, ????, ????, ???????, ????? etc. ar
e separate words, chosen just for their initial sound". But since the names of t
he first letters of the Slavonic alphabet seem to form text, attempts were made
to compose sensible text from all letters of the alphabet.[10][11]
Here is one such attempt to "decode" the message:
?? ???? ???? I know letters[12]
??????? ????? ???? "To speak is a beneficence" or "The word is property"[13
]
?????? ????, ?????, ? ??? ? ???? ???? "Live, while working heartily, people of
Earth, in the manner people should obey"
??????? ??? ?? ????? "try to understand the Universe (the world that is aroun
d)"
??? ????? ?????? "be committed to your word"[14]
?? ???? ??? "The knowledge is fertilized by the Creator, knowledge is the gi
ft of God"
?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ? "Try harder, to understand the Light of the Creator"
In this attempt only lines 1, 2 and 5 somewhat correspond to real meanings of th
e letters' names, while "translations" in other lines seem to be fabrications or
fantasies. For example, "?????" ("rest" or "apartment") doesn't mean "the Unive
rse", and "????" doesn't have any meaning in Russian or other Slavonic languages
(there are no words of Slavonic origin beginning with "f" at all). The last lin
e contains only one translatable word "?????" ("worm"), which, however, was not
included in the "translation".
See also[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Russian alphabet.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Introduction of the civil Russian
alphabet by Peter I.
Russian cursive (handwritten letters)
Russian orthography
Reforms of Russian orthography
Russian braille
Russian manual alphabet
Romanization of Russian
Computer russification
Russian phonology
Cyrillic script
Yoficator
Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ Ushakov, Dmitry, "??????", ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? [Ex
planatory Dictionary of the Russian Language] (article) (in Russian), RU: Yandex
; the dictionary makes difference between ? and ?.[1]
References[edit]
Jump up ^ Ushakov, Dmitry, "????", ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? (in R
ussian), RU: Yandex.
Jump up ^ Ushakov, Dmitry, "???????", ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? [E
xplanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language] (article) (in Russian), RU: Yande
x.
Jump up ^ ???, RU: Feb web.
Jump up ^ Stefan Trost Media, Character Frequency: Russian. "Basis of this list
were some Russian texts with together 1.351.370 characters (210.844 words), 1.08
6.255 characters were used for the counting. The texts consist of a good mix of
different literary genres."
Jump up ^ Benson 1960, p. 271.
Jump up ^ Vasmer 1979.
Jump up ^ Vasmer, "???", Dictionary (etymology) (in Russian) (online ed.), retri
eved 16 October 2005.
Jump up ^ Smirnovskiy 1915, p. 4.
Jump up ^ Dunn & Khairov 2009, pp. 17 8.
Jump up ^ Maksimovic M.A. (1839). ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????????. ????: ???
???????????? ??????????. p. 215.
Jump up ^ Pavskij G.P. (1850). ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?
????: ? ?????? ? ??????. ?????? ???????????. p. 35.
Jump up ^ ?. ????????? (2002). ??? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? (in R
ussian). ????? ? ?????. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
Jump up ^ Vasil'ev A. (1838). ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???
???. ??????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????-??????? ??????????. p.
159.
Jump up ^ ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????. 4. ???? ????? ?????. p.
91. ISBN 9785224024384.
Bibliography[edit]
Ivan G. Iliev. Short History of the Cyrillic Alphabet. Plovdiv. 2012. Short Hist
ory of the Cyrillic Alphabet
Benson, Morton (1960), "Review of The Russian Alphabet by Thomas F. Magner", The
Slavic and East European Journal, 4 (3): 271 72, doi:10.2307/304189
Dunn, John; Khairov, Shamil (2009), Modern Russian Grammar, Modern Grammars, Rou
tledge
Halle, Morris (1959), Sound Pattern of Russian, MIT Press
Smirnovskiy, P (1915), A Textbook in Russian Grammar, Part I. Etymology (26th ed
.), CA: Shaw
Vasmer, Max (1979), Russian Etymological Dictionary, Winter