You are on page 1of 120

!

"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$560

UNIVERSIT POLITECNICA DELLE MARCHE


FACOLT DI ECONOMIA GIORGIO FU
! _______________________________________________________________

! Corso di Laurea Magistrale in Economia e Commercio Internazionale

SOCIAL MEDIA FOR KNOWLEDGE


SHARING IN A START-UP BUSINESS:
A CASE STUDY

Relatore: Chiar.mo

Prof. John R. Schermerhorn, Jr.

Correlatore: Chiar.mo Tesi di Laurea di:


Prof. Giuseppe Canullo Andrea Pacini

Anno Accademico 2011 2012

!
!

7$!85$9:!;$<#!=:!23<'5,'5<$5#>!;5:>!?'3+/0'!<'!$ '#'(!,!!'!'0!-$!%<+-!"!%+#-!-$!
?'3$,'!1#!,!!&19':!

7$!#&+/(1$!$$331$#1>!-<'!5'+&!+/-<$5!$9!-<10!-<'010:!

7$!,!!3&+00,+-'0:!%0!-<'!"#$$%!%$/&(!0+!>!&951'#(0!%1&&!?'!951'#(0':!

!
Abstract
7<'! 1#(/0-51+&! %$5&(! <+0! ?''#! ($,1#+-'(! ?!! -<'! 031'#-1913! ,+#+)','#-! $9! 5$(/3-1$#:! 7<10!
,$('&! %$56'(! +5-13/&+5&!! %'&&! +#(! %+0! (/0-191'(! ?!! -<'! 3/&-/5+&! +#(! '3$#$,13! 3$#(1-1$#0! $9!
-<'!&+0-! 3'#-/5!:!)$%'*'5>!1-!#$!&$#)'5!%$560!1#!+!%$5&(!1#!%<13<!', &$!''0!($! #$-!<+*'! -$!
3+55!!$/-!1-'5+-1*'!-+060!9$5!%<13<!#$!061&&0!+5'!5'+/15'(:!=+-<'5>!-<'!!<+*'!-$!?'!'#)+)'(!+#(!
3$, '-'#-:! 7<'! 0/33'00! $9! -$(+!,0! $5)+#10+-1$#0! (' '#(0! $#! -<'! ('*'&$ ,'#-! $9! -<'15!
', &$!''0,!6#$%&'()':!!
7<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ !10!$#'!$9!-<'!?'0-!"-+&1+#!'.+, &'0!$9!+!6#$%&'()'/?+0'(!3$, +#!:!
0*'5!!(+!!', &$!''0!/0'!-<'15!6#$%&'()'!-$!3$,'!/ !%1-<!1##$*+-1*'!+#(!?'#'9131+&!0$&/-1$#0!
9$5!-<'!91#+&!3/0-$,'5:!"9!6#$%&'()'!10!0$!1, $5-+#-!9$5!-<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ >!0$!10!9$5!$#'!$9!1-0!
!$/#)'0-! '#('+*$/501! &'(()'%)! *#+,%(,-$:! $$331$#1! )/,+#3+5'! $ '5+-'0! 1#! +! <1)<&!!
-'3<#$&$)13+&!,+56'-!%<13<!,+6'0!1-!#'3'00+5!!9$5! '$ &'!-$!('*'&$ !#'%!061&&0!+&&!-<'!-1,':!
%33$5(1#)!-$!-<10!?/01#'00!/#1-,0!,+#+)'5>!-<'!0/33'00!$9!<10!0-+5-// !($'0!#$-!(' '#(!
$#&!!$#!-<'!,+56'-2!5+-<'5>!1-!,+1#&!!(' '#(0!$#!<$%!9+0-!', &$!''0!+3+/15'!#'%!6#$%&'()':!
7<+-! 10! %<!! '$ &',0! 3$, '-'#3'! +#(! 6#$%&'()'! +5'! -<'! 6'!! (51*'50! $9! -<'15! 0/33'00:!
7<'5'9$5'>!1-!%$/&(!?'!/0'9/&!9$5!-<',!-$!,+#+)'!-<+-!6#$%&'()'!1#!$5('5!-$!0-+!!3$, '-1-1*':!
"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+1,0!+-!1#35'+01#)!-<'!&'*'&!$9!6#$%&'()'!$9!'+3<!', &$!'':!"-!
%+0! +! *'5!! <$-! -$ 13! 1#! -<'! 34450! ?/-! 1-! <+0! #$-! ?5$/)<-! +&&! -<'! 5$,10'(! ?'#'91-0:! %#!
1##$*+-1*'! %+!! -$! 9$0-'5! 3$&&+?$5+-1$#! +#(! 1#-'5+3-1*1-!! 10! -<'! /0'! $9! 0$31+&! ,'(1+! -$! 0<+5'!
6#$%&'()':! 2$31+&! *'(1+! )1*'0! /0'50! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! 0<+5'! 1#9$5,+-1$#>! 1#01)<-0>! $ 1#1$#0>!
'. '51'#3'0!+#(!6#$%&'()'!1#!+!3$&&+?$5+-1*'!,+##'5:!7<10!10!-<'!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)!
<'#$,'#$#:!
7<'! /5 $0'!$9!-<10! 5$('3-!10!-<'!1#-5$(/3-1$#!$9!+!.%'/0$12$345,-)%2!60,78'-+!%1-<1#!
-<'! )/,+#3+5'! +5'+! $9! -<'! $$331$#1! -5$/ :! "#! ;/&!>! 6536! +! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! %+0!
&+/#3<'(! %1-<! -<'! +1,! $9! 9+31&1-+-1#)! 1#9$5,+-1$#! +#(! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#):! 8'$ &'! %'5'! )1*'#!
-$-+&! 95''($,! +?$/-! %<'-<'5>! <$%! +#(! %<'#! -$! /0'! -<'! #'%! -$$&! +0! 1-! 0<$/&(! ?'! 1#! +!
6#$%&'()'/?+0'(!3$, +#!>!%<'5'!%$56'50!6#$%!%<+-!-$!($!+#(!<$%!-$!($!1-:!
7<10! '. '51,'#-! <+0! ?''#! +#! 1, $5-+#-! 0-' ! -$%+5(0! -<'! 35'+-1$#! $9! +! 6#$%&'()'/
0<+51#)!3$, +#!:!#$#01('5!-<+-!1-!%+0!&+/#3<'(!%1-<1#!+!0-+5-// !%<$0'!0/33'00!10!9,4$1!$#!
-<'! 6#$%&'()'! ('*'&$ ,'#-! $9! 1-0! 3$&&+?$5+-$50:! 7</0>! 1-! ?'3+,'! +! 5'+&! -$$&! %<13<! 10!

111 !
!
%?0-5+3-

3$#-51?/-1#)! -$! -<'! 9$5-/#'! $9! -<10! ?/01#'00! 1#1-1+-1*':! .'01('0>! ', &$!''0! -<',0'&*'0! <+*'!
('31('(!-$!3$#-1#/'!-$!/0'!-<'! &+-9$5,!'*'#!#$%!+#(!-<10!10!-<'!,$0-!5'+00/51#)!5'0/&-:!
%&&! 1#! +&&>! -<'! )'#'5+&! '53' -1$#! 10! -<+-! ', &$!''0!+5'! 0+-1091'(! +?$/-!-<'! 6#$%&'()'/
0<+51#)! &+-9$5,:! 4+-/5+&&!>! 0$,'! $?0-+3&'0! <+*'! ?''#! '#3$/#-'5'(>! 5'*'#-1#)! ', &$!''0!
95$,!/01#)!-<10!-$$&!,$5'!'99'3-1*'&!:!)$%'*'5>!?!! +!1#)! +5-13/&+5!+--'#-1$#!-$!0$,'!100/'0!
5+10'(! ?!! ', &$!''0! -<',0'&*'0! 0$,'! $?0-+3&'0! ,1)<-! ?'! $*'53$,'>! -</0! ,+61#)! -<'!
6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,!,$5'!'#)+)1#)!+#(!/0'9/&:!7<'!1('+!?'<1#(!-<10!%$56!10!*+&1(!+#(>!
/#('5!-<'!51)<-!3$#(1-1$#0>!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,0!(,%!?'!?'#'9131+&!9$5!3$, +#1'0:!
75+(1-1$#+&! 6#$%&'()'! ,+#+)','#-! 10! +?$/-! ,+#+)','#-! -'&&1#)! ', &$!''0! %<+-! -$!
6#$%! ?+0'(! $#! %<+-! 75$:! -<1#6! 10! 1, $5-+#-:! 2$31+&! ,'(1+! 10! +?$/-! ''50! 0<+51#)! %<+-! 75$:!
-<1#6!10!1, $5-+#-!1#!+!3$&&+?$5+-1*'!+#(!1#-'5+3-1*'!%+!:!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

! 1*
!

Abstract - Italian translation


;0! +'%1'! )%1#47-),0$! <! 47,7'! 1'+)%,7'! 1,00='-2,%)>>,>)'%$! 4()$%7)8)(,! 1$0! 0,?'-' ! #%! +'1$00'!
2)#47)8)(,7'! 1,00$! ('%1)>)'%)! $('%'+)('3(#07#-,0)! 1$00'! 4('-4'! 4$('0'!! "#77,?), ! %$0! +'%1'!
,77#,0$ !7,0$!+'1$00'!%'%!7-'?,!6)#!8'%1,+$%7'!6$-(5$!)!('00,9'-,7'-)!1$00$!,>)$%1$!+'1$-%$!
%'%!1$?'%'!6)#!$4$2#)-$!('+6)7)!-)6$7)7)?)!(5$!%'%!-)(5)$1'%'!0'!4?)0#66'!1)!%#'?$!('+6$7$%>$!!
&$!,>)$%1$!+'1$-%$!($-(,%'!('00,9'-,7'-)!+'7)?,7)!$!('+6$7$%7)!!%22)!)0! 4#(($44'!1$00$!
,>)$%1$! %'%! 1)6$%1$! 4'0'! 1,0! +$-(,7' ! +,! ,%(5$! $! 4'6-,77#77'! 1,00,! ?$0'()7&! ('%! (#)! )!
('00,9'-,7'-)!,('#)4)4('%'!%#'?$!('%'4($%>$!!
;0!(-#66'!&'(()'%)!<!#%'!1$)!+)20)'-)!$4$+6)!)%!;7,0),!1)!)+6-$4,!9,4,7,!4#00,!('%'4($%>,!!
%2%)! 2)'-%'! )! ('00,9'-,7'-)! &'(()'%)! ,660)(,%'! 0$! 0'-'! ?,47$! ('%'4($%>$! 6$-! 4?)0#66,-$! 1$00$!
4'0#>)'%)! )%%'?,7)?$! ,! ?,%7,22)'! 1$)! (0)$%7)!! )$! 0,! ('%'4($%>,! <! )+6'-7,%7$! 6$-! )0! (-#66'!
&'(()'%) !0'!<!,%(5$!$!4'6-,77#77'!6$-!#%,!1$00$!4#$!6)#!2)'?,%)!9#4)%$44!#%)7*!*#+,%(,-$!!
&'(()'%)! *#+,%(,-$! '6$-,! )%! #%! +$-(,7'! ,07,+$%7$! 7$(%'0'2)('! (5$! +'07'! 46$44'!
-)(5)$1$!0'!4?)0#66'!1)!%#'?$!('+6$7$%>$!!)$('%1'!)0!-$46'%4,9)0$!1)!0)%$, !)0!4#(($44'!1)!'#$47,!
47,-73#6!%'%!1)6$%1$!7,%7'!'!4'0'!1,0!+$-(,7' !+,!,%(5$!$!4'6-,77#77'!1,00,!?$0'()7&!('%!(#)!)!
4#')!('00,9'-,7'-)!,('#)4)4('%'!%#'?$!('%'4($%>$!!"#)%1) !,88)%(5$!'#$47,!9#4)%$44!#%)7!,99),!
4#(($44' !(=<!9)4'2%'!1)!2$47)-$!0,!('%'4($%>,!+.%'/0$12$!+,%,2$+$%7,!,00=)%7$-%'!1$0!7$,+!!
;0!-%'/0$12$!.,%,2$+$%7!4)!6'%$!('+$!'9)$77)?'!0=)%(-$+$%7'!1$00,!('%'4($%>,!1)!'2%)!
('00,9'-,7'-$! 1)! #%=,>)$%1,!! /-,! #%'! 1$20)! ,-2'+$%7)! 6)#! 4$2#)7)! %$20)! ,%%)! =01 ! +,! %'%! 5,!
6'-7,7'!)!9$%$8)()!46$-,7)!!2%!+'1'!,07$-%,7)?'!$1!)%%'?,7)?'!6$-!+)20)'-,-$!0,!('00,9'-,>)'%$!$!
0=)%7$-,77)?)7&!8-,!)!('00,9'-,7'-)!<!0=#4'!1$)!4'(),0!+$1),!6$-!('%1)?)1$-$!0,!('%'4($%>,!!;!4'(),0!
+$1),! 6$-+$77'%'! 1)! ('%1)?)1$-$! )%8'-+,>)'%) ! '6)%)'%) ! )1$$! $1! $46$-)$%>$! )%! +'1'!
('00,9'-,7)?'!!/=!)0!8$%'+$%'!1$)!4'(),0!%$7/'-.!,>)$%1,0)!!
&='9)$77)?'! 1)! '#$47'! 0,?'-'! 1)! 7$4)! <! 6-'6-)'! '#$00'! 1)! )%7-'1#--$! ,00=)%7$-%'! 1$00=,-$,!
*#+,%(,-$! #%,! 6),77,8'-+,! 1)! ('%1)?)4)'%$! 1$00$! ('%'4($%>$!! "#$47,! 6),77,8'-+,! <! 47,7,!
0,%(),7,! %$0! 0#20)'! 1$0! 3143! ('%! 0'! 4('6'! 1)! 8,()0)7,-$! 0,! ('%1)?)4)'%$! 1)! ('+6$7$%>$! $!
('%'4($%>$!! ;! ('00,9'-,7'-)! 5,%%'! ,?#7'! +,44)+,! 0)9$-7&! 4#! ('+$ ! '#,%1'! $! 4$! #7)0)>>,-$! )0!
%#'?'! 47-#+$%7' ! ('+$! 1'?-$99$! $44$-$! )%! #%,! )+6-$4,! 9,4,7,! 4#00,! ('%'4($%>, ! )%! (#)! )!
('00,9'-,7'-)!4,%%'!('4,!8,-$!$!('+$!8,-0'!!
!

* !
!
%?0-5+3-!7!"-+&1+#!-5+#0&+-1$#

"#$47'! $46$-)+$%7'! <! 47,7'! #%! 6,44'! )+6'-7,%7$! ?$-4'! 0,! (-$,>)'%$! 1)! #%,! )+6-$4,!
9,4,7,! %'%! 4'0'! 4#00,! ('%'4($%>, ! +,! ,%(5$! 4#00,! 4#,! ('%1)?)4)'%$!! ))! ('%4)1$-)! (5$! 0,!
6),77,8'-+,! ?)-7#,0$!<! 47,7,!0,%(),7,! ,00=)%7$-%'!1)!#%,!47,-73#6!(5$! 9,4,!)0!4#'! 4#(($44'! 4#00,!
('%'4($%>,!1$00$!6-'6-)$!-)4'-4$!#+,%$!!/1!<!6$-!'#$47'!(5$!<!1)?$%7,7,!#%'!47-#+$%7'!-$,0$!
(5$! 47,! ('%7-)9#$%1'! ,0! 4#(($44'! 1)! '#$47,! )%)>),7)?,! )+6-$%1)7'-),0$!! ;%'07-$ ! )! ('00,9'-,7'-)!
47$44)!5,%%'!1$()4'!1)!('%7)%#,-$!,1!#7)0)>>,-0,!$!'#$47'!<!#%'!1$)!-)4#07,7)!6)#!-,44)(#-,%7)!!
;%!2$%$-,0$ !)!('00,9'-,7'-)!4'%'!4'11)48,77)!1)!'#$47'!$46$-)+$%7'!!%??),+$%7$ !1#-,%7$!
)0! (,++)%'! 4'%'! 47,7)! )%('%7-,7)! ,0(#%)! '47,('0)! (5$! %'%! 5,%%'! 6$-+$44'! ,1! ,0(#%)! 1)! 0'-'! 1)!
#7)0)>>,-$!)0!4'(),0!%$7/'-.!)%!+'1'!6)#!('%7)%#'!$1!$88)(,($!!"#)%1) !4$!0=,>)$%1,!)%)>),44$!'-,!,!
('%4)1$-,-$! $!,! ($-(,-$!1)! -)4'0?$-$!,0(#%)!1$)!6-'90$+)! (5$!)!0'-'!47$44)! 5,%%'! $?)1$%>),7' !0,!
6),77,8'-+,! 1)! ('%1)?)4)'%$! 1$00,! ('%'4($%>,! 6'7-$99$! 1)?$%7,-$! ,%('-,! 6)#! #7)0$! $!
(')%?'02$%7$!!
;%!1$8)%)7)?, !0=)1$,!1,00,!'#,0$!%,4($!'#$47'!0,?'-'!<!?,0)1,!$ !4'77'!0$!2)#47$!('%1)>)'%) !
#%! 4'(),0! %$7/'-.! 6$-! ('%1)?)1$-$! ('%'4($%>,! 6#5! 4)(#-,+$%7$! $44$-$! #7)0$! ,%(5$! ,0! +'%1'!
,>)$%1,0$!!!
6$0! .%'/0$12$! +,%,2$+$%7! 7-,1)>)'%,0$ ! )0! +,%,2$+$%7! 1)! #%=,>)$%1,! 1$()1$! '#,0)!
('%'4($%>$! )! ('00,9'-,7'-)! 1$?'%'! 6'44$1$-$! 4#00,! 9,4$! 1)! '#$00'! (5$! 0,! 1)-$>)'%$! 6$%4,! 4),!
)+6'-7,%7$!! &=#4'! 1$)! 4'(),0! +$1),! 8,! 47! (5$! )! ('00$25)! ('%1)?)1,%'! )%! +'1'! ('00,9'-,7)?'! $1!
)%7$-,77)?'!0$!)%8'-+,>)'%)!$!0$!('%'4($%>$!(5$!0'-'!47$44)!-$6#7,%'!-)0$?,%7)!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

! *1
!

Key concepts

-%'/0$12$39,4$1!('+6,%:!
%!6#$%&'()'/?+0'(!3$, +#!!10!+!3$, +#!!%<13<!+ &1'0!6#$%&'()'!-$!('*'&$ !1##$*+-1*'!
+#(!?'#'9131+&!0$&/-1$#0!9$5!3/0-$,'50:!

-%'/0$12$!/'-.$-4!
"#$%&'()'!%$56'50!+5'!%$56'50!%<$0'!,+1#!3+ 1-+&!10!6#$%&'()':!0.+, &'0!$9!6#$%&'()'!
%$56'50!+5'!'#)1#''50>!031'#-10-0>!('01)#'50>!'-3:!8<+-!(10-1#)/10<'0!-<',!95$,!$-<'5!%$56'50!
10!-<'!&#$#/5$/-1#''!+3-1*1-!!-<'!! '59$5,:!!

-%'/0$12$!.,%,2$+$%7!
"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!10!-<'! 5$3'00!?!!%<13<!+#!$5)+#10+-1$#!1('#-191'0>!$5)+#10'0!+#(!
0<+5'0!1#01)<-0!+#(!'. '51'#3'0:!"-0!+1,!10!-$!1#35'+0'!-<'!&'*'&!$9!6#$%&'()'!$9!'+3<!
', &$!'':!

)'(),0!.$1),!
2$31+&!,'(1+!10!+!,'+#0!$9!1#-'5+3-1$#!-<5$/)<!%<13<! '$ &'!35'+-'!+#(!0<+5'!3$#-'#-0!+,$#)!
-<',0'&*'0!1#!+!*15-/+&!'#*15$#,'#-:!!!

8#4)%$44!4'(),0!%$7/'-.)%2!
%!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!10!*'5!!01,1&+5!-$!3$#0/,'5!0$31+&!#'-%$560!9':):!:+3'?$$6;!1#!-<+-!1-!
+&&$%0!/0'50!-$!0'-!/ ! 5$91&'0>!0<+5'!/ (+-'0!+#(!1#-'5+3-!%1-<!'+3<!$-<'5:!7<'!(199'5'#3'!10!
-<+-!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$560!1#3&/('!0 '31913!9'+-/5'0!9$5!-<'!?/01#'00!%$5&(:!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

*11 !
!

Structure of the thesis

95,67$-!4!('+&0!%1-<!-<'!510'!$9!6#$%&'()'/?+0'(! 3$, +#1'0:!"-! $1#-0! $/-!-<+-!-<'!?/01#'00!


%$5&(! <+0! ?''#! ,$*1#)! 95$,! +#! $&(! ,+-'51+&! '3$#$,!>! ?+0'(! $#! -'3<#13+&! 3+ +?1&1-1'0>! -$! +!
#'%! 6#$%&'()'! '3$#$,!>! ?+0'(! $#! </,+#! 3+ 1-+&:! 7<'! 0/33'00! $9! ,$('5#! $5)+#10+-1$#0!
(' '#(0! $#! <$%! 9+0-! ', &$!''0! 1#35'+0'! -<'15! 6#$%&'()':! 7<10! 3<+ -'5! +&0$! 0<$%0! %<!! -<'!
$$331$#1! -5$/ !3+#!?'!3$#01('5'(!+!6#$%&'()'/?+0'(!3$, +#!!+#(!0-+-'0!-<+-!6#$%&'()'!10!
-<'! 6'!! (51*'5! 9$5! -<'! 0/33'00! $9! $#'! $9! 1-0! !$/#)'0-! '#('+*$/501! -<'! )/,+#3+5'! +5'+:!
7<'5'9$5'>!-<10!-'+,!$9! '$ &'!%$/&(!?'#'91-!95$,!,+#+)1#)!-<'!6#$%&'()'!-<'!!('*'&$ !$*'5!
-1,':!

95,67$-! 3! 1#-5$(/3'0! -<'! 100/'! $9! "#$%&'()'! *+#+)','#-:! "#! +5-13/&+5>! 1-! 0<$%0! %<!!
-5+(1-1$#+&! 6#$%&'()'! ,+#+)','#-! <+0! #$-! ?5$/)<-! +&&! -<'! ('015'(! ?'#'91-0:! %#! +&-'5#+-1*'!
+#(!1##$*+-1*'!%+!!-$!0<+5'!6#$%&'()'!%1-<1#!+!3$, +#!!1#!+!3$&&+?$5+-1*'!,+##'5!10!-<'!/0'!
$9! 0$31+&! ,'(1+:! )$%'*'5>! 19! ', &$!''0! +5'! #$-! 1#-51#013+&&!! ,$-1*+-'(! -$! 0<+5'! -<'15! 6#$%/
<$%>! -<'!1#-5$(/3-1$#!$9!0$31+&!,'(1+!-$$&0! %1&&!/#&16'&!! 5$(/3'! +#!!01)#1913+#-!?'#'91-:!7<10!
3<+ -'5!+&0$!('+&0!%1-<!-<'!100/'!$9!,$-1*+-1$#!9$5!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#):!7<'#>!1-!)$'0!-<5$/)<!
-<'! $-'#-1+&0>!51060!+#(!$?0-+3&'0!+00$31+-'(!%1-<!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)>!1#3&/(1#)!0$,'!
3+0'!0-/(1'0!$9!3$, +#1'0!/01#)!?/01#'00!0$31+&! &+-9$5,0:!

95,67$-! :! <1)<&1)<-0! -<'! 5'0'+53<! +/'0-1$#! -$! 1#*'0-1)+-'>! -<+-! 10>! &%<+-! 10! -<'! ?'0-! %+!! -$!
,+#+)'! 6#$%&'()'! %1-<1#! +! 6#$%&'()'/?+0'(! 0-+5-// ! ,+61#)! 0/5'! -<+-! ', &$!''0! &'+5#! +0!
9+0-! +0! $001?&'<'! "-! +&0$! 3$#-+1#0! +#!! ('-+1&0! +?$/-! <$%! (+-+! +#(! 1#9$5,+-1$#! <+*'! ?''#!
)+-<'5'(:!

95,67$-!;!10!+!3+0'!0-/(!:!"-!('0351?'0!-<'!1#-5$(/3-1$#!$9!+!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!%1-<1#!-<'!
)/,+#3+5'!-'+,!$9!-<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ :!"-!1#3&/('0!%<+-!', &$!''0!-<$/)<-!+?$/-!-<10!1('+>!
)1*'0!0$,'!)/1('&1#'0!$#! %<13<! 61#(!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#! 3+#!?'!0<+5'(!$#!+!*15-/+&! &+-9$5,!+#(!
1('#-191'0!%<13<!0$31+&!#'-%$56!%$/&(!?'!-<'!,$0-!+ 5$ 51+-'!9$5!-<'!-'+,:!"-!+&0$!1#3&/('0!+!
+/'0-1$##+15'!<+#('(!$/-!-$!-<'!', &$!''0!1#!$5('5!-$!/#('50-+#(!%<'-<'5!$5!#$-!-<'5'!%+0!
5$$,!9$5!1, &','#-1#)!0/3<!+!-$$&:!

! !

! *111
2-5/3-/5'!$9!-<'!-<'010!

:1#+&&!>!95,67$-!<!10!+#!'*+&/+-1$#!$9!-<'!+3-1*1-!!3+551'(!$/-!1#!-<'!*15-/+&!(+0<?$+5(!$*'5!+!=/
,$#-<!-'0-! '51$(:!"-!0<$%0!<$%!,/3<!1#9$5,+-1$#!', &$!''0!<+*'!?''#!0<+51#)!+,$#)!'+3<!
$-<'5>!%<13<!+5'+!$9!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!-'+,!0<+5'(!-<'!,$0-!+#(!%<+-!61#(!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!-<'!!
<+*'! ?''#! 0<+51#):! 2$,'!3$#3&/(1#)! 5',+560! +#(! 0$,'! 0/))'0-1$#0! 9$5! -<'! 9/-/5'! ?+0'(! $#!
-<10!'. '51'#3'!+5'!(5+%#!+0!%'&&:!!
!
!
!
!

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!
!

1. !
!

Contents
%?0-5+3-!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!111!

%?0-5+3-!/!"-+&1+#!-5+#0&+-1$#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!*!

"'!!3$#3' -0!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!*11!

2-5/3-/5'!$9!-<'!-<'010!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!*111!

"#$%&'(!)*!+,-./0120345601!0,70898:606!;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;!)<!

7<'!1, $5-+#3'!$9!-<'!1#-+#)1?&'0!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!3=!

"#$%&'()'!%$56'50!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!3>!

7)0!$?##"?4"!-=?@81!%!"4?8$0A-0/.%20A!#?*8%4B!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!65!

7<'!)/,+#3+5'!+5'+!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!66!

"#$%&'(!<*!+,-./0120!=5,520=0,7!5,1!4>6:,066!6-":5/!,07.-8+6!;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;!<?!

)$%!-$!91.!"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!64!

A199'5'#3'0!?'-%''#!"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!0#-'5 510'!2$31+&!4'-%$560!::::::::::::::!C3!

2$31+&!*'(1+1!8$001?1&1-1'0!+#(!#<+&&'#)'0!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!C6!

*?7"D%7"?4!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!C4!

*$-1*+-1$#!-<'$51'0!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!=3!

.@2"4022!2?#"%$!4078?="21!8?7047"%$2>!="2"2!%4A!?.27%#$02!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!=E!

8$-'#-1+&0:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!=F!

=1060!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!G3!

??0-+3&'0!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!G=!

#+0'!0-/(1'0!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!GF!

"#$%&'(! *!806058"!!">067:-,!5,1!=07!-1!;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;!#?!

! .
#$#-'#-0!
!

"#$%&'(!$*!"560!67>1%*!/-"":-,:!!>=5,"580!;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;!#&!

@0'5!5'+/15','#-0!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!>E!

8<13<!1#9$5,+-1$#!-$!0<+5'!$#!-<'!*15-/+&!(+0<?$+5(!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!E6!

8<13<!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$56!10!+ 5$ 51+-'!9$5!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'::::::::::::::::::::::::::!E=!

H/'0-1$##+15'!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!F5!

"#$%&'(!?*!5,5/%6:6'!"-,"/>6:-,6!5,1!(>7>80!1:80"7:-,6!;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;!)&!

#<$13'!$9!-<'!#+,'!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!FE!

H/+#-1-+-1*'!'*+&/+-1$#!$9!-<'!+3-1*1-!!$#!-<'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!F4!

!!!!!!!!!#$#3&/01$#0!+#(!#'.-!0-' 0!:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!35E!

=0:0=04#02!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!333!

% '#(1.1!""8"!/!"4?8$0A-0!8?="0=!"4:=%27=@#7@=0!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!33=!

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

.1 !
!

Chapter 1
KNOWLEDGE-
KNOWLEDGE -BASED ENTERPRISES
=2%8'-7#%,7$0:!:'#-!('+6,%)$4!,-$!9,4$1!'%!75$!",:0'-!+'1$0!,%1!4'!,-$!:'#-!+)%14!!>!!!?!@$!
/$%7!'?$-!75$!",:0'-!+'1$0!>!!!?!A'-!#4!+,%,2$+$%7!)4!B#47!75$!,-7!'8!+'9)0)4)%2!,%1!)%7$2-,7)%2!
75$!)%7$00$(7#,0!-$4'#-($4!'8!,00!75$!$+60':$$4!)%!75$!4$-?)($!'8!75$!'-2,%)4,7)'%!C!

!D!"$#$0/6'!*+-0/0<1-+3!

:$5! ,$0-! $5)+#10+-1$#0! -$(+!! -<'! 6#$%&'()'! +#(! 3$, '-'#3'! $9! -<'15! 3$&&+?$5+-$50! 10!
-<'! 6'!! 9$5! -<'15! 0/33'00:! 7<'! 1#(/0-51+&! ,$('&! /! ,$0-&!! ?+0'(! $#! -'3<#13+&! 3+ +?1&1-1'0! /! <+0!
'#('(! +#(! &'9-! 0 +3'! -$! +! #'%! ,$('&! 1#! %<13<! 1#-'&&'3-/+&! +#(! 3/&-/5+&! 3+ +?1&1-1'0! ?'3$,'!
'00'#-1+&:! "#! -<10! #'%! ,$('&>! -<'5'! +5'! -%$! 6'!! &'*'&0! $9! '.3'&&'#3'1! 6#$%&'()'! +#(!
3$, '-'#3':! "#-'5'0-1#)&!! '#$/)<>! '*'#! 1#(/0-51+&! 3$, +#1'0! -$(+!! +5'! (' '#('#-! $#! -<'!
6#$%&'()'!$9!-<'15!', &$!''0:!
7$! )5+0 ! -<10! $1#->! 3$#01('5! %<+-! 2'-<! -$(1#6! %5$-'! 1#! <10! ?$$6! 2%0$,45)%2! 75$!
;1$,?)-#4C:!)'!#$-13'(!-<+-!65!!'+50!+)$!355!3$, +#1'0!$/-!$9!-<'!:$5-/#'!G55!&10-!%'5'!/0'(!
-$! /&&! ,+-'51+&0! $/-! $9! -<'! &+#(! $5! -5+#09$5,! +! ,+-'51+&! 5'0$/53'! 9':):! $1&;! 1#-$! +#$-<'5!
,+-'51+&!5'0$/53':!"#!6555>!$#&!!C6!$9!-<'!9150-!355!3$, +#1'0!1#!-<'!:$5-/#'!&10-!,+('! <!013+&!
5$(/3-0:! 7<'! $-<'5! >F! ,+1#&!! -5+('! 1('+0! +#(! -<'!! +5'! 1#0/5+#3'! 3$, +#1'0>! ?+#60>! &+5)'!
5'-+1&'50>!'#-'5-+1#,'#-!?/01#'00'0>!'-3:!
7<'!1#(/0-51+&!%$5&(!<+0!?''#!($,1#+-'(!?!!-<'!031'#-1913!,+#+)','#-!$9! 5$(/3-1$#>!
+&0$!3+&&'(!",:0'-)4+!01#3'!:5'('5136!8:!7+!&$5!%+0!1-0!+(*$3+-':!)'!$#3'!-+&6'(!?'9$5'!-<'!@:2:!
#<+,?'5!$9!=' 5'0'#-+-1*'0!+5)/1#)!-<+-!-<'!+*'5+)'!%$56'5!-<1#60!-<+-!<10!1#-'5'0-!+#(!-<+-!
$9! <10! 3$/%$56'50! 10! -$! %$56! 0&$%&!! +#(! -$! &1,1-! 5$(/3-1$#! 1#0-'+(! $9! )1*1#)! <10! ?'0-!
3$#-51?/-1$#:!7+!&$5!%'#-!$#!0+!1#)!<'!?'&1'*'(!-<10!$ 1#1$#!-$!?'!0<+5'(!?!! 5+3-13+&&!!'*'5!!
%$56'5:! )'! +&0$! -<$/)<-! -<+-! -<'! +*'5+)'! %$56'5! %+#-'(! +! ($?! 1#! %<13<! <'! (1(! #$-! <+*'! -$!
-<1#6:!7<'5'9$5'>!7+!&$5!%+#-'(!-$!('*'&$ !-<'!,$0-!'99131'#-!%$56!,'-<$(!9$5!-<10!)5$/ !$9!
&&+I!'! '$ &'!+#(!-<'!91#+&!$/-3$,'!%+0!-<'!('91#1-1$#!$9!0,+&&!+#(!1-'5+-1*'!-+060!-<+-!%$56'50!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
3
"$#$0/6'!*+-0/0<1-+!%+0!+!;+ +#'0'!'#-5' 5'#'/5!+#(!9$/#('5!$9!8+#+0$#13:!*+#!!;+ +#'0'!3$#01('5!
<1,!&-<'!-$(!$9!*+#+)','#-':!
6
!2'-<!-$(1#!10!+!,+56'-'5>!'#-5' 5'#'/5!+#(!+/-<$5:!2$,'!3+&&!<1,!-<'!&%,'513+,0!)5'+-'0-!,+56'-'5':!
)'!<+0!%51--'#!9$/5-''#!?'0-/0'&&1#)!?$$60>!+,$#)!%<13<!0$,'!+5'!+?$/-!-<'! $0-/1#(/0-51+&!5'*$&/-1$#:!!
C
!2:!-?A"4>!2%0$,45)%2!75$!;1$,?)-#4>!)! '51$#>!?3-$?'5!35>!6553!

! 36!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

<+(! -$! '59$5,! %1-<$/-! 5'+&&!! -<1#61#)! +?$/-! -<',! +#(! %1-<$/-! <+*1#)! -<'! 95''($,! -$! -+6'!
-<'! 1#1-1+-1*'! 1#! ($1#)! 0$,'-<1#)! (199'5'#-:! 7<10! 5$(/3-1$#! ,$('&! %+0! (/0-191'(! ?!! -<'! 0$31+&!
03'#+51$!$9!-<'!9150-!<+&9!$9!-<'!&+0-!3'#-/5!!+#(!?5$/)<-!</)'!?'#'91-0>!,+61#)!1-! $001?&'!9$5!
'$ &'! %1-<! #$! '(/3+-1$#! -$! %$56! +#(! 6'' ! +#! +33' -+?&'! &1*1#)! 0-+#(+5(! &+!1#)! -<'!
9$/#(+-1$#0!$9!-<'!0/?0'+/'#-!('*'&$ ,'#-:=!)$%'*'5>!-<10!,$('&!#$!&$#)'5!%$560!1#!+!%$5&(!
%<'5'!%$56'50!+5'!+06'(!-$!?'!'#)+)'(!+#(!3$, '-'#-:!!
:$5! -$(+!,0! $5)+#10+-1$#0! -<'! 6#$%&'()'! $9! -<'15! '$ &'! <+0! ?'3$,'! -<'! 6'!:! 7<$0'!
3$, +#1'0!?+0'!-<'15!0/33'00!$#!-<+-!6#$%&'()':!2$!-<'!+/'0-1$#!10>!%<!!<+*'!6#$%&'()'!+#(!
3$, '-'#3'!?'3$,'!0$!1, $5-+#-<!8'5<+ 0!-<'!,$0-!1, $5-+#-!5'+0$#!10!-<+-!-<'!,+56'-!<+0!
1, $0'(! -<'! #'3'001-!! -$! 0$ <10-13+-'! 5$(/3-0! +#(! 5$3'00'0:! ./-! +! 0'3$#(! 5'+0$#! 3$,'0!
95$,!-<'!#'%!(1*101$#!$9!&+?$/5!%<13<!0-+5-'(!0<+ 1#)!1-0'&9!(/51#)!-<'!450:!7<'!)&$?+&10+-1$#!
<+0! 1#(''(! 5$,$-'(! -<'!('*'&$ ,'#-! $9! &+?$/5/1#-'#01*'! 3$, +#1'0! 1#! ','5)1#)! 3$/#-51'0!
,+61#)! 5$(/3-0! ,/3<! 3<'+ '5:! 8<1&'! ('*'&$ '(! '3$#$,1'0! <+*'! ?''#! '. '51'#31#)! +!
5$3'00! &'+(1#)! -$! +! ,$('&! ?+0'(! $#! <1)<! +/+&1913+-1$#! $9! %$56'50! +#(! 5$(/3-1$#0! %<13<!
(10-1#)/10<!-<',0'&*'0!9$5!+/+&1-!>!+'0-<'-13!+#(!-'3<#$&$)!:!7<'5'9$5'>!1#!$5('5!-$!6'' !?'1#)!
3$, '-1-1*'! 3$, +#1'0! #''(! -$! 0$ <10-13+-'! 5$(/3-0! +#(! 5$3'00'0! ,+61#)! 1-! #'3'00+5!! 9$5!
%$56'50! -$! ('*'&$ ! ,$5'! +#(! ,$5'! +?1&1-1'0:! 7<'! 6'!! 10! #$! &$#)'5! -<'! -+06! 1-0'&9>! 5+-<'5! -<'!
'. '51'#3'>!6#$%&'()'!+#(!5'&+-1$#+&!+#(! 5+3-13+&!3+ +?1&1-1'0!-<+-! '$ &'!+5'!+?&'!-$!('*'&$ !
+-!%$56:G!

7<'! 6#$%&'()'! 0$31'-!! /-0! -<'! 1#(1*1(/+&! +-! -<'! 3'#-5'! $9! -<'! $5)+#10+-1$#! +#(! <'!
<1,0'&9! 3+#! ('-'5,1#'! -<'! 0/33'00! $5! -<'! 9+1&/5'! $9! -<'! ?/01#'00:! 7$(+!,0! 3$, +#1'0! +06!
', &$!''0! -$! ?'! '#)+)'(! +#(! %+#-! -<',! -$! ('*'&$ ! +! 61#(! $9! '#-5' 5'#'/51+&! 0-!&':! "#! +#!
0 ''3<! -<+-! "$#$0/6'! *+-0/0<1-+! )+*'! 1#! 34E4! -$! +! )5$/ ! $9! %,'513+#! '#-5' 5'#'/50! %<$!
%'5'! *101-1#)! ;+ +#>! <'! $1#-'(! $/-! -<'! (199'5'#3'! ?'-%''#! -<'! %,'513+#! $5)+#10+-1$#+&!
?'<+*1$/5!+#(!-<'!;+ +#'0'!$#':!)'!+9915,'(!!-<'!;+ +#'0'!0/ '51$51-!!-<10!%+!1!

=@$! /)00! /)%! ,%1! 75$! )%1#47-),0! @$47! /)00! 0'4$!! E'#! (,%=7! 1'! ,%:75)%2! ,9'#7! )7! 9$(,#4$! 75$!
-$,4'%4!'8! :'#-!8,)0#-$!0)$! )%!:'#-4$08!!2%8'-7#%,7$0:! :'#-! ('+6,%)$4!,-$! 9,4$1!'%!75$!",:0'-!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
=
*$0-!$9!-<'! $ /&+-1$#!+-!-<'!?')1##1#)!$9!-<'!&+0-!3'#-/5!!%+0!3<+5+3-'51I'(!?!!1&&1-'5+3!!+#(!<+(!*'5!!
9'%! $001?1&1-1'0!-$!3+55!!$/-!3$, &13+-'(!-+060:!
G
!A:!):!8"4">!F!@5'0$!6$/!.)%1*!@5:!G)25738-,)%$-4!@)00!G#0$!75$!A#7#-$>!=1*'5<'+(!75+('>!*+53<!E>!
655>>!#<+ -'5!6!

3C !
!
"#$%&'()'/?+0'(!'#-'5 510'0

+'1$0! ,%1! 4'! ,-$! :'#-! +)%14!! E'#! ,-$! 1$$60:! ('%?)%($1! 75,7! 75$! -)257! /,:! 7'! +,%,2$! ,%!
'-2,%)4,7)'%!)4!8'-!9'44$4!7'!+,%,2$!,%1!8'-!/'-.$-4!7'!5'01!,!4(-$/1-)?$-!)%!75$)-!5,%14!!@$!
/$%7!'?$-!75$!",:0'-!+'1$0!!8#4)%$44!)4!4'!('+60$H!75,7!>!!!?!75$!4#-?)?,0!'8!('+6,%)$4!1$6$%1!
'%!75$!1,)0:!+'9)0)4,7)'%!'8!,00!75$!,?,)0,90$!)%7$00)2$%($!!A'-!#4!+,%,2$+$%7!)4!B#47!75$!,-7!'8!
+'9)0)4)%2!,%1!)%7$2-,7)%2!75$!)%7$00$(7#,0!-$4'#-($4!'8!,00!75$!$+60':$$4!)%!75$!4$-?)($!'8!75$!
'-2,%)4,7)'%! >!!!?! %%0:! 9:! 1')%2! 75)4! (,%! ,! ('+6,%:! 8,($! 75$! 7#-9#0$%($! ,%1! 9,--)$-4! '8! 75$!
(#--$%7!$%?)-'%+$%7!C!

7<10!#'%!,1#(0'-!<+0! 5$(/3'(!+!0<19-!95$,! 5$(/3-1$#!0''#!+0!+! 5$3'00!-$! 5$(/3-1$#!


0''#!+0!+!5'0/&-:!

The importance of the intangibles

"#!-<'!1#(/0-51+&!%$5&(>!-+#)1?&'!+00'-0!%'5'!-<'!6'!:!7$(+!!%<+-!5'+&&!!,+6'0!+!(199'5'#3'!+5'!
1#-+#)1?&'!+00'-0:! D'5!!$9-'#! 3$#0/,'50! ($!#$-! ?/!! +! 5$(/3-!9$5!1-0!-'3<#13+&! 9'+-/5'0>!-<'!!
?/!!1-!9$5!-<'!0'5*13'0! 5$*1('(!+#(!-<'!'. '51'#3'!-<'!!3+#!'#($!:!-+55!='!#$&(0>!10!/0'(!-$!
0+!!-<+-!=)7=4!%'7!75$!75)%2!75,7=4!)+6'-7,%7 !)7=4!75$!$H6$-)$%($!'8!75$!75)%2C!!7<10!*1'%!10!+&0$!
0/ $5-'(!?!!(+-+>!+0!0<$%#!1#!:1)!3:3:!

Fig.
Fig.1 .1 Employment and GDP growth of the economic supply (annual growth rate)
1959 - 1996

!
)'#-($*!2!)!!8#-$,#!'8!&,9'-!)7,7)47)(4!&,947,7!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
>
!-+55!='!#$&(0!10!+#!'. '5-!+-!('01)#>!,+56'-1#)>!?5+#(1#)!+#(!'99'3-1*'!3$,,/#13+-1$#:!!

! 3=!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

:1):! 3:3! <1)<&1)<-0! -<'! 9+3-! -<+-! -$(+!,0! '#-5' 5'#'/50! <+*'! -$! '#)+)'! 3/0-$,'50! +#(! ,+6'!
-<',! 9''&! +! ,',$5+?&'! +#(! /#1+/'! '. '51'#3':! #/0-$,'5! '#)+)','#-! #''(0! ', &$!''0!
'#)+)','#-!?'3+/0'!75$:!+5'!-<'!/&-1,+-'!5'0 $#01?&'!9$5!,+61#)!3/0-$,'50!9''&!-<+-!/#1+/'!
'. '51'#3':! 7<'5'! +5'! ,+#!! ?/01#'00! 0'3-$50! 1#! %<13<! 0'5*13'0! +#(! '*'#! '. '51'#3'0! ,+--'5!
-<'! ,$0->! 0/3<! +0! -<'! '#-'5-+1#,'#-! 1#(/0-5!>! 31#',+>! 03<$$&0>! ,/0'/,0>! 3/&-/5+&! 0'5*13'0>!
5'0-+/5+#-0!+0!%'&&!+0!,$5'!-5+(1-1$#+&!1#(/0-51'0:!?-<'5!(+-+!3$#915,!-<10!-5'#(>!9$5!1#0-+#3'1!

! ?#&!!CJ!$9!-<'! 513'!$9!+!3<1 !)$'0!-$!-<'!5+%!,+-'51+&!+#(!'#'5)!!$%#'5>!GJ!)$'0!-$!


-<'! '+/1 ,'#-! $%#'5>! >J! -$! %$56'50! +#(! ,$5'! -<+#! FGJ! 10! +--51?/-'(! -$! 0'5*13'0>!
,+56'-1#)>!('01)#>! +-'#-0!+#(!$-<'5!%'%37,%2)90$!'&','#-0:E!
! "#!-<'!@#1-'(!2-+-'0>!-<'!.%'/0$12$!(0,44!5' 5'0'#-0!65J!$9!-<'!%<$&'! $ /&+-1$#!?/-!
1-!10!+?&'!-$!)'#'5+-'!+!<1)<'5!5'*'#/'!-<+#!-<'!5',+1#1#)!F5J:F!

"#$%&'()'!%$56'50!5' 5'0'#-!-<'!?$/#(+5!!?'-%''#!-<'!$&(!,+-'51+&!'3$#$,!!+#(!-<'!
#'%! 6#$%&'()'! '3$#$,!:! :1):! 3:6! 0<$%0! -<'! 510'! $9! 6#$%&'()'! %$56'50! 1#! #/,'513+&! -'5,0:!
:'('513$!./-'5+4!<+0!3$#(/3-'(!-%$! 1'3'0!$9!5'0'+53<1!-<'!9150-!$#'!-+6'0!1#-$!+33$/#-!344G!
(+-+>! -<'! 0'3$#(! $#'! 3$#01('50! 655G! (+-+:! A+-+! <+*'! ?''#! 3$&&'3-'(! -<5$/)<! -<'! 0-+-10-130!
3'#-5'0!$9!01.!%'0-'5#!3$/#-51'035!+#(!-<'!0+, &'!1#3&/('(!031'#-10-0>!,+#+)'50>! 5$9'001$#+&0>!
-'3<#131+#0>!+&&! 5$9'001$#0! '59$5,'(!?!!6#$%&'()'!%$56'50:!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
E
;:!=":""4>!&,!8)%$!1$0!0,?'-'>!.+&(1#1!K!#+0-$&(1>!*1&+#!3444>! :!6F=/6FG!
F
!"?1(:!
4
:'('513$!./-'5+!10!+#!"-+&1+#!031'#-10->!03<$&+5!+#(!0$31$&$)10-:!
35
!:$5!-'5,+#!!344G!(+-+!%'5'!#$-!+*+1&+?&':!

3G !
!
"#$%&'()'/?+0'(!'#-'5 510'0

Fig. 1.2 Ratio of knowledge workers on the total working population

!
)'#-($*! :'('513$! ./-'5+>! -%'/0$12$! @'-.)%2!! &,?'-' ! 0,?'-,7'-) ! 4'()$7&! 1$00,! ('%'4($%>,>!
&*$#(+($51!@#1*'501-L'>!*1&+#!655F>! :C!

7<'! )5+ <! 0<$%0! -<+-! 1#! $#&!! -'#! !'+50! -<'! 5$ $5-1$#! $9! 6#$%&'()'! %$56'50! $#! -<'!
-$-+&!%$561#)! $ /&+-1$#!<+0!?''#!1#35'+01#)!5',+56+?&!!1#!+(*+#3'(!'3$#$,1'0:!

Knowledge workers

7<10! 0'3-1$#! '. &+1#0! -<'! 1, $5-+#3'! $9! 6#$%&'()'! %$56'50! -$(+!! +#(! 0/ $5-0! +#! 1('+1! -<'!
1#-+#)1?&'!*+&/'!$9!,+#!!3$, +#1'0!'.3''(0!-<'15!-+#)1?&'!*+&/'!9+#(!-<'!1#-+#)1?&'!*+&/'!$9!
,+#!! 5$(/3-0! '.3''(0! -<'15! -+#)1?&'! *+&/';:! .+5/3<! $'*33! +5)/'0! -<+-! -+#)1?&'!+#(! 91#+#31+&!
+00'-0! +5'! ?'3$,1#)! 3$,,$(1-1'0! %<13<! +5'! +?&'! -$! 5$(/3'! +-! ,$0-! +! ,$('5+-'! 5'-/5#! $#!
1#*'0-,'#-36:!)10!*1'%!10!-<+-!-<'!)%7,%2)90$4!$9!+#!$5)+#10+-1$#!+5'!?'3$,1#)!,$5'!1, $5-+#-!
-<+#!-<'!,+-'51+&! +00'-0!-<'!3$, +#!!1-0'&9!$%#0:!2$,'! '3$#$,10-0!<+*'!35'+-'(!+#!1#('.! /!
3+&&'(!+,-.$737'39''.!/!%<13<!10!-<'!5+-1$!?'-%''#!+!3$, +#!,0!,+56'-!*+&/'!+#(!1-0!,+-'51+&!
+00'-0:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
33
!.+5/3<!$'*!10!$#'!-<'!,$0-!5'&'*+#-!03<$&+50!$9!-<'!1#-+#)1?&'!*+&/'!$9!,$('5#!$5)+#10+-1$#0:!
36
.:!$0D>!;%7,%2)90$4*!.,%,2$+$%7 !.$,4#-$+$%7 !,%1!G$6'-7)%2>!.5$$61#)0!"#0-1-/-1$#!85'00>!;/#'!6E>!
6553!

! 3>!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

!
!
%#! +#+&!010! $9! -<10! 1#(13+-$5! /! /?&10<'(! ?!! 2K8! 9$5! -<'! G55! %,'513+#! 3$, +#1'0! -<'!!
3$#0-+#-&!!,$#1-$5!/!0<$%0!-<+-!-<'!,+56'-!*+&/'!$9!+!915,!10!,/3<!<1)<'5!-<+#!-<'!,+-'51+&!
+00'-0! 1-! $%#0:! 7<'! 5'+0$#! 10! 5'--!! 0-5+1)<-9$5%+5(1! -<'! ,+56'-! *+&/'0! #$-! $#&!! %<+-! +!
3$, +#!! $%#0! +0! ,+-'51+&! +00'-0! ?/-! +&0$! 1-0! $-'#-1+&>! -<+-! 10>! 1-0! 3+ +31-!! -$! )5$%! +#(!
)'#'5+-'!5'*'#/'!1#!-<'!9/-/5':!7<10!10!0<$%#!1#!:1):!3:C:!

Fig. 1.3
1.3 Average ratio between capitalisation and balance sheet of the 500 S&P
companies

!
7<'! )5+ <! 0<$%0! -<+-! 1#! -<'! 34E50! -<'! ,+56'-! *+&/'! )1*'#! -$! 3$, +#1'0! %+0! 5+-<'5!
3&$0'! -$! -<'! +00'-0! 1#3&/('(! 1#! -<'15! ?+&+#3'! 0<''-0:! %-! -<+-! -1,'! -<'! 5+-1$! %+0! *'5!! 3&$0'! -$!
$#'3C1!3$, +#!!0<+5'0!%'5'!?'1#)!*+&/'(!+0!,/3<!+0!3$, +#!! 5$ '5-1'0:!A/51#)!-<'!F50!-<'!
-5'#(!0-+5-0!1#35'+01#)!+#(!0$+50!1#!-<'!450:!7$(+!!3$, +#1'0!+5'!%$5-<!01.>!0'*'#>!'*'#!'1)<-!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
3C
!7<'!)5+ <!1#(13+-'0!355J!$#&!!?'3+/0'!-<'!$51)1#+&!9$5,/&+!<+0!?''#!,/&-1 &1'(!?!!355!-$!$?-+1#!+!
'53'#-+)':!

3E !
!
"#$%&'()'/?+0'(!'#-'5 510'0

-1,'0!-<'15!,+-'51+&!+00'-0>!35'+-1#)!+!#'%!61#(!$9!3+ 1-+&1!-<'!)%7$00$(7#,0!(,6)7,0:!7<10!3+ 1-+&!


('-'5,1#'0!-<'!0/33'00!$9!,$('5#!$5)+#10+-1$#0:!7<'!1#-'&&'3-/+&!3+ 1-+&!3+##$-!?'!5'+(!1#!-<'!
?+&+#3'!0<''-!9+ +5-!95$,! +-'#-0>!-5+(',+560!+#(!$-<'5!1-',0!-<+-!,/0-!?'!1#3&/('(!?!!&+%;!
?/-! !'-! 1-! 10! *+&/'(! ?!! -<'! ,+56'-1! 1#*'0-$50! +#(! ,$#'!! 0+*'50! '. 5'00! +! $-'#-1+&! 9$5!
3$, +#1'0!)$1#)!?'!$#(!-<'15!3/55'#-!*+&/':!

7<'!)5+ <!1#!:1):!3:=!10!'*'#!,$5'!',?&',+-13:!.!!3$#01('51#)!-<'!0+,'!2K8!3$, +#1'0!


1-!<1)<&1)<-0!<$%!-<'!,+56'-!*+&/'!3+#!?'!(1*1('(!1#-$!-+#)1?&'!+#(!1#-+#)1?&'!*+&/':!

Fig. 1.4
1.4 Components of the market value of the 500 S&P companies

!
)'#-($*!%($,%!"'+'!

%0! 0<$%#! 1#! -<'! )5+ <>! $*'5! -<'! &+0-! C5! !'+50! %<+-! <+ '#'(! %+0! +! +00+)'! 95$,! +!
,+-'51+&!'3$#$,!!91#!%<13<!-<'!-+#)1?&'!*+&/'!$9!3$, +#1'0! &+!'(!+!6'!!5$&';!-$!+!6#$%&'()'!
'3$#$,!! 91#! %<13<! 1#-+#)1?&'0! 5'*+1&;:8<'5'! ($'0! -<10! </)'! *+&/'! +(('(! 3$,'! 95$,<! "-!
3$,'0!95$,!-<5''!61#(0!$9!3+ 1-+&1!

! *#+,%!(,6)7,01!3$#0-1-/-'(!?!!6#$%&'()'!%$56'50!
! %-2,%)4,7)'%,0!(,6)7,01!-<'!3$, +#!!6#$%/<$%!

! 3F!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

! G$0,7)'%,0!(,6)7,01!-<'!5'&+-1$#0!3$, +#1'0!<+*'!%1-<!-<'!,+56'-!

??*1$/0&!>!1-!10!,/3<!'+01'5!-$!9$3/0!-<'!+--'#-1$#!$#!*101?&'!-<1#)0!%1-<$/-!3$#01('51#)!
%<+-!3+##$-!?'! 0''#!'+01&!:! )$%'*'5>!19! 3$, +#1'0! ($!#$-! ('*'&$ !-$$&0!+1,'(!+-!#/5-/51#)!
</,+#!3+ 1-+&>!-<'!5106!10!-$!&$0'!1-:!!
"#-'5'0-1#)&!! '#$/)<>! -<'! =7,%2)90$4! ?4!! )%7,%2)90$4C! 91)<-! 6'' 0! ,+61#)! 0'#0'! %<'#! 1-!
3$,'0!-$! 5$(/3-0:! *$5'!+#(!,$5'! $9-'#>!%<+-!+ '+&0!$9! +!,+-'51+&! )$$(! 10! 1-0!1,,+-'51+&!
3$, $#'#-0:!#$#01('5!-<'! 513'!$9!+!<+#(?+)!,+('!?!!+! 5'0-1)1$/0!"-+&1+#!?5+#(!+#(!3$, +5'!
1-!-$!-<+-!$9!+!#$#/?5+#('(!<+#(?+):!"0!-<'! 513'!(199'5'#3'!+--51?/-+?&'!-$!,+-'51+&!'&','#-0!
0/3<! +0! -<'! 3$0-! $9! 5$(/31#)! -<'! 5$(/3-<! *$0-! 5$?+?&!! #$-:! 7<'! 513'! (199'5'#3'! 3$,'0!
95$,!-<'! +?1&1-!!$9!-<'!?5+#(!3$, +#!!-$! )1*'!1-0! 5$(/3-0!+#!1,,+-'51+&! *+&/'!%<13<!,''-0!
-<'! #''(0! $9! +! 0<+5'(! 3/&-/5+&! *101$#:! 8'-'5! A5/36'53=! %+0! /0'(! -$! 0+!! -<+-! =)%%'?,7)'%! ,%1!
+,-.$7)%2!,-$!75$!'%0:!7/'!?,0#$3,11$1!,(7)?)7)$4!'8!,!('+6,%:!!F00!75$!-$47!,-$!('474C!4<!

Key ideas
! 7<'!1#(/0-51+&!%$5&(!<+0!?''#!($,1#+-'(!?!!-<'!031'#-1913!,+#+)','#-!$9! 5$(/3-1$#!
9",:0'-)4+,!! 7<10! ,$('&! #$! &$#)'5! %$560! 1#! +! %$5&(! %<'5'! %$56'50! +5'! +06'(! -$! ?'!
'#)+)'(!+#(!3$, '-'#-:!!
! :$5!,$0-!$5)+#10+-1$#0!-$(+!!-<'!6#$%&'()'!+#(!3$, '-'#3'!$9!-<'15!', &$!''0!10!-<'!
6'!!9$5!-<'15!0/33'00:!!
! 7<'! 1#-+#)1?&'! *+&/'! $9! ,+#!! 3$, +#1'0! '.3''(0! -<'15! -+#)1?&'! *+&/'! 9+#(! -<'!
1#-+#)1?&'!*+&/'!$9!,+#!! 5$(/3-0!'.3''(0!-<'15!-+#)1?&'!*+&/';:!!
! "#$%&'()'! %$56'50! 5' 5'0'#-! -<'! ?$/#(+5!! ?'-%''#! -<'! $&(! ,+-'51+&! '3$#$,!! +#(!
-<'!#'%!6#$%&'()'!'3$#$,!:!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
3=
!8'-'5!A5/36'5!<+0!?''#!$#'!$9!-<'!,$0-!5'0 '3-'(!,+#+)','#-!+(*10$5>!'(/3+-$5!+#(!+/-<$5!%<$0'!
%51-1#)0!3$#-51?/-'(!-$!-<'!9$/#(+-1$#0!$9!-<'!,$('5#!$5)+#10+-1$#:!
3G
!*+#!!$9!-<'!1('+0!%51--'#!1#!-<10!0'3-1$#!3$,'!95$,!-<'!?$$6!;0!"#)%7'!)7,7'!?!!%#)'&$!8+0+/+5'&&+!
/?&10<'(!1#!% 51&!3=>!6533!?!!-/'51#1!'!%00$31+-1:!!!

34 !
!
"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$560

T HE LOCCIONI GROUP: A KNOWLEDGE-


KNOWLEDGE -BASED COMPANY

=%#-!4#(($44!1'$4!%'7!1$6$%1!'%!75$!+,-.$7!!;7!1$6$%14!'%! 5'/!8,47!'#-!$+60':$$4!1$?$0'6!
%$/!.%'/0$12$!C!

M!#&+/(1$!$$331$#1!7!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5!

7<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ !10! '5<+ 0!$#'!$9!-<'!?'0-!'.+, &'0!$9!+!6#$%&'()'/?+0'(!'#-'5 510':!"#!


$$331$#1!-<'5'!+5'!#$!%$56'50!+#(!#$!+00',?&!!&1#'0:!7<'!%$56 &+3'!10!3+&&'(!&&+?$5+-$5!'!+#(!
%'7!&9+3-$5!'>!+!-'5,!-<'!!($!#$-!/0'!?'3+/0'!1-!%$/&(!#$-!5'9&'3-!+!5'+&1-!!1#!%<13<!1('+0!+5'!
5$(/3'(!,$5'!-<+#!,+-'51+&!-<1#)0:!8'$ &'!%$561#)!+-!$$331$#1!#'*'5!1-'5+-'!-<'!0+,'!-+060!
$*'5! +#(! $*'5:! 0*'5!! (+!>! -<'!! + &!! -<'15! 6#$%&'()'! -$! ('*'&$ ! 1##$*+-1*'! +#(! ?'#'9131+&!
0$&/-1$#0!9$5!-<'!91#+&!3&1'#-:!!
7<'! -5$/ ,0! 3$&&+?$5+-$50! +5'! +! ?1-! &16'! #<+5&'0! "+$>! -<'! 9+-<'5! $9! 91?5'! $ -130:! 7<'!
3$, +#!! -<+-! <'! $#3'! %$56'(! 9$5! /! )"9! +)7,%1,-1! "$0$65'%$! ,%1! 9,90$4,! /! /?&10<'(! +#! +(!
0<$%1#)!<1,!&+!1#)!($%#! /#('5!+!-5''!%1-<!-<'!/#('5&!1#)!,'00+)'!=/$! 6,:!75)4!2$%70$+,%!
I311 111!,!:$,-! 7'!1'! 75)4!,00!1,:C!4J7<'!! %'5'! +!1#)!<10!1('+0:!7$! 0$,'!'.-'#->!$$331$#1!10!
+&0$!+!61#(!$9!-<1#6/-+#6!1#!%<13<! '$ &'!+5'! +1(:!./-!1-!%$/&(!?'!5'(/3-1*'!-$!('91#'!$$331$#1!
+0! ,'5'&!! +! 75)%.)%2! '-2,%)4,7)'%! ?'3+/0'! 1#! -<10! 3$, +#!! '$ &'! ($! #$-! $#&!! -<1#6>! -<'!!
+3-/+&&!!-5+#09$5,!1('+0!1#-$!3$#35'-'! 5$('3-0:!
21#3'!-<'!?')1##1#)!$9!-<'!3$, +#!!<10-$5!>! 5$9'00$50!+#(!'. '5-0!%'5'!?'1#)!1#*1-'(!
-$! )1*'! -<'$5'-13+&! +#(! 5+3-13+&! &'3-/5'50! +#(! -<'! 5$3'(/5'! )$'0! $#! 0-1&&! #$%:! %-! -<'! -1,'>!
$$331$#1!%+0!+&5'+(!!0 '#(1#)!+!3$#01('5+?&'!+,$/#-!$9!,$#'!!-$!-5+1#!1-0!3$&&+?$5+-$50>!)$1#)!
+)+1#0-! -<'! 35$%(! $9! '. '5-0! %<$! %'5'! /0'(! -$! 0+!! -<+-! 0 '#(1#)! ,$#'!! 9$5! -5+1#1#)! %+0! +!
&/./5!! -<+-! 0,+&&! 3$, +#1'0! 3$/&(! #$-! +99$5(:! $$331$#1! <+(! /#('50-$$(! -<+-! 1#! $5('5! -$! ?'!
0/33'009/&!1#!+!<1)<&!!-'3<#$&$)13+&!,+56'->!-<'!!<+(!-$!?'-!$#!-<'!3$, '-'#3'!+#(!6#$%&'()'!
$9!1-0! '$ &':!!
?#'!$9!-<'!,+1#!'.+, &'0! 5$*1#)!-<+-!6#$%&'()'!10!1, $5-+#-!9$5!$$331$#1!10!)#++,>!+!
3$, +#!!(1*101$#!9/#('(!1#!3446!%1-<!-<'!+1,!$9!&35'+-1#)!1('+0'!+#(! &+##1#)!-<'!9/-/5'!$9!
-<'!$5)+#10+-1$#:!"-!10!#$!3$1#31('#3'!-<+-!-<'!#+,'!2/,,+!0-',0!95$,!-<'!$+-1#!4#++,$>!-<'!
?$$60! $9! 6#$%&'()'! $9! -<'! +0-:! 7$! ,+6'! 1-! ,$5'! '99131'#->! 2/,,+! %+0! +#(! 0-1&&! 10! 10$&+-'(!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
3>
*+51$!.+5-$331>!F%)+,0!)6)-)74!)%!K,00$4)%,!L!/%-)('!&'(()'%)!,%1!75$!$%7$-6-)4$!,4!,!2,+$ !$/100!
@#1*'501-!!85'00>!;/#'!6533:!

!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

95$,! -<'! $-<'5! 3$, +#!! ?/1&(1#)0! #$-! -$! ,+6'! 1-! 9''&! -<'! (+1&!! 5$?&',0! $9! -<'! ?/01#'00!
+3-1*1-!:!7<'15!?'&1'9!10!-<+-!-$!1,+)1#'!-<'!9/-/5'>!1-!10!#'3'00+5!!9$5!2/,,+!-$!(51*'!1-0'&9!+%+!!
95$,!-<'! 5'0'#-:!?-<'5!3$, +#1'0!<+*'!9$&&$%'(!01,1&+5!+ 5$+3<'0:!0*'#!% &'!<+(!10$&+-'(!
1-0!*+31#-$0<!A1*101$#!1#!-<'!F50>!-<'!!'+50!$9!-<'!&+/#3<!$9!-<'!9150-!*+31#-$0<:3E!
%#$-<'5! %+!! 1#! %<13<! $$331$#1! <+0! +&%+!0! )1*'#! 6#$%&'()'! +! )5'+-! 1, $5-+#3'! 10! -<'!
#'-%$56!-<'!!<+*'!?''#!('*'&$ 1#)!$*'5!-<'!!'+50:!"#!344=!-<'!!1#*'#-'(!6$H#4!/!+)+1#!95$,!
-<'! $+-1#>! 0)%.! /! +! #'-%$56! $9! '#-5' 5'#'/50! %<13<! %$/&(! '.3<+#)'! '#-5' 5'#'/51+&!
'. '51'#3'0>!1##$*+-1*'!+ 5$+3<'0!+#(! 5$9'001$#+&!6#$%/<$%:!7<'!1('+!?'<1#(!4'./0!3+,'!
95$,! +! *101-! -<+-! 0#513$! $$331$#1! 9-<'! 3$, +#!,0! 9$/#('5;! -$)'-<'5! %1-<! -<'! @#1*'501-!! $9!
%#3$#+! ,+('! -$! -<'! ?'0-! 7'3<#$&$)13+&! )/?! 1#! 0/5$ '! +-! -<'! -1,'1! -<'! ./01#'00! "##$*+-1$#!
#'#-5'!1#!*$#- '&&1'5:!7<'!'#-5' 5'#'/5!%+0!0$!1#0 15'(!?!!-<'!,$('&!<'!0+%!1#!:5+#3'!-<+-!
('31('(!-$!5' &13+-'!1-!1#!<10!5')1$#:!
?#'! $9! -<'! ,$0-! 0/33'009/&! 0-$51'0! 10! ('91#1-'&!! -<'! #'-%$56! -<+-! $$331$#1! <+0! ?''#!
('*'&$ 1#)! %1-<! /#1*'501-1'0>! 1#! +5-13/&+5! -<'! 8$&!-'3<#13! @#1*'501-!! $9! -<'! *+53<':! 7<'!
3$, +#!!+#(!-<'!/#1*'501-!!%$56!-$)'-<'5!1#!('*'&$ 1#)! 5$('3-0!+#(!3$/$ '5+-'!1#!=KA!+#(!
-5+1#1#)!100/'0:!7<10!-<'010,!+/-<$5!%+0!1#*$&*'(!1#!$#'!$9!-<'0'!($1#-! 5$('3-0!/(-'/!'%!&'(()'%)!
/%<13<!1#3&/('(!+! 5$('3-!%$56!&'(!?!!$#'!$9!-<'!#'%!?/01#'00!/#1-0!$9!-<'!3$, +#!>!-5+1#1#)!
%1-<! 3$&&+?$5+-$50! +#(! '.-'5#+&! +(*10$50! +#(! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! %$56! %1-<! -<',! 9$5! -<'! 91#+&!
-<'010:!7<+-!10!%<'5'!-<10!%$56!3$,'0!95$,:!!
7<'!-5$/ !10!#$%!%$561#)!$#!+!#'%! 5$('3-!%<13<!10!+0!,/3<!9+031#+-1#)1!G$4$,-(5!8'-!
;%%'?,7)'%:!7<'!3$, +#!!10!?/1&(1#)!+! 5'+&!01-'! 1#! %<13<! 0$,'! 355!3$&&+?$5+-$50!%1&&! %$56! -$!
)'#'5+-'! 1('+0! 9$5! -<'! 9/-/5'! $9! -<'! $5)+#10+-1$#:! 7<'! #'%! 01-'! %1&&! <'& ! +&&! $9! -<'0'! 3$/
$ '5+-1$#0!+#(!#'-%$560!9&$/510<!'*'#!9/5-<'5:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
3E
!%-!-<+-!-1,'>!% &'!#$, /-'5!%+0!(1*1('(!1#-$!-<'!% &'!""!A1*101$#!+#(!-<'!*+31#-$0<!A1*101$#:!-/!!
"+%+0+61!/!% &',0!2$9-%+5'!0*+#)'&10-!1#!34F=>!#$%!'#-5' 5'#'/5>!*'#-/5'!3+ 1-+&10-!+#(!?'0-/0'&&1#)!
+/-<$5!/10!/0'(!-$!0+!!-<+-!-<'!% &'!""!(1*101$#!,+('!+&&!-<'!,$#'!!%<1&'!-<'!*+31#-$0<!(1*101$#!0 '#-!
+&&!-<'!,$#'!:!

63 !
!
7<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ 1!%!"#$%&'()'/?+0'(!#$, +#!

7<10!0'3-1$#!+1,'(!+-!)1*1#)!0$,'!5'+&!'.+, &'0! 5$*1#)!-<+-!-<'!5'+&!6'!!9$5!-<'!0/33'00!


$9! -<'! $$331$#1! -5$/ ! 10! -<'! 6#$%&'()'! +#(! 3$, '-'#3'! $9! -<'15! 3$&&+?$5+-$50:! "-! 0<$/&(! ?'!
3&'+5!#$%!-<+-!-<'!3$, +#!!10!('' &!!3$#*1#3'(!$9!-<+-:3F!

The Humancare area

"9!6#$%&'()'!10!0$!1, $5-+#-!9$5!-<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ >!0$!10!9$5!$#'!$9!1-0!!$/#)'0-!'#('+*$/501!


*#+,%(,-$:! 8<+-! $$331$#1! ($'0! 10! 1-! ('*'&$ 0! ,'+0/5'! +#(! -'0-! 0$&/-1$#0! -$! 1, 5$*'! -<'!
+/+&1-!!$9! 5$(/3-0!+#(! 5$3'00'0:!7<'!3$, +#!!<+0!/0'(!1-0!=5/!'+5!'. '51'#3'!1#!+/-$,+-1$#!
+#(!,'+0/5','#-!+#(!,+('!1-!+*+1&+?&'!-$!+((5'00!-<5''!</,+#!3+5'!100/'01!

! )'+&-<!
! 4/-51-1$#!
! 8'&&#'00!

7<10! *101$#! '#('(! / ! %1-<! -<'! 1#*'#-1$#! $9! +! 3$, &'-'&!! #'%! 5$(/3-! /! 3+&&'(!
FM%"/9F(5$+'/! %<13<! 10! -<'! 9150-! 9/&&!! +/-$,+-'(! 0!0-',! 9$5! -<'! 5' +5+-1$#! $9! 3!-$0-+-13!
(5/)0:34!8<'#!1-!3$,'0!-$! 5' +51#)!(5/)0!9$5!3<',$-<'5+ !>!-%$!51060!+510'1!

! #!-$0-+-13! (5/)0! +5'! -$.13! +#(! +! ,1#1,/,! ,10-+6'! 3+#! 5$(/3'! <1)<! 51060! 9$5! -<'!
$ '5+-$5!%<$!,+6'0!(5/)0! 5' +5+-1$#02!
! "9!-<'!,10-+6'!10!+!%5$#)!($0+)'>!-<'! +-1'#-!10!+-!0'51$/0!5106!+0!%'&&:!

%8?70#%3<',$!)/+5+#-''0!+?0$&/-'!0'3/51-!!+#(!+/+&1-!!$9!-<'!'#-15'! 5$3'00>!95$,!-<'!
5' +5+-1$#! $9! (5/)0! -$! -<'! +(,1#10-5+-1$#! -$! -<'! +-1'#-:! 7<'! 9$&&$%1#)! 1,+)'! 0<$%0! %<+-!
%8?70#%3<',$!&$$60!&16':!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
3F
!*$0-!1#9$5,+-1$#!1#!-<10!0'3-1$#!<+0!?''#!)+-<'5'(!-<5$/)<! '50$#+&!6#$%&'()'!$9!-<'!3$, +#!:!"-!
+&0$!<'& '(!5'+(1#)!-<'!?$$6!F%)+,0!)6)-)74!)%!K,00$4)%,!L!/%-)('!&'(()'%)!,%1!75$!$%7$-6-)4$!,4!,!2,+$!
%51--'#!?!!*+51$!.+5-$331!+#(! /?&10<'(!?!!$/100!@#1*'501-!!85'0!1#!;/#'!6533:!
34
!#!-$0-+-13!(5/)0!+5'!+#-1/3+#3'5!(5/)0:!7<'!%$5(!3!-$-$.13!,'+#0!-$.13!-$!3'&&0>!$5!3'&&!61&&1#):!
#<',$-<'5+ !!10!+&0$!3+&&'(!3!-$-$.13!-<'5+ !:!!

! 66!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

%0! 1-! 3+#! ?'! 1,+)1#'(>! 1-! -$$6! +! 9'%! !'+50! $9! 5'0'+53<! +#(! =5! !'+50! $9! '. '51'#3'! -$!
('*'&$ !0/3<!+!0$&/-1$#:!7<+-!10!%<!! '$ &'0,!3$, '-'#3'!+#(!6#$%&'()'!+5'!-<'!5'+&!+00'-0!
$9! -<'! )/,+#3+5'! (1*101$#:! *$5'$*'5>! -<10! 10! +! <1)<&!! -'3<#$&$)13+&! ,+56'-! %<13<! ,+6'0! 1-!
#'3'00+5!! 9$5! '$ &'! -$! ('*'&$ ! #'%! 061&&0! +&&! -<'! -1,':! "#(''(>! %<+-! 3+#! ?'! 3$#01('5'(! +#!
1##$*+-1$#!-$(+!!%1&&!#$!&$#)'5!?'!+#!1##$*+-1$#!-$,$55$%:!7<'!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5!10!/0'(!
-$!0+!!-<+-!=75$!4#(($44!'8!'#-!?$%7#-$!1'$4!%'7!1$6$%1!'%!75$!+,-.$7 !'-!9$77$-!:$7 !%'7!'%0:!
'%! 75$! +,-.$7!! %#-! 4#(($44! +,)%0:! 1$6$%14! '%! 5'/! 8,47! '#-! 6$'60$! /)00! )%(-$,4$! 75$)-!
.%'/0$12$!C!
7<'! 5$(/3-! 1-0'&9! -<'!! ,+6'! 10! '#$/)<! -$! 5$*'! <$%! 1, $5-+#-! 6#$%&'()'! 10! 9$5!
$$331$#1! )/,+#3+5':! ./-! -<'5'! +&0$! +5'! -%$! $-<'5! 1#1-1+-1*'0! 5$*1#)! -<+-1! &,9NF%G! +#(!
FM%"/9F!9'++#%)7::!

&,9NF%G!
&,9NF%G!/!+&0$!3+&&'(!&,9'-,7'-:!'8!;1$,4/!10!+! +5-#'50<1 !?'-%''#!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!+#(!
-<'! %#3$#+! )$0 1-+&65! 0-+5-'(! 1#! 655E:! 7<'! +1,! %+0! -$! ?51#)! -$)'-<'5! -<'! <$0 1-+&,0! 3&1#13+&!
6#$%&'()'! +#(! -<'! '#-5' 5'#'/51+&! 0 151-! $9! -<'! 3$, +#!:! 7<10! 3$&&+?$5+-1$#! <+0! ?''#! -<'!
(51*1#)!9$53'!9$5!-<'!1#*'#-1$#!$9!%8?70#%3<',$:!7<'!$?('3-1*'!$9!-<10!&+?$5+-$5!>!%<13<!3+#!
?'! 5' &13+-'(! '&0'%<'5'>! 10! -$! 35'+-'! +! 5$-$-! '! 9150-! +#(! -<'#! <+*'! 1-! *+&1(+-'(! 1#01('! +!
<$0 1-+&!0$!-<+-!1-!3+#!?'!?5$/)<-!-$!-<'!,+56'-! 9$5!-<'!91#+&! /0'50:!:$5!-<10! 5$3'00! -$!%$56!
%'&&>!,/3<!6#$%&'()'!10!5'+/15'(:!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
65
%#3$#+!)$0 1-+&!10!-<'!,+1#!<$0 1-+&!$9!-<'!*+53<'>!-<'!5')1$#!1#!%<13<!-<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ !<+0!1-0!
<'+(+/+5-'5:!

6C !
!
7<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ 1!%!"#$%&'()'/?+0'(!#$, +#!

FM%"/9F!9'++#%)7:!
%8?70#%! #$,,/#1-!! 10! +! .%'/0$12$! 9'H:! "-! 10! +! !'+5&!! ,''-1#)! $5)+#10'(! ?!! $$331$#1!
)/,+#3+5'! 1#! %<13<! 3/0-$,'50! +5'! 1#*1-'(! -$! +5-131 +-':! 7<'! +1,! 10! -$! ('*'&$ ! +! 0'#0'! $9!
?'&$#)1#)!1#!+!3$,,/#1-!!$9! /0'50!+#(!+! 3$#-1#/$/0! (1+&$)/'! ?'-%''#!-<'! 3$, +#!!+#(!1-0!
3/0-$,'50!+#(!+,$#)!3/0-$,'50!-<',0'&*'0:!7<'!5'+&! #$*'&-!! 10!-<+-!$$331$#1! )/,+#3+5'!10!
1##$*+-1#)!1#! +5-#'50<1 !%1-<!-<'!5'+&!/0'50!$9!1-0! 5$(/3-:!!

.!! #$%! -<'! 1, $5-+#3'! $9! 6#$%&'()'! 9$5! $$331$#1! /! 1#! +5-13/&+5! 9$5! 1-0! )/,+#3+5'! -'+,! /!
0<$/&(!?'!+/1-'!3&'+5:!7<'5'9$5'>!1-!%$/&(!?'!*'5!!,/3<!/0'9/&!-$!,+#+)'!-<+-!6#$%&'()'!1#!
$5('5!-$!0-+!!3$, '-1-1*'!1#!+!<1)<&!!-'3<#$&$)13+&!,+56'-:!)$%'*'5>!"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!
<+0!#$-!?5$/)<-!+&&!-<'! 5$,10'(!?'#'91-0:!7<'5'9$5'>!-<'!$?('3-1*'!$9!-<10!-<'010!10!-$!91#(!+#(!
1#-5$(/3'!%1-<1#!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!+#!+&-'5#+-1*'!*'501$#!$9!"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#->!-<+-!
10>! -<'! /0'! $9! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$560! -$! 0<+5'! 6#$%&'()':! 7<'! #'.-! 3<+ -'5! ('+&0! %1-<!
"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$560:!

Key ideas
! 7<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ !10!$#'!$9!-<'!?'0-!'.+, &'0!$9!+!6#$%&'()'/?+0'(!3$, +#!:!
! ?#'!$9!-<'!?'0-!0-$51'0! 5$*1#)!-<+-!6#$%&'()'!10!9/#(+,'#-+&!9$5!$$331$#1!10!)#++,>!
+!3$, +#!!(1*101$#!9/#('(!1#!3446!%1-<!-<'!+1,!$9!&35'+-1#)!1('+0'!+#(! &+##1#)!-<'!
9/-/5'!$9!-<'!$5)+#10+-1$#:!!
! ?#'!$9!-<'!%+!0!1#!%<13<!$$331$#1!<+0!+&%+!0!)1*'#!6#$%&'()'!+!)5'+-!1, $5-+#3'!10!
-<'! #'-%$56! -<'!! <+*'! ?''#! ('*'&$ 1#)! $*'5! -<'! !'+50! %1-<! '#-5' 5'#'/50>!
/#1*'501-1'0!+#(!5'0'+53<!3'#-5'0:!
! "9! 6#$%&'()'! 10! 0$! 1, $5-+#-! 9$5! -<'! $$331$#1! -5$/ >! 0$! 10! 9$5! $#'! $9! 1-0! !$/#)'0-!
(1*101$#01!*#+,%(,-$:!7<'!0/33'00!$9!-<10!0-+5-// !($'0!#$-! (' '#(! $#&!!$#!<$%!-<'!
,+56'-!5'+3-0!?/-!,+1#&!!$#!<$%!9+0-!1-0!', &$!''0!+3+/15'!#'%!6#$%&'()'2!
! .'01('0>!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!$ '5+-'0!1#!+!<1)<&!!-'3<#$&$)13+&!,+56'-!%<13<!,+6'0!1-!
#'3'00+5!!9$5! '$ &'!-$!('*'&$ !#'%!061&&0!+&&!-<'!-1,':!7<+-!10!%<!!-<'15!3$, '-'#3'!
+#(!6#$%&'()'!+5'!-<'!5'+&!+00'-0!$9!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!(1*101$#:!!
! "#$%&'()'!10!-<'!(51*'5!$9!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5':!7<'5'9$5'>!1-!%$/&(!?'!*'5!!/0'9/&!9$5!
-<'!-'+,!-$!,+#+)'!-<+-!6#$%&'()'!1#!$5('5!-$!0-+!!3$, '-1-1*':!

! 6=!
!
!

Chapter 2
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SOCIAL NETWORKS
=;7=4!7)+$!7'!,9,%1'%!75$!8)(7)'%!75,7!.%'/0$12$!+,%,2$+$%7!7$(5%'0'2:!)4!/'-.)%2!C!

M!A+*1(!-1&,$/5!/!#0?!$9!7+31-!"#$%&'()'!2!0-',0!

"#$%&'()'! *+#+)','#-! 9"*;! 10! -<'! 5$3'00! $9! )+-<'51#)! +#(! 0<+51#)! 6#$%&'()'! %1-<1#! +#!
$5)+#10+-1$#:! "-0! +1,! 10! -$! 1#35'+0'! -<'! &'*'&! $9! 6#$%&'()'! $9! '+3<! ', &$!''! +#(! 1-! 10!
+5-13/&+5&!! 1, $5-+#-! 9$5! 5$('3-/?+0'(! '#-'5 510'0:! 7<'0'! 3$, +#1'0! ($! #$-! ,+6'! ,+00!
5$(/3-1$#>! 5+-<'5! -<'!! ('*'&$ ! 3/0-$,1I'(! 0$&/-1$#0! 9$5! '+3<! 3&1'#-! ,+61#)! ', &$!''0,!
3$, '-'#3'!'.-5','&!!1, $5-+#-!9$5!-<'15!0/33'00:!7<'!*'5!!#+-/5'!$9! 5$('3-/?+0'!3$, +#1'0!
35'+-'0!(103$#-1#/1-1'0!1#!-<'!', &$!'',0!%$56!+3-1*1-!!01#3'!90;<'!3$#0-+#-&!!,$*'0!95$,!$#'!
5$('3-!-$!+#$-<'5:!%!6#$%&'()'!&$00!,+!!$33/5!19!%<+-!<+0!?''#!&'+5#-!95$,!+! 5$('3-!10!#$-!
&0+*'('! ?'9$5'! -<'! 5$('3-! '#(0:! 85$?&',0! 0$&*'(>! 51060! '#3$/#-'5'(>! &'00$#0! &'+5#-! +#(!
0$&/-1$#0!9$/#(!#''(!-$!?'!$99'5'(!9$5!-<'!/0'!$9!-<'!%<$&'!3$, +#!:!
)$%'*'5! 1-! 10! 1, $001?&'! -$! 3+ -/5'! +&&! -<'! 6#$%&'()'! +! 3$, +#!! <+0! +#(! 0+*'0! 1-! 1#!
(+-+?+0'0:!7<10!10!#$-!$#&!!1, $001?&'>!1-!10!/#('015+?&'!+#(!,+6'0!*'5!!&1--&'!0'#0':!7<'!6'!!10!
9$5!3$, +#1'0!-$!5'3$)#10'!%<+-! 1'3'0!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!+#(!%<13<!6#$%&'()'!%1&&!?'!5'&'*+#-!
1#! -<'! 9/-/5':! ?#3'! -<10! 10! ($#'>! -<+-! 6#$%&'()'! ,/0-! ?'! 0 5'+(! $*'5! 0$! -<+-! -<'! %<$&'!
$5)+#10+-1$#! 3+#! ?'#'91-! 95$,! 1-:! "*! <'& 0! 3+ -/5'! '.10-1#)! 6#$%&'()'! ?'9$5'! 1-! &'+*'0! +!
3$, +#!!+#(>!,$0-!1, $5-+#-&!>!35'+-'0!#'%!6#$%&'()'!95$,!-<'!'.10-1#)!$#':!9)+)'&>!.5$%#!
+#(!A+*10$#!6535;!
?#'! $9! -<'! ?1))'0-! 5$?&',0! +?$/-! "*>! <$%'*'5>! 10! -<+-! 1-! 1, &1'0! 3'#-5+&1I'(!
3$,,/#13+-1$#!%<'5'!$#&!! +!9'%! '$ &'!%1-<1#!+! 3$, +#!!<+*'!-<'! $%'5!-$!('31('!%<13<!
1#9$5,+-1$#!0<$/&(!?'!0<$%#!-$!-<'!', &$!''0:!7<10!61#(!$9!3'#-5+&1I+-1$#!10!-<'!$ $01-'!$9!
$ '#!3$,,/#13+-1$#>!%<13<!(10-1#)/10<'0!0$,-%)%2!'-2,%)4,7)'%4!95$,!-5+(1-1$#+&!$#'0:!
%!&'+5#1#)!$5)+#10+-1$#!10!+!%$561#)!'#*15$#,'#-!%<13<!'#3$/5+)'0! '$ &'!-$!&'+5#!+#(!
('*'&$ !#'%!061&&0!+#(!,+6'0!</,+#!5'0$/53'0!0-5+-')1'0!+!6'!! 1&&+5!$9!-<'!?/01#'00!+3-1*1-!:!
"#0-'+(>!1#!+!-5+(1-1$#+&!$5)+#10+-1$#!$#&!!,+#+)','#-!3$#-5$&!+#(!,+#+)'!3$,,/#13+-1$#:!
75/-<! 10>! 3$&&+?$5+-1$#! +#(! 1#-'5+3-1*1-!! +5'! -<'! '&','#-0! -<+-! %1&&! 3<+5+3-'51I'! -<'!
3$, +#1'0!$9!-<'!9/-/5':!

6G !
!
! "#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$560

"#(''(>! -<'! $5)+#10+-1$#0! %<'5'! '$ &'! &'+5#! +0! 9+0-! +0! $001?&'! +5'! -<$0'! 1#! %<13<!
1#(1*1(/+&0! 1#-'5+3-! +#(! 3$$ '5+-'! %1-<! '+3<! $-<'5:! "#$%&'()'! *+#+)','#-!%+0! +! *'5!! <$-!
-$ 13! 1#! -<'! 34450! ?/-! <+0! #$-! ?5$/)<-! +&&! -<'! ('015'(! ?'#'91-0:! 85$?+?&!! ?'3+/0'! 1-! 10!
5'-5$0 '3-1*'>! -<+-! 10>! 1-! +1,0! +-! 3$&&'3-1#)! 6#$%&'()'! +#(! 1#9$5,+-1$#! -<+-! +! 3$, +#!!
('*'&$ '(!/ !/#-1&!+! +5-13/&+5!,$,'#-:!"#!0$!($1#)>!3$, +#1'0!,+6'!('3101$#0!$#!-<'!?+010!$9!
%<13<!1#9$5,+-1$#!%+0!/0'9/&!1#!-<'! +0-:!./-!-<'!6'!!10!#$-!-$!)+-<'5! +0-!6#$%&'()'>!5+-<'5>!
-$!35'+-'!#'%!$#':63!
2$,'!!'+50!+)$>!1#!-<'!)+5*+5(!./01#'00!='*1'%>!A+*1(!-1&,$/5>! 5'01('#-!+#(!#0?!$9!
7+31-! "#$%&'()'! 2!0-',0! %5$-'! -<+-! 1-! %+0! -1,'! =7'! ,9,%1'%! 75$! 8)(7)'%! 75,7! .%'/0$12$!
+,%,2$+$%7! 7$(5%'0'2:! >/,4?! /'-.)%2C!! )'! ('0351?'(! "*! -<10! %+!1! =4'+$'%$! ('00$(74!
)%8'-+,7)'%!8-'+!$+60':$$4 !'-2,%)4$4!)7 !,1?$-7)4$4!)74!,?,)0,9)0)7:!,%1!4)74!9,(.!7'!4$$!/5,7!
5,66$%4!C%33$5(1#)! -$! <1,>! 6#$%&'()'! ,+#+)'50! 0<$/&(! 0-$ ! -5!1#)! -$! 3$&&'3-! 1#9$5,+-1$#!
95$,! ', &$!''0! +#(! 0-+5-! 35'+-1#)! $ $5-/#1-1'0! 9$5! 0<+51#)! 6#$%&'()'>! ,+61#)! 1-! +*+1&+?&'!
+#(!'+0!!-$!91#(!9$5!'*'5!?$(!:!7<+-!10!%<!!<'! 5$ $0'0!-$!1#-5$(/3'!%<+-!<'!3+&&0!"#$%&'()'/
2<+51#)!,'-<$(0!+0!$ $0'(!-$!3&+0013+&!"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!0!0-',0:!"#$%&'()'!2<+51#)!
10!+?$/-!'#3$/5+)1#)! '$ &'!-$!0<+5'!-<'!6#$%&'()'!-<'!!+&5'+(!!<+*'!+#(>!,$0-!1, $5-+#-&!>!
-$!0<+5'!-<'!6#$%&'()'!-<'!!('*'&$ !$*'5!-1,':!2/3<!0!0-',0!,/0-!?'!+?&'!-$!3$##'3-! '$ &'!
%<$!<+*'!-<'!6#$%&'()'!-$!-<$0'!%<$!#''(!1-:66!

Why Knowledge Management Fails: A Case Study


7<10! 10! +! 3+0'! 0-/(!! $9! +! )$#)! "$#)/?+0'(! 3$, +#!! %<13<! 1, &','#-'(! +! "#$%&'()'!
*+#+)','#-! 5$)5+,! 1#! $5('5! -$! 9+3'! +! ($%#-/5#! '3$#$,13! '51$(:! )$%'*'5>! -<'! "*! &+#!
9+1&'(!%1-<1#!-%$!!'+50:!.+0'(!$#!-<10!9+1&/5'>!0$,'!&'00$#0!<+*'!?''#!1('#-191'(:!!
"#!34FC>!-<'!<'+(!$9913'!$9!-<'!3$, +#!!<+(!35!0-+99!,',?'50!+#(!1-0! 5$(/3-1$#! &+#-!
1#!#<1#+!=G5:!:$5!,+#!!!'+50>!-<'!3$, +#!!'#($!'(!+!)$$(!)5$%-<! '59$5,+#3':!
"#! 344F>! ?/01#'00! +3-1*1-!! ?')+#! ('35'+01#)! +-! +! ($/?&'/(1)1-! +3'! +#(! -<+-! -5'#(!
3$#-1#/'(! /#-1&! 6553:! 7</0>! 1#! $5('5! -$! 91)/5'! $/-! %<+-! %+0! )$1#)! %5$#)>! -<'! #0?! 9$5,'(!+!
-+06!9$53'!%<13<>!+9-'5!-%$!%''60!$9!$?0'5*+-1$#!+#(!3$,,/#13+-1$#!%1-<!-<'!3$, +#!!0-+99>!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
63
;:!)%-0$!""">!;:!2:!.=?84>!$:!A%D"2?4>!F!8$77$-!@,:!7'!.,%,2$!-%'/0$12$>!&)+5*+5(!./01#'00!
='*1'%'>!;+#/+5!!34>!6535!!!
66
!-:!2:!#$%"=>!A)H!-%'/0$12$!.,%,2$+$%7O!.'?$!7'!-%'/0$12$!)$-?)($4>!;+#/+5!!655=!

! 6>!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

3+,'!/ !%1-<!-<'!5'+0$#!%<!!-<'!3$, +#!!%+0!'. '51'#31#)!+!($%#-/5#1!6#$%&'()'!%+0!#$-!


?'1#)! 0<+5'(! +,$#)! ', &$!''0:! "#! +5-13/&+5>! 1-0! '. '51'#3'(! 0-+99! %'5'! #$-! /0'(! -$! 0<+5'!
'. '5-10'!%1-<!#'%!<15'0:!"#!+((1-1$#>!6#$%&'()'!)$-!&$0-!(/'!-$!+!5'&+-1*'&!!<1)<!-/5#$*'5:!!
"#!6553>!+9-'5!-<5''!,$#-<0!$9!1#-'5*1'%0!%1-<!-<'!', &$!''0>!-<'!-+06!9$53'!1('#-191'(!
-<'!9$&&$%1#)!100/'01!

! 2/ '5*10$50! <+(! &1--&'! 1#-'5'0-! 1#! %<+-! $-<'5! 0/ '5*10$50! %'5'! ($1#)! 01#3'! '+3<!
3$#01('5'(!<10!$%#!-+06!-<'!,$0-!1, $5-+#-!$#'2!
! 0, &$!''0! %'5'! +001*'! %<'#! &'+5#1#)! <$%! -$! '59$5,! #'%! +3-1*1-1'0! 99$5! '.+, &'>!
-<'!!(/0-! '59$5,'(!+3-1$#0!-<'!!%'5'!-$&(!-$!%1-<$/-!+061#)!+#!-<1#);2!
! 8<'#! 061&&'(! ', &$!''0! &'9-! -<'! 3$, +#!>! -<'15! '. '5-10'! %+0! ?'1#)! +3+/15'(! ?!!
3$, '-1-$502!
! "-!%+0!(19913/&-!9$5!', &$!''0!-$!91#(!?'0-! 5+3-13'0!+#(!0/33'00!0-$51'0:!

81-<!-<+-!1#!,1#(>!-<'!3$, +#!!('31('(!-$!&+/#3<!+!"*! 5$)5+,!%1-<!-<'!+1,!$9!'+01#)!


6#$%&'()'!(199/01$#!+,$#)! ', &$!''0:!7<10>!1#!-/5#>!0<$/&(! <+*'!,+('! 1-! $001?&'! -$!35'+-'!
#'%!6#$%&'()'!9$5!,+61#)!?'--'5! 5$(/3-0:!7<'! 5$)5+,!%+0!&+/#3<'(!1#!6556:!
)$%'*'5>!+9-'5!3G!,$#-<0!-<'!3$, +#!!91)/5'(!$/-!-<+-!-<'!"*! &+#!<+(!#$-!?5$/)<-!
-<'!'. '3-'(!?'#'91-0:!7</0>!-<'!!+06'(!+!"*!3$#0/&-1#)!3$, +#!!-$!91)/5'!$/-!-<'!5'+0$#!9$5!
9+1&/5':!%33$5(1#)!-$!-<',>!-<'!-%$!,+1#!5'+0$#0!%<'5'!-<'!9$&&$%1#)1!

! 7$ !,+#+)','#-!%+0!-$$!+55$)+#-!?!!+00/,1#)!-<+-!$#&!!75$:!6#'%!%<+-!-<'!5'&'*+#-!
6#$%&'()'!%+02!
! 7$ !,+#+)','#-!(1(!#$-!0/ $5-!', &$!''0!1#!-<'!#'%! 5$3'00:!

"#(''(>! ,+#!! ', &$!''0! 0+1(! -<+-! -$ ! ,+#+)','#-! 1#*$&*','#-! 1#! -<'! #'%! -$$&! %+0!
0 $5+(13!+#(!-<10!('35'+0'(!-<'15!?'&1'9!1#!"*!+0!+#!1, $5-+#-!0-' !-<+-!%$/&(!<+*'!?5$/)<-!
-<'!3$, +#!!?+36!-$! $01-1*'!5'0/&-0:!?-<'50!(1(!#$-!'*'#!/#('50-+#(!%<+-!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#)!
%+0!+?$/-!+#(!*1'%'(!1-!+0!0$,'-<1#)!%<13<!0&$%'(!($%#!,$5'!1, $5-+#-!+3-1*1-1'0:!.'01('0>!
-<'! ('3101$#! $9! -<'! 3$, +#!! -$! /0'! '.-51#013! 5'%+5(0! -$! 0-1,/&+-'! +($ -1$#! -/5#'(! $/-! -$!

6E !
!
! "#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$560

5$(/3'!+#!$ $01-'!+#(!#')+-1*'!'99'3-!$#!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#):6C!

/'**+,*!-'$(,&!
! *+#+)','#-!0/ $5-!10!9/#(+,'#-+&!-$! 5$,$-'!"*:!*+#+)','#-!0<$/&(!?'!%1&&1#)!
-$! 1#*'0-! -1,'>! 5'0$/53'0! +#(! '#'5)!! -$! 5$,$-'!"*! 1#1-1+-1*'0:!7<'!! 0<$/&(! &'+(! ?!!
'.+, &'2!
! %! 5'%+5(! 0!0-',! ?+0'(! $#! '.-51#013! 9,$#'-+5!;! 1#3'#-1*'0! ($! #$-! %$56:! "#-51#013!
1#3'#-1*'0!%$56!?'--'5!+#(!91-!*+51$/0!-! '0!$9!,$-1*+-1$#:!:$5!'.+, &'>!,+#+)','#-!
3$/&(! (10 &+!! #+,'0! +#(! 5'0 '3-1*'! 1('+0! $9! ', &$!''0! %<$! 3$#-51?/-'(! -$! +!
+5-13/&+5!+3<1'*','#-:!*+#(+-$5!!+($ -1$#!($'0!#$-!%$56:6=!

7<10! 10! (/0-! +#! '.+, &'! 0<$%1#)! <$%! +#(! %<!! "*!,+!! 9+1&! ?/-! -<'5'! +5'! ,+#!! $-<'50!
%<13<!,+6'!1-!9+15!-$!0+!!-<+-!"*!10!#$-!%$561#)!+0!1-!0<$/&(:!7<10!10!+!?1)!100/'!19!$#'!3$#01('50!
-<+-! +0! '+5&!! +0! 6556>! @:2:! 3$, +#1'0! 0 '#-! N=:G! ?1&&1$#! 1#! 0$9-%+5'! +#(! $-<'5! -'3<#$&$)1'0!
%<13<! %$/&(! 9+31&1-+-'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 0<+51#)! +,$#)! ', &$!''0:6G)$%'*'5>! '*'#! 19! "*! 10! #$-!
%$561#)! 5$ '5&!>!-<'!100/'!$9!6#$%&'()'!+#(!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+51#)!10!0-1&&!5'&'*+#-:!%!)+5510!8$&&!
+06'(!GC>! 5$9'001$#+&0>!,+#+)'50!+#(!-'3<#13+&!6#$%&'()'!%$56'50!1#!3$, +#1'0!%1-<!3>555!
$5!,$5'!', &$!''0!%<+-!-<'!!-<$/)<-!+?$/-!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#):!7<10!10!%<+-!-<'!!0+1(1!

! 2$,'! '$ &'!1#!-<'!3$, +#!!3+#!<'& !,'!($!,!!($?!?'--'5!/!>EJ!


! "!($!#$-!6#$%!<$%!-$!91#(!-<'0'!3$&&'+)/'0!/!C4J!
! 8$56!10!$9-'#!($#'!-%13'!?'3+/0'! '$ &'!($!#$-!6#$%!%<+-!$-<'50!($!/!>5J!
! ? $5-/#1-1'0!-$!1##$*+-'!+5'!,100'(!?'3+/0'!-<'!51)<-! '$ &'!($!#$-!%$56!-$)'-<'5!/!
G=J!
! 85$#)!('3101$#0!+5'!,+('!?'3+/0'!', &$!''!6#$%&'()'!10!#$-!'99'3-1*'&!!3+ -/5'(!/!
G3J6>!
9)+5510!"#-'5+3-1*'!10!+!,+56'-!5'0'+53<!915,;:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
6C
":!#)%4>!8:!B:!":!#)%@>!@5:!-%'/0$12$!.,%,2$+$%7!A,)04*!&$44'%4!8-'+!,!9,4$!)7#1:!9#<:!OD"1!#+0'!
2-/(1'0!1#!"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!?!!*/55+!!0:!;'##'.;>!8%!"('+!-5$/ !8/?&10<1#)>!)'50<'!>!655G!
6=
!"?1(:!
6G
A:!-"$*?@=>!*'/!7'!A)H!-%'/0$12$!.,%,2$+$%7>!&)+5*+5(!./01#'00!='*1'%'>!?3-$?'5!655C!
6>
"?1(:!
!

! 6F!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

How to fix Knowledge Management

%!"*!95+,'%$56!3+#!?'!(1*1('(!1#-$!1,7,>!)%8'-+,7)'%!+#(!.%'/0$12$:!P,7,!+5'!-'.-0>!9+3-0>!
1,+)'0>!0$/#(0>!'-3:!A+-+!+5'!-<'#!-5+#09$5,'(!1#-$!1#9$5,+-1$#!%<'#!-<'!!+5'! 5$3'00'(!1#!
0$,'!%+!:!;%8'-+,7)'%!3+#!?'!-<$/)<-!$9!+0!+!,'00+)'!01#3'!1-!<+0!+!0'#('5!+#(!+!5'3'1*'5!+#(!
1-! 10!,'+#-!-$! <+*'!+#! 1, +3-!$#!-<'! 5'3'1*'5,0!(/(),'#-:!"#9$5,+-1$#!10! (+-+!%<13<! ,+6'! +!
(199'5'#3':!-%'/0$12$!10!-<'!-$ !$9!-<'! !5+,1(1!1-!10!+!,1.!$9!'. '51'#3'0>!(/(),'#-0>!*+&/'0>!
1#01)<-0!%<13<!5'9'5!-$!+! +5-13/&+5! 1'3'!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#:!4$-13'!-<+-!1-!-+6'0!-1,'!-$!'.3<+#)'!
1#9$5,+-1$#!?/-!1-!-+6'0!-5/0-!-$!0<+5'!6#$%&'()':!92P#--1!655F;!
"#$%&'()'!3+#!?'!(1*1('(!1#-$!$H60)()7!+#(!7,()7:!0. &131-!6#$%&'()'!3+#!?'! 5'0'#-'(!+0!
%$5(0>! #/,?'50>! 9$5,/&+0! +#(! 0$! $#:! 7<10! -! '! $9! 6#$%&'()'! 10! '+0!! -$! ?'! 0-$5'(! +#(!
3$,,/#13+-'(:!7+31-!6#$%&'()'!1#0-'+(!10!/#%51--'#!+#(!/#0 $6'#:!"-!10!&'+5#-!?!!'. '51'#3'>!
1-! 10! %<+-! '$ &'! <+*'! 1#! -<'15! ,1#(0! +#(! 10! 3$,,/#13+-'(! 1#(15'3-&!:! .'3+/0'! $9! -<+->! -+31-!
6#$%&'()'!10!*'5!!(19913/&-!-$!0<+5'!%1-<1#!+!3$, +#!:!94$#+6+!+#(!7+6'/3<1!344G>!A+*'# $5-!
+#(!85/0+6!344F;!)$%'*'5>!1-!3$/&(!?'!0<+5'(!,$5'!$ '#&!!+#(!,$5'!1#9$5,+&&!!-<5$/)<!-<'!
*15-/+&! %$5&(:! :$5! 1#0-+#3'>! 0$31+&! ,'(1+! -$$&0! <'& ! '$ &'! 95$,! (199'5'#-! ?/01#'00! /#1-0! $5!
)5$/ 0!3$,'!-$)'-<'5!+#(!1#-'5+3-:!7<'!!3+#!'. 5'00!1('+0!+#(!$ 1#1$#0>!+06!+/'0-1$#0!1#!+#!
1#9$5,+&! %+!! +#(! 0/ $5-! 3$&&+?$5+-1$#! +#(! 1#-'5+3-1*1-!:! 7<'! )5'+-'0-! $-'#-1+&! 10! -<+-! $#3'!
-+31-! 6#$%&'()'! 10! 0<+5'(! %1-<! $-<'5! '$ &'>! 1-! ?'3$,'0! '. &131-! +#(! 3+#! ?'! /0'(! ?!! +&&! -<'!
3$&&+?$5+-$50!-<5$/)<!%1610>!?&$)0!+#(!$-<'5!,'(1+!3<+##'&0:!#$#*'5-1#)!-+31-!6#$%&'()'!1#-$!
'. &131-!10!-<'!6'!!9$5!+!3$, +#!!-$!?'!0/33'009/&:!#$#01('5!-<+-!-+31-!6#$%&'()'!3$*'50!,$0-!$9!
-<'!'#-15'!6#$%&'()'!$9!+!3$, +#!:!94$#+6+!+#(!7+6'/3<1!344G;!
"'0-1&P! 9655F;! +5)/'0! -<+-! $#&!! 65J! $9! 3$5 $5+-'! 6#$%&'()'! 10! '. &131-! %<1&'! -<'!
5',+1#1#)!F5J!10!-+31-:!7<10!,'+#0!-<+-!-<'!)5'+-'0-!0$/53'!$9!6#$%/<$%!$9!+!3$, +#!!,/0-!
?'! 9$/#(! 1#! '$ &'0,! ,1#(0:! %33'001#)! -+31-! 6#$%&'()'! +#(! ,+61#)! 1-! /0+?&'! ?!! -<'! '#-15'!
$5)+#10+-1$#!$99'50!)5'+-!+(*+#-+)'0:!
%#!'.+, &'!$9!+#!$5)+#10+-1$#!%<13<!10!-5!1#)!-$!3+ -/5'!1-0!-+31-!6#$%&'()'!9$5!-<'!/0'!
$9! -<'! %<$&'! $5)+#10+-1$#! 10! 4%2%:4%2%! <+0! ('*'&$ '(! +#! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 0!0-',! 3$#-+1#1#)!
0$,'! 3>C55! '. '51'#3'0! %<13<! +5'! ,'+#-! -$! ?'! &'+5#-! &'00$#0>! 1#3&/(1#)! ?$-<! 0/33'00'0! +#(!
9+1&/5'0:!7<'!!+&0$!5'%+5(! '$ &'!9$5!0<+51#)!6#$%&'()'!+#(!-<'!!'*'#!35'+-'(!+!0 '31+&!-'+,!/!
6F)F!-%'/0$12$!.,%,2$+$%7!"$,+!/!%<$0'!,+1#!$?('3-1*'!10!-$!0<+5'!6#$%&'()':!!

64 !
!
! "#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$560

%#$-<'5!'.+, &'!10!-<'!8$5&(!.+#6!%<13<!5'%+5(0!', &$!''0!+33$5(1#)!-$!<$%!,/3<!


-<'!!<+*'!0<+5'(!1#!+!)1*'#!!'+5:!!
%33$5(1#)!-$!$1'?$%1-I!9655=;>!1#!$5('5!9$5!"*!-$!?'!'99'3-1*'>!-<5''!9+3-$50!<+*'!-$!?'!
-+6'#!1#-$!3$#01('5+-1$#1!

! 8'$ &'!
! #/&-/5'!
! 7'3<#$&$)!!

8<'#! 1-! 3$,'0! -$! 0$31+&! ,'(1+>! -'3<#$&$)!! 10! /#($/?-'(&!! 1, $5-+#-:! )$%'*'5>! -<'!
$-<'5!-%$!9+3-$50!/! '$ &'!+#(!$5)+#10+-1$#+&! 3/&-/5'!/!+5'!-<'! 5'+&!(51*'50!9$5!+!&.%'/0$12$!
+,%,2$+$%7!75-'#25!4'(),0!+$1),C!0-5+-')!!-$!?'!0/33'009/&:!7'3<#$&$)!!10!#''('(!-$!,+6'!1-!
$001?&'! 9$5! '$ &'! -$! 0<+5'! -<'15! 6#$%&'()':! ./-! 6$'60$! +5'! -<'! 5$(/3'50! +#(! /0'50! $9!
6#$%&'()'!1#!-<'!9150-! &+3':!"9!6#$%&'()'!10!#$-! 35'+-'(>!1-!3+##$-!?'! 0<+5'(:!"#!+((1-1$#!-$!
'$ &'>! -<'! 51)<-! 3$, +#!! 3/&-/5'! 10! #'3'00+5!! -$! 35'+-'! +#! '#*15$#,'#-! -<+-! '#3$/5+)'0!
'$ &'! -$! 0<+5'! %<+-! -<'!! 6#$%! +0! +5-! $9! -<'15! (+1&!! ($?:! 7<'5'9$5'>! 3<$$01#)! -<'! 51)<-!
-'3<#$&$)!! 10! 35/31+&>! ?/-! -<'! ,$0-! 1, $5-+#-! +0 '3-0! $9! +! "*! 0-5+-')!! +5'! '$ &'! +#(!
3/&-/5':9$1'?$%1-I! 655=;! 7<10! ,'+#0! 3$#*1#31#)! ', &$!''0! -$! /0'! -<'! -'3<#$&$)!! +#(!
3$#*1#31#)! -<',! -<+-! -<'! #'%! -$$&0! %1&&! ?'! $9! ?'#'91-! 9$5! -<',! +#(! 9$5! -<'! %<$&'!
$5)+#10+-1$#:6E!
*+#!!3$, +#1'0!+5$/#(!-<'! %$5&(!+5'!/01#)!0$31+&! &+-9$5,0!-$!0/ $5-! 3$&&+?$5+-1$#!
+#(!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+51#)!+,$#)!', &$!''0:!2$31+&! &+-9$5,0!3+#!,+6'!1-!'+01'5!9$5! +5-131 +#-0!
-$!0<+5'!+#(!35'+-'!#'%!6#$%&'()':!%!*+!!6554!:$55'0-'5!='0'+53<6F!9$/#(!-<+-!+&,$0-!G5J!
$9! @:2:! 3$, +#1'0! /0'! 0$31+&! 0$9-%+5':! .'01('0>! +! ;/&!! 6554! 85'031'#-! A1)1-+&! *'(1+64! 0/5*'!!
5'*'+&'(!-<+-1!

! 81610!%'5'!/0'(!?!!=EJ!$9!5'0 $#('#-0!
! =GJ!/0'(!?&$)0!
! =>J!/0'(!9$5/,0!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
6E
8:!2%477">!*+0-'5,0!-<'0101!P$?$0'6)%2!9'-6'-,7$!-%'/0$12$!"5-'#25!)'(),0!.$1),>!4$*',?'5!63>!
655F!
6F
:$55'0-'5!10!+!)&$?+&!5'0'+53<!+#(!+(*10$5!!915,:!!
64
85'031'#-!A1)1-+&!*'(1+!10!+!%'?!+#(!1#-5+#'-!3$#0/&-1#)!915,:!!

! C5!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

7<10!10!-<'!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)! <'#$,'#$#:!7<'!?'#'91-0!-<'0'!-$$&0!3+#!?51#)!


-$!+#!'#-'5 510'!+5'!,+#!:!)$%'*'5>!A+*'# $5-!9655F;!0-+-'0!-<+-!-<'!)'(),0!/%7$-6-)4$!-$ 13!
9$5!/%7$-6-)4$!3!1;!10!3<+5+3-'51I'(!?!!-%$!$ $01#)!*1'%01!

! %! *1'%! %<13<! 3$#01('50! 1#*'0-,'#-0! 1#! 0$31+&! 0$9-%+5'! +! &/./5!! %<13<! 3+##$-! ?'!
+99$5('(!(/51#)!-$/)<!-1,'02!
! %#$-<'5! *1'%! -<+-! 1#0-'+(! *1'%0! 1-! +0! 0$,'-<1#)! -+#)1?&'! %<13<! 3+#! 5$(/3'! <+5(!
?/01#'00!?'#'91-0:!

.$-<!*1'%0!+5'!&')1-1,+-':!7<'!9$5,'5!10!(/0-191'(!?!!-<'!3/55'#-!'3$#$,13!351010!?/-!+&0$!
?!!+!03+53'!6#$%&'()'!+?$/-!-<'! $-'#-1+&!$9!0$31+&!,'(1+!9$5!-<'!?/01#'00!%$5&(:C5!

Differences between Knowledge Management and Enterprise Social Networks


Networks

% +5'#-&!>!0$31+&!,'(1+!+#(!"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!&$$6!*'5!!01,1&+5:!.$-<!+5'!1#-'#('(!-$!
/0'!-'3<#$&$)!!-$!+33'00!1#9$5,+-1$#>!?$-<!5'+/15'! '$ &'!-$!0<+5'!-<+-!1#9$5,+-1$#!+#(!?$-<!
5$,10'!-$!1, 5$*'!3$&&+?$5+-1$#:!"#!5'+&1-!>!.5+(&'!!+#(!*3A$#+&(!96533;!,+6'!1-!3&'+5!-<+-!
-<'5'!10!+!?1)!(199'5'#3'1!

! "*! 10! +?$/-! 3$, +#!! ,+#+)','#-! -'&&1#)! ', &$!''0! %<+-! -$! 6#$%! ?+0'(! $#! %<+-!
75$:!-<1#6!10!1, $5-+#-2!!
! 2$31+&! ,'(1+! 10! +?$/-! ''50! 0<+51#)! %<+-! -<'!! -<1#6! 10! 1, $5-+#-! 1#! +! %+!! -<+-!
'*'5!$#'!3+#!(/()'!9$5!-<',0'&*'0:!

7</0>!"*!5'9&'3-0!+!<1'5+53<13+&!%+!!$9!,+#+)1#)!+#!$5)+#10+-1$#>!%<1&'!0$31+&!,'(1+!10!
,$5'!3$&&+?$5+-1*':!"*!10!-$ /($%#>!0$31+&!,'(1+!10!?$--$,// :!#'5-+1#&!>!0$31+&!,'(1+!0'',0!
,$5'!3<+$-13:!"#(''(>!-<'!*'5!!1('+!?'<1#(!"*!10!-<+-!1#9$5,+-1$#!+#(!6#$%&'()'!#''(!-$!?'!
,+#+)'(:!2$31+&!,'(1+!10!-<'!$ $01-'1!1-!10!#$-!+?$/-!,+#+)1#)>!5+-<'5>!1-!10!+?$/-!'#)+)1#)!
'$ &':! %#$-<'5! (199'5'#3'! 10! -<+-! 1#! "*! 0!0-',0! ,+#+)'50! 0 '319!! 1#! +(*+#3'! %<13<!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
C5
7:!A%D048?=7>!/%7$-6-)4$!3!1*!"5$!6$/ !6$/!-%'/0$12$!.,%,2$+$%7O !&)+5*+5(!./01#'00!='*1'%'>!
:'?5/+5!!34>!655F!

C3 !
!
! "#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$560

1#9$5,+-1$#! <+0! -$! ?'! 0<+5'(:! "#! 0$31+&! ,'(1+>! -<'! 35'+-1$#! $9! 3$#-'#-! 10! +! 5'+&/-1,'! -+06!
5'0'5*'(!-$!'*'5!?$(!:C3!
8'5<+ 0>! $#'! $9! -<'! ,$0-! 1, $5-+#-! (199'5'#3'0! ?'-%''#! "*! +#(! '#-'5 510'! 0$31+&!
#'-%$561#)! 10! -<'! -1,'! '51$(! %1-<1#! %<13<! '$ &'! )'-! +! ?'#'91-! ?+36:! )+)'&>! .5$%#! +#(!
A+*10$#! 96535;! +5)/'! -<+-! "*! 0!0-',0! -5!! -$! 3$#*1#3'! '$ &'! -$! 0 '#(! -1,'! 3$#-51?/-1#)!
'.10-1#)! 6#$%&'()'! %1-<! -<'! 5$,10'! -<+-! $#'! (+!! -<'!! -<',0'&*'0! %1&&! '*'#-/+&&!! -+6'!
+(*+#-+)'!$9!3$#-51?/-1$#0!?!!$-<'50:!.!!3$#-5+0->!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)!)1*'0!1,,'(1+-'!*+&/'!-$!
+5-131 +#-0>!,+61#)!1-! $001?&'!-$!0$&*'!3<+&&'#)'0!1#!5'+&!-1,':!!
7<'!!+&0$!?'&1'*'!-<+-!%<1&'!3$#*'#-1$#+&!6#$%&'()'!,+#+)','#-!10!+33'001?&'!$#&!!-$!
+5-131 +#-0!%1-<1#!+!3$, +#!>!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)!,+!!)$!?'!$#(!-<'!?$/#(+51'0!$9!+!
915,! +#(! -<'! $001?1&1-!! $9! 3$##'3-1#)! %1-<! '$ &'! $/-01('! -<'! 3$, +#!! 3+#! ?'! '.-5','&!!
$%'59/&:!7<'!,+1#! $1#-! $9!-<10!0'3-1$#!10!-<+-!%<1&'!"*!+#(!0$31+&!,'(1+!&$$6!01,1&+5>!-<'!!
+5'!*'5!!(199'5'#-:C6!

Social Media: Possibilities and Challenges

7<'!9$&&$%1#)!0'3-1$#!'. &$5'0!1#!,$5'!('-+1&0!<$%!"*!3+#!?'!('*'&$ '(!-<5$/)<!0$31+&!,'(1+>!


1#3&/(1#)!?$-<! $001?1&1-1'0!+#(!3<+&&'#)'0:!

Possibilities of Social Media

2$31+&! *'(1+! + &13+-1$#0! )1*'! /0'50! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! 0<+5'! 1#9$5,+-1$#>! 1#01)<-0>! $ 1#1$#0>!
'. '51'#3'0! +#(! 6#$%&'()':! 7<'! -$$&0! -<+-! '#+?&'! '$ &'! -$! ($! 0$! +5'! ?&$)0>! %1610>! 3<+-0>!
9$5/,0>!'-3:!%&&!-<'0'!3+#!?'!1#3&/('(!1#!%<+-!10!6#$%#!+0!4'(),0!4'87/,-$!$5!@$9!3!1!$5!)'(),0!
.$1),:!%&-<$/)<!-<'5'!+5'!,+#!!+ &13+-1$#0!/#('5!-<'!0$31+&!0$9-%+5'!/,?5'&&+>!0$31+&!,'(1+!
3+#!?'!-<$/)<-!$9!+0!,$5'!$9!+!,1#(0'-!-<+#!$9!+!-'3<#$&$)!:!7<10!%+!!$9!-<1#61#)!'#3$/5+)'0!
$ '##'00! +#(! 0<+51#)! $9! 6#$%&'()'! 1#! +! 3$&&+?$5+-1*'! ,+##'5:! 7+ 03$--! +#(! 81&&1+,0!
9655F;0+!!-<+-!-<'!$ $5-/#1-!!-$!&'-!-<'!!$/#)'5!)'#'5+-1$#!/!-<$0'!%<$!%'5'!?$5#!1#-$!-<'!
(1)1-+&!+)'!//0'!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!-$$&0!%1&&!?51#)!$#'!$9!-<'!?1))'0-!3<+#)'0!-<'!?/01#'00!%$5&(!
<+0!'*'5!0''#:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
C3
%:! ;:! .=%A$0B>! *:! 8:! *3A?4%$A>! )'(),0! .$1),! ?$-4#4! -%'/0$12$! .,%,2$+$%7>! &)+5*+5(! ./01#'00!
='*1'%'>!?3-$?'5!6>>!6533!
C6
;:! )%-0$! """>! ;:! 2:! .=?84>! $:! A%D"2?4>! F! 8$77$-! @,:! 7'! .,%,2$! -%'/0$12$>! &)+5*+5(! ./01#'00!
='*1'%'>!;+#/+5!!34>!6535!!!!

! C6!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

7<'5'!+&5'+(!!'.10-0!,+#!!0$31+&!+ &13+-1$#0!0/3<!+0!:+3'?$$6!$5!7%1--'5!-<+-!$99'5!-<'!
$001?1&1-!! 9$5! ', &$!''0! -$! 3$,,/#13+-'! ,$5'! 1#-'5+3-1*'&!:! )$%'*'5>! 3$, +#1'0! 3+#! +&0$!
3<$$0'!-$!0-+5-!/01#)!?/01#'00!+ &13+-1$#0:!7<'0'!+ &13+-1$#0!+5'!0 '31913+&&!!('01)#'(!9$5!-<'!
?/01#'00!%$5&(:!.+013+&&!>!-<'!!$99'5!,+#!!$9!-<'! $001?1&1-1'0!-<+-!3$#0/,'5!-$$&0! 5$*1('! &/0!
0$,'!0 '31913!+ &13+-1$#0!9$5!3$, +#1'0:!
"-!10!+&0$!#'3'00+5!!-$!,'#-1$#!-<'!100/'!$9!('++#%)(,7)'%:! %0! 3$/#-'51#-/1-1*'! +0!-<10!
,+!!0'',>!3$,,/#13+-1$#!1#!-<'!*15-/+&!%$5&(!10!(/0-!$#'!$9!-<'!,+#!!9$5,0!$9!3$,,/#13+-1$#!
$-<'5! -<+#! 9+3'! -$! 9+3'! 3$#-+3-:! %33$5(1#)! -$! )$&,?'5)! 9655F;>! -<'! 5'+3-1$#0! $9! '$ &'! -$!
(1*'50'!<+ '#1#)0!1#!-<'!*15-/+&!%$5&(!10!*'5!!01,1&+5!-$!%<+-!<+ '#0!1#!-<'!&5'+&'!%$5&(:!)'!
+5)/'0! -<+-! 0$31+&! ?'<+*1$/5+&! ,$('&0! 3+#! ?'! -5+#09'55'(! -$! -<'! *15-/+&! %$5&(:! :$5! 1#0-+#3'>!
%<'#! '$ &'!,''-!/ !1#!-<'!*15-/+&!%$5&(>!-<'!!$9-'#!-'#(!-$!35'+-'!+!&)5$/ '!%1-<1#!%<13<!
3$,,/#13+-1$#!-+6'0! &+3':!7<'!0+,'!-<1#)!<+ '#0!1#!-<'!5'+&!%$5&(:!
?#'!$9!-<'!,$0-!/0'(!-$$&0!1#!3$5 $5+-'!3$,,/#13+-1$#!10!-<'!$3+,)0:!)$%'*'5>!$#'!$9!
-<'!?1))'0-!3<+&&'#)'0!10!-<'!#/,?'5!$9!',+1&0! '$ &'!5'3'1*'!'*'5!!(+!:!7$(+!!1-!10!,$5'!+#(!
,$5'!3$,,$#!-<+-!', &$!''0!<+*'!#$!-1,'!-$!&$$6!+-!+&&!-<'!',+1&0!-<'!!5'3'1*'!1#!+!(+!:!!
4$-!-$!,'#-1$#!$-<'5!100/'0>!0/3<!+0!-<'!9+3-!-<+-!',+1&0!+5'!9$5,+&!?!!('91#1-1$#!%<1&'!
0$,'-1,'0!0$,'! 1'3'0!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!('0'5*'!-$!?'!3$,,/#13+-'(!1#!+!,$5'!1#9$5,+&!%+!:!"-!
+&0$!<+ '#0!-<+-!+! '50$#!-<1#60!-$!<+*'!1#3&/('(!'*'5!?$(!!90;<'!%10<'(!-$!1#3&/('!1#!+#!'/
,+1&!?/-!90;<'!(1(!#$-:!7<'5'9$5'>!1-!10!-1,'!9$5!3$, +#1'0!-$!$ '#!-<',0'&*'0!-$!$-<'5!9$5,0!
$9!3$,,/#13+-1$#:!
8'5<+ 0>!-<'!,+1#!3<+&&'#)'!3$, +#1'0!<+*'!-$!9+3'!10!-<+-!', &$!''0!+5'!+&5'+(!!/01#)!
0$31+&!,'(1+!-$$&0!%1-<1#!-<'15!3$, +#1'0>!'*'#!19!-<'!!+5'!#$-! 5$*1('(!?!!-<'!3$, +#!:!7<'!!
($! 0$! -$! ,+6'! -<'15! %$56! ,$5'! +)1&'>! 5$(/3-1*'! +#(! '#)+)1#):! 8$/&(! 1-! #$-! ?'! ?'--'5! 19!
3$, +#1'0! -<',0'&*'0! 0-+5-! 5$*1(1#)! ', &$!''0! %1-<! 0$,'! 0$31+&! -$$&0<! *+#!! 3$, +#1'0!
<+*'!+&5'+(!!5'+&10'(!-<10!-5'#(:!:$5!1#0-+#3'>!)$-$%,!)'87/,-$!'*'#!+(*13'0!', &$!''0!-$!/0'!
:+3'?$$6! +-! %$56! 1#! $5('5! -$! ,+6'! 3$##'3-1$#0! %1-<! 3$/%$56'50:! 9)P,P&P1#'#! 655F>! "<+#/0!
655F>! $+<('#01*/! 655F;! ?#! -<'! $-<'5! <+#(>! <$%'*'5>! -<'5'! 10! +! &+5)'! #/,?'5! $9! 3$, +#1'0!
%<13<!3$#-1#/'!-$!9$5?1(!-<'0'!-$$&0!(/51#)!%$561#)!-1,':!7<'5'!+5'!,+#!!5'+0$#0!%<!!-<'!!($!
0$>!0$,'!$9!%<13<!+5'!+&0$!/#('50-+#(+?&'>!0/3<!+0!0'3/51-!!+#(!-1,'/5'&+-'(!100/'0:!

CC !
!
! "#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$560

2$31+&!,'(1+!3+#!+&0$!?'!/0'(!-$!1, 5$*'!-<'!)%%'?,7)'%!3+ +?1&1-1'0!$9!+!3$, +#!:!7<10!


10! $001?&'!-<+#60!-$!+#!1, 5$*'(!3$$ '5+-1$#!%1-<!3/0-$,'50!+#(!3&1'#-0!+#(!-$!-<'!(199/01$#!
$9!6#$%&'()'!+,$#)!', &$!''0!+1,'(!+-!('*'&$ 1#)!,$5'!1##$*+-1*'! 5$(/3-0!+#(!0'5*13'0:!
"9!0$31+&!,'(1+!-$$&0!+5'!/0'(!1#01('!$5)+#10+-1$#0>!%<!!0<$/&(!-<'!!#$-!?'!/0'(!$/-01('!
-<',!+0!%'&&<!2$,'!3$, +#1'0!($!'.+3-&!!-<+-:!:$5!'.+, &'>!&$2'! +060!1-0!3&1'#-0!%<+-!-<'!!
%+#-! -<5$/)<! 0$31+&! ,'(1+! + &13+-1$#0:! $')$! )1*'0! -<',! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! ('01)#! +#(! )5+('!
#'%! 5$(/3-0! 0$! -<+-! -<'! 3$, +#!! 3+#! )+-<'5! +0! ,+#!! 1('+0! +0! $001?&'! ?+0'(! $#! %<+-!
3/0-$,'50!%+#-:!

Challenges of Social Media

%33$5(1#)!-$!-+5-#'5,0!5'0'+53<!9$1##+6'!655F;>!-<'5'!+5'!9$/5!,+1#!3<+&&'#)'0!-<+-!3$, +#1'0!
/01#)!0$31+&!,'(1+!9$5!"*!,+!!9+3'1!

3: #$#*'5-1#)!-+31-!1#-$!'. &131-!6#$%&'()'!
6: 851*+3!!
C: .'<+*1$/5!$9!-<'!/0'50!
=: 71,'/5'&+-'(!100/'0!

9'%?$-7)%2!7,()7!)%7'!$H60)()7!.%'/0$12$!

%0!+&5'+(!!,'#-1$#'(>!-<'!,$0-!5'&'*+#-!6#$%&'()'!3$, +#1'0!<+*'!10!-<'15!-+31-!6#$%&'()'>!
0$,'-<1#)! 1#01('! '$ &'0,! ,1#(0! %<13<! 10! (19913/&-! -$! '. 5'00! +#(! 3$,,/#13+-'! 01#3'! 1-! 10!
/#%51--'#!+#(!/#0 $6'#:!7<'! 5$?&',!10!-<+-!%<'#!-+31-!6#$%&'()'!10!3$#*'5-'(!1#-$!'. &131->!
1-0! *+&/'! ,+!! (1,1#10<:! 7<10! 10! 0$! ?'3+/0'! -+31-! 6#$%&'()'! 10! 0-513-&!! &1#6'(! -$! -<'! 3$#-'.-! 1#!
%<13<!1-!<+0!?''#!35'+-'(!+#(!%<'#!1-!?'3$,'0!'. &131->!1-!,+!!#$!&$#)'5!?'!/0+?&':9A+*'# $5-!
+#(!85/0+6!344F>!$/?1-!6553>!41',1#'#!655E;!

M-)?,(:!!!
7<'! ,+--'5! <'5'! 10! 5'--!! 0-5+1)<-9$5%+5(>! #$#'-<'&'00! '.-5','&!! 1, $5-+#-:! "#9$5,+-1$#!
%<13<!10!,'+#-!-$!0-+!! 51*+-'!<+0!-$!?'!6' -! 51*+-':!8<1&'!1#9$5,+-1$#!%<13<!10!,'+#-!-$!?'!
/?&13!0<$/&(!?'!+33'001?&'!?!!'*'5!?$(!>!'*'#!$/-01('!3$, +#!!?$/#(+51'0:!9$1##+6'!655F;!

! C=!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

8$5,?)'#-!'8!75$!#4$-4!
%33$5(1#)!-$!:11&1#!9655E;>!-<'! $001?1&1-!!-$! /?&10<!0-/99!$#!+!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!%1-<$/-!', &$!''!
#+,'0! 3+#! ('35'+0'! -<'! +/+&1-!! $9! -<'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 5$*1('(:! :$5! 1#0-+#3'>! ".*! <+0!
'#3$/#-'5'(!-<10! 5$?&',:!"#1-1+&&!>!', &$!''0!3$/&(! $0-!1#9$5,+-1$#!+#$#!,$/0&!!%<1&'!#$%!
-<'!! 3+#! ($! 1-! $#&!! 19! -<'!! 0+!! %<$! -<'!! +5':! %9-'5! -<+-! 3<+#)'>! ".*! ?'3+,'! ,$5'! 0+-1091'(!
+?$/-!-<'!+/+&1-!!$9!-<'! /?&10<'(!3$#-'#-:!!
%33$5(1#)!-$!85'#06!!96553;!/0'50!$9!0/3<!+ &13+-1$#0!3+#!?'!(1*1('(!1#-$!1)2)7,0!%,7)?$4!
+#(!1)2)7,0!)++)2-,%74:!0+3<!)5$/ !0<$%0!+!(199'5'#-!?'<+*1$/5:!A1)1-+&!#+-1*'0!+5'!-<'!!$/#)!
)'#'5+-1$#>! -<'! $#'0! %<$! %'5'! ?$5#! 1#-$! -<'! (1)1-+&! %$5&(! +#(! -<'!! 9''&! 3$,9$5-+?&'! /01#)!
0$31+&! -$$&0>! %<13<! +5'! +5-! $9! -<'15! '*'5!(+!! &19':! "#0-'+(>! (1)1-+&! 1,,1)5+#-0! +5'! #$-!
+33/0-$,'(!-$!/01#)!0/3<!+ &13+-1$#0!+#(!-<'!!+5'!/0/+&&!!$*'5!-<'!+)'!$9!-<15-!:!!
7<'5'9$5'>! 1-! 10! 9/#(+,'#-+&! 9$5! 3$, +#1'0! -$! 91)/5'! $/-! %+!0! -$! )'-! +&&! ', &$!''0!
1#*$&*'(! 1#! +! &-.! 75-'#25! 4'(),0! +$1),C! 0-5+-')!! 5')+5(&'00! $9! -<'15! ?+36)5$/#(:! ??*1$/0&!>!
(1)1-+&!1,,1)5+#-0!%1&&!'. '51'#3'!,$5'!(19913/&-1'0!01#3'!+!0<19-!95$,!$&(!%$561#)!%+!0!-$!#'%!
%+!0!10!#'3'00+5!:!!!!

")+$3-$0,7$1!)44#$4!!
71,'! 5'00/5'! 10! '5<+ 0! $#'! $9! -<'! ,$0-! (19913/&-! ?+551'50! -$! $*'53$,':! "-! 10! '00'#-1+&! -<+-!
0$31+&! + &13+-1$#0! ?'! ('01)#'(! #$-! -$! ?'! +#! '.-5+! %$56&$+(! 9$5! ', &$!''0:! 7<'0'! -$$&0! +5'!
,'+#-!-$!01, &19!!&19'>!#$-!-$!,+6'!1-!,$5'!(19913/&-:!7<'!100/'!$9!-1,'!10!0$!3/55'#-!-<+-!%$/&(!
('0'5*'! +#$-<'5!-<'010!-$!?'! 9/&&!! '. &$5'(:! :$5! -<'! /5 $0'! $9! -<10! %$56>! ?'+5! 1#! ,1#(! -<+-!
$5)+#10+-1$#0!0<$/&(!#''(!-$!5'3$#01('5!<$%!-<'!!'*+&/+-'!', &$!''0,!%$56:!7<'!+,$/#-!$9!
<$/50!+#!', &$!''!0 '#(!+-!%$56!3+#!#$!&$#)'5!?'!3$#01('5'(!+!5'&1+?&'!1#(13+-$5!9$5!<10Q<'5!
'*+&/+-1$#:!7<+-!10!'0 '31+&&!!-5/'!#$%!-<+-!%$561#)!+-!<$,'!10!)'--1#)!'+01'5!+#(!'+01'5:!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

CG !
!
! "#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$560

Fig. 2. 1 Gap between Intranet services and the possibilities of the Internet(Modified
Internet(Modified
from Yli-
Yli-Olli 2008)

2$31+&!,'(1+!-$$&0!+5'!%1('&!!/0'(!1#!-<'!"#-'5#'-!(/51#)!0 +5'!-1,':!:1):!6:3!0<$%0!-<+-!
-<'5'! 10! +! )5$%1#)! )+ ! ?'-%''#! -<'! $ $5-/#1-1'0! 5$*1('(! ?!! -<'! "#-'5#'-! +#(! -<'! /0'!
3$, +#1'0! ,+6'! $9! 1-! +-! %$56:! 7</0>! 0$31+&! -'3<#$&$)1'0! +5'! #$-! !'-! 9/&&!! '. &$1-'(! ?!!
'#-'5 510'0!'*'#!-<$/)<!-<'!%'?!6:5!+ &1'(!-$!-<'!?/01#'00!%$5&(!3+#!?'!+!5'+&!5'*$&/-1$#:CC!

7<10! 0'3-1$#! %+#-'(! -$! $1#-! $/-! -<'! 9+3-! -<+-! "*! <+0! #$-! ?5$/)<-! +&&! -<'! ('015'(!
?'#'91-0:!2$!-<'!+/'0-1$#!10>!<$%!-$!,+6'!1-!%$56<!%!?1)! 5$?&',!%1-<!"*!10!-<+-!-<10!,'-<$(!10!
#$-<1#)! ?/-! +#! '99$5-! -$! ,+6'! +#! 1#*'#-$5!! $9! +! 3$, +#!,0! '.10-1#)! 6#$%&'()'! %1-<$/-!
(199'5'#-1+-1#)! ?'-%''#! %<13<! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 10! 5'&'*+#-! +#(! %<13<! 10! #$->! %<+-! 61#(! $9!
6#$%&'()'!3+#!?51#)!<+5(!?/01#'00!5'0/&-0!+#(!%<+-!10!155'&'*+#-:!7<'!6'!!10!-$!/0'!,'-<$(0!
%<13<! +5'! ,$5'! 9$3/0'(! $#! -<'! 61#(! $9! 6#$%&'()'! %<13<! %1&&! ?'! /0'9/&! 1#! -<'! 9/-/5'! 5+-<'5!
-<+#! 9$3/01#)! $#! %<+-! %+0! 1, $5-+#-! 1#! -<'! +0-:! 4'%! ,'-<$(0! ,/0-! +&&$%! ', &$!''0! -$!
35'+-'! +#(! 0<+5'! 6#$%&'()'! -<'!! ($! #$-! 6#$%! %<'#! +#(! <$%! 1-! %1&&! ?'3$,'! /0+?&':!
9=13<+5(0$#!6533;!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
CC
8:!2%477">!*+0-'5,0!-<'0101!P$?$0'6)%2!9'-6'-,7$!-%'/0$12$!"5-'#25!)'(),0!.$1),>!4$*',?'5!63>!
655F!

! C>!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

7<'5'!,+!!?'!,+#!!1#9$5,+&!,'-<$(0!%<13<!+5'!3+ +?&'!$9!($1#)!-<+-:!7<'!1('+!?'<1#(!
-<10!%$56!10!-<+-!$#'!,'-<$(!10!5' 5'0'#-'(!?!!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$561#):!*+#!!+5'!($/?-9/&!
+?$/-! -<'! 5'+&! /0'9/&#'00! $9! 0$31+&! #'-%$560! 1#! -<'! ?/01#'00! %$5&(:! %33$5(1#)! -$! =13<+5(0$#!
96533;>! -<'! -5/-<! 10! -<+-! 1#9$5,+&! "*! ,'-<$(0! <+*'! -<'! $-'#-1+&! 9$5! ', &$!''0! -$! +3+/15'!
6#$%&'()'!?'9$5'!1-!?'3$,'0!5'&'*+#-:C=!

)$%'*'5>!9$5! 6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,0!-$! ?'!'99'3-1*'>! -<'!100/'!$9!,$-1*+-1$#! <+0!-$! ?'!


-+6'#!1#-$!+33$/#-:!"#(''(>!19!', &$!''0!+5'!#$-!1#-51#013+&&!!,$-1*+-'(!-$!0<+5'!-<'15!6#$%/
<$%>! -<'! 1#-5$(/3-1$#! $9! "#7! -$$&0! %1&&! /#&16'&!! ,+6'! +#!! 01)#1913+#-! (199'5'#3':! 7<'! #'.-!
0'3-1$#!1#-5$(/3'0!-<'!100/'!$9!,$-1*+-1$#!9$5!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#):!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
C=
%:! ="#)%=A2?4>! -%'/0$12$! .,%,2$+$%7! 8$0'/! 75$! G,1,->! &)+5*+5(! ./01#'00! ='*1'%'>! ;+#/+5!! =>!
6533!

CE !
!
"#$%&'()'!*+#+)','#-!+#(!./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$560

Key ideas
! "#$%&'()'! *+#+)','#-! 9"*;! 10! -<'! 5$3'00! $9! )+-<'51#)! +#(! 0<+51#)! 6#$%&'()'!
%1-<1#!+#!$5)+#10+-1$#:!"-0!+1,!10!-$!1#35'+0'!-<'!&'*'&!$9!6#$%&'()'!$9!'+3<!', &$!''!
+#(!1-!10! +5-13/&+5&!!1, $5-+#-!9$5! 5$('3-/?+0'(!'#-'5 510'0:!!
! "*!%+0!+!*'5!!<$-!-$ 13!1#!-<'!34450!?/-!<+0!#$-!?5$/)<-!+&&!-<'!('015'(!?'#'91-0:!!
! ?#'!$9!-<'!?1))'0-! 5$?&',0!+?$/-!"*!10!-<+-!1-!1, &1'0!+!3'#-5+&1I'(!3$,,/#13+-1$#!
%<'5'! $#&!! +! 9'%! '$ &'! %1-<1#! +! 3$, +#!! <+*'! -<'! $%'5! -$! ('31('! %<13<!
1#9$5,+-1$#!0<$/&(!?'!0<$%#!-$!-<'!', &$!''0:!!
! #$&&+?$5+-1$#!+#(! 1#-'5+3-1*1-!!+5'!-<'! '&','#-0!-<+-!%1&&! 3<+5+3-'51I'!-<'!3$, +#1'0!
$9! -<'! 9/-/5':! "#(''(! -<'! $5)+#10+-1$#0! %<'5'! '$ &'! &'+5#! +0! 9+0-! +0! $001?&'! +5'!
-<$0'!1#!%<13<!1#(1*1(/+&0!1#-'5+3-!+#(!3$$ '5+-'!%1-<!'+3<!$-<'5:!!
! %#!1##$*+-1*'!%+!!-$!9$0-'5!3$&&+?$5+-1$#!+#(!1#-'5+3-1*1-!!10!-<'!/0'!$9!0$31+&!,'(1+!-$!
0<+5'!6#$%&'()':!
! *+#!!3$, +#1'0!+5$/#(!-<'!%$5&(!+5'!/01#)!0$31+&! &+-9$5,0!-$!0/ $5-!3$&&+?$5+-1$#!
+#(!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+51#)!+,$#)!', &$!''0:!!
! "*!10!+?$/-!,+#+)','#-!-'&&1#)!', &$!''0!%<+-!-$!6#$%!?+0'(!$#!%<+-!75$:!-<1#6!10!
1, $5-+#-2!0$31+&!,'(1+!10!+?$/-! ''50!0<+51#)!%<+-!-<'!!-<1#6!10!1, $5-+#-!1#!+!%+!!
-<+-!'*'5!$#'!3+#!(/()'!9$5!-<',0'&*'0:!
! 2$31+&! *'(1+! )1*'0! /0'50! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! 0<+5'! 1#9$5,+-1$#>! 1#01)<-0>! $ 1#1$#0>!
'. '51'#3'0!+#(!6#$%&'()'!1#!+!3$&&+?$5+-1*'!,+##'5:!!
! 2$,'! $9! -<'! ,+1#! 3<+&&'#)'0! 3$, +#1'0! /01#)! 0$31+&! ,'(1+! 9$5! "*! ,+!! 9+3'! +5'1!
3/&-/5+&!?+551'50>! 51*+3!>!-1,'/5'&+-'(!100/'0:!

!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

MOTIVATION FOR KNOWLEDGE


KNOWL EDGE SHARING

=;%47$,1! '8! ,4.)%2 ! *'/! (,%! ;! +'7)?,7$! 6$'60$O! /$! 45'#01! 9$! ,4.)%2 ! *'/! (,%! ;! (-$,7$! 75$!
('%1)7)'%4!/)75)%!/5)(5!6$'60$!/)00!+'7)?,7$!75$+4$0?$4OC!

M!0(%+5(!$:!A'31CG!

7<'! +1,! $9! -<10! 0'3-1$#! 10! -$! &1#6! ,$-1*+-1$#! -<'$51'0! -$! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#):! 7<'! +/'0-1$#! 10>!
%<!! ($! '$ &'! 0<+5'! -<'15! 6#$%&'()'! +#(! %<!! ($! -<'!! #$-<! 7<10! 10! *'5!! 1, $5-+#-! 9$5!
3$, +#1'0!-$!/#('50-+#(>!$5!'&0'!-<'!5106!10!9$5!-<',!-$!+($ -!0$31+&!,'(1+!-$$&0!-$! 5$,$-'!
6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)! %1-<$/-! ', &$!''0! /01#)! -<',:! 7<'5'9$5'>! /#('50-+#(1#)! %<+-! -<'!
3$#(1-1$#0! +5'! 9$5! '$ &'! -$! 0<+5'! %<+-! -<'!! 6#$%! 10! 9/#(+,'#-+&:! "#(''(>! 1-! 10! <+5(! -$!
'#3$/5+)'!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#)!%1-<$/-!6#$%1#)!%<!! '$ &'!0<+5'!-<'15!6#$%&'()':!
7<'! 5'*1$/0!3<+ -'5!,+('!1-!3&'+5!%<+-!-<'! $-'#-1+&!?'#'91-0!$9!+!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)!
0-5+-')!!,+!!?'!9$5!+#!$5)+#10+-1$#:!)'5'!-<'!0/?('3-!10!#$-!-<'!3$, +#!>!?/-!-<'!1#(1*1(/+&:!
8<!! 0<$/&(! +#! ', &$!''! 0<+5'! %<+-! 90;<'! 6#$%0<! ='0'+53<! 0-+-'0! -<+-! '$ &'! +5'!
,/3<!,$5'!%1&&1#)!-$!0<+5'!-<'15!6#$%/<$%!-<5$/)<!1#-'5 '50$#+&!5'&+-1$#0!5+-<'5!-<+#!/01#)!
(+-+?+0'0:! 9)/!0,+#! +#(! 81-! 6556;! ./-! '*'#! %<'#! '$ &'! <+*'! +! (15'3-! 3$#-+3-! %1-<! '+3<!
$-<'5>!-<'!!0$,'-1,'0!-'#(!#$-!-$!0<+5'!1#9$5,+-1$#:!8<!!10!1-!0$!+#(!%<+-!+5'!-<'!3$#(1-1$#0!
/#('5!%<13<! '$ &'!+5'!1#3&1#'(!-$!0<+5'<!
.'9$5'!)$1#)!-<5$/)<!,$-1*+-1$#!-<'$51'0>!1-!10!1#-'5'0-1#)!-$!&$$6!+-!%<+-!3$, +#1'0!+5'!
($1#)! 1#! 5+3-13'! -$! 5$,$-'! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#):! )'5'! +5'! (/0-! +! 9'%! '.+, &'0! 9%8H#! 3444>!
)+&&!6553+;1!

! ))$+$%4! <+0! ('*'&$ '(! 1-0! $%#! 0$31+&! 0$9-%+5'>! 3+&&'(! 2<+5'4'-:! #$#-51?/-1$#0! ?!!
', &$!''0! +5'! 5'%+5('(! %1-<! %<+-! -<'!! 3+&&! 2<+5'4'-! &2<+5'0':! 2<+5'0! 3+#! ?'!
'.3<+#)'(! %1-<! 5'+&! 21','#0! 5$(/3-0:! "-! 10! -<'! 0+,'! 5$3'(/5'! +15&1#'0! 3$, +#1'0!
+($ -!%<'#! '$ &'!)'-!+15!,1&'02!
! *$/0$773M,(.,-1! 9'%4#07)%2! )1*'0! &"#$%&'()'! *+0-'50! %%+5(0'! -$! ', &$!''0! %<$!
(10-1#)/10<! -<',0'&*'0! 9$5! -<'15! 3$#-51?/-1$#0! 1#! -<'! 3$5 $5+-'! 0$31+&! + &13+-1$#:!
81##'50!5'3'1*'!5'3$)#1-1$#!+0!%'&&!+0!3+0<!$5! +1(!-51 02!
! )('77!M,6$-!)1*'0!91#+#31+&!1#3'#-1*'0!&16'!?$#/0'0!$5!0-$36!$ -1$#02!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
CG
!0(%+5(!$:!A'31>!8<:A:>!10! 5$9'00$5!$9! 0!3<$&$)!!+-!-<'!@#1*'501-!!$9!=$3<'0-'5:!!)'!10!%'&&!6#$%#!1#!
0!3<$&$)!!9$5!<10!-<'$51'0!$9!1#-51#013!+#(!'.-51#013!,$-1*+-1$#:!!

C4 !
!
*$-1*+-1$#!9$5!"#$%&'()'!2<+51#)

! %-!".*!-<'!?$#/0!10!(1*1('(!?'-%''#!-<'!6#$%&'()'!35'+-$5!+#(!-<'!6#$%&'()'!/0'5:!

"#! )'#'5+&>! -<'5'! +5'! -%$! -! '0! $9! 1#3'#-1*'0! 3$, +#1'0! /0/+&&!! )1*'! 9$5! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)1!
7,%2)90$!+#(!)%7,%2)90$!1#3'#-1*'0:!7+#)1?&'!1#3'#-1*'0!+5'!,$#'!!+#(!?$#/0'0!%<1&'!1#-+#)1?&'!
1#3'#-1*'0!+5'!5'3$)#1-1$#>!'#<+#3'(!5' /-+-1$#>! /?&13! 5+10'!+#(! '50$#+&!0+-109+3-1$#:!7<'!!
+5'!+&0$!3+&&'(!5,-1!*'50/0!4'87!5'%+5(0:!9)+&&!6553+>?;!7<'!9$5,'5!3&+00!1#3&/('0!-<'!-+#)1?&'0>!
-<'!'3$#$,13!1#3'#-1*'02!-<'!&+--'5!3&+00!1#3&/('0!-<'!1#-+#)1?&'0:!
='0'+53<!0<$%0!9%8H#>!3444;!-<+-!<+5(!5'%+5(0!$#&!!<+*'!+!-', $5+5!!'99'3-:!.'01('0>!
%<'#! -<'!! +5'! #$! &$#)'5! 5'0'#->! -<'! ('015'(! ?'<+*1$/5! /! -<'! ?'<+*1$/5! -<+-! 0<$/&(! ?'!
'#3$/5+)'(!/!-'#(0!#$-!-$!+ '+5!+#!,$5':!*$5'$*'5>!'3$#$,13!1#3'#-1*'0!,+!! 5$(/3'!+#!
/#('015'(!?'<+*1$/5!?'3+/0'!-<'!5'+&!1#-'#-1$#!10!#$-!-<'!?'<+*1$/5!1-0'&9!?/-!-<'!%1&&1#)#'00!
-$!)'-!+!5'%+5(:!8'$ &'!,1)<-!%'&&!'.3<+#)'!1#9$5,+-1$#!$9!1#9'51$5!+/+&1-!:!9*3$/5'>!8+06$!
+#(!:+5+(!6555! :!3>6;!)$%'*'5>!)+&&!96553?;!+5)/'0!-<+-!-<10!61#(!$9!1#3'#-1*'0!,+!!?'!)$$(!
-$!)'-!0-+5-'(:!
)'5I?'5)! 934>>;! %+0! -<'! 9150-! -$! $1#-! $/-! -<'! (199'5'#3'! ?'-%''#! +'7)?,7'-4! +#(!
5:2)$%$! 9$5! +,)%7$%,%($;! 9+3-$50:! %33$5(1#)! -$! <1,>! $#&!! -<'! 9$5,'5! +5'! ,$-1*+-1#)! 9+3-$50>!
-<'!$#'0!%<13<!+5'!3+ +?&'!$9!(51*1#)!</,+#!?'<+*1$/5:!7<'!&+--'5!%$56!,$5'!+0!?+551'50!-<+#!
+0!(51*'50:!"#!<10!91#(1#)0>!,$-1*+-$50!+5'!+3<1'*','#->!5'0 $#01?1&1-!>!5'3$)#1-1$#>!+/-$#$,!>!
5$,$-1$#+&! $ $5-/#1-1'0! +#(! 3<+&&'#)'! $9! %$56:! %33$5(1#)! -$! )'5I?'5)>! -<1#)0! &16'! 0+&+5!>!
0-+-/0! +#(! '*'#! )$$(! 1#-'5 '50$#+&! 5'&+-1$#0! +5'! <!)1'#'! 9+3-$50>! -<'! $#'0! 3$#-51?/-1#)! -$!
,$-1*+-1$#!1#!+!#')+-1*'!%+!:!7<10!-<'$5!!?51#)0!,+#!!100/'0!$#!-<'!-+?&'!?'3+/0'>!19!1-!10!-5/'>!
1-! %$/&(! ,'+#! -<+-! 3&+0013! '.-51#013! 5'%+5(0! %$/&(! #$-! ?'! '99'3-1*'! ,$-1*+-$50! ,%1! ,+!!
5$(/3'!(100+-109+3-1$#!%<'#!-<'!!+5'!#$!&$#)'5!+*+1&+?&':!7</0>!%<'#!&$$61#)!9$5!5'+0$#0!%<!!
'$ &'! 0<+5'! -<'15! 6#$%&'()'>! $#'! <+0! -$! 3$#01('5! ,$-1*+-1#)! 9+3-$50! +0! $ $0'(! -$!
,+1#-'#+#3'! $#'0:! .$#/0'0>! 9$5! 1#0-+#3'>! ,+!! 1#35'+0'! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)! ?/-! -<'!! +5'!
/#&16'&!!-$!1#35'+0'!-<'!,$-1*+-1$#!9$5!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#)!1-0'&9:!
7<10!*1'%!+?$/-!1#-51#013!*'50/0!'.-51#013!,$-1*+-1$#!10!0<+5'(!?!!,+#!!%'&&/6#$%!91'&(!
'. '5-0:!A'31!+#(!=!+#!96555;!3+551'(!$/-!,+#!!', 1513+&!0-/(1'0!('+&1#)!%1-<!-<'!(199'5'#3'!
?'-%''#!-<'!-%$!61#(0!$9!,$-1*+-1$#:!7<'15!5'0/&-!%+0!-<'!"5$'-:!'8!)$08!P$7$-+)%,7)'%!92A7;!
%<13<!+)+1#!0-+-'0!-<+-!-<'!0-5$#)'0-!-! '!$9!,$-1*+-1$#!10!-<'!1#-51#013!$#':!7<'!!%'5'!+?&'!-$!

! =5!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

0<$%! -<+-! -<$0'! %<$! +5'! 1#-51#013+&&!! ,$-1*+-'(! 1#! )'#'5+&! ($! ?'--'5! -<+#! '.-51#013+&&!/
,$-1*+-'(! '$ &':C>!
7<'! ,+1#! 5$?&',! %1-<! '.-51#013! 1#3'#-1*'0! 10! -<+-! -<'!! +5'! &16'&!! -$! 5$(/3'! +!
(!09/#3-1$#+&!?'<+*1$/5>!01#3'!1#!,+#!!3+0'0!-<'!1#3'#-1*'!?'3$,'0!,$5'!1, $5-+#-!-<+#!-<'!
?'<+*1$/5!1-0'&9:!7<10!,'+#0!-<+-! '$ &'!%1&&!#$-!+3-!1#!+!3'5-+1#!%+!!?'3+/0'!$9!-<'!1#<'5'#-!
*+&/'!$9!-<'!+3-1$#>!?/-!?'3+/0'!-<'!!%1&&!)'-!+!5'%+5(>!-</0!5'(/31#)!-<'15!1#-51#013!,$-1*+-1$#:!!
)$%'*'5>! -<'5'! 10! #$! 01#)&'! ?'0-! 0$&/-1$#:! %! 3$, +#!! ,+!! +($ -! +! 0-5+-')!! %<13<! (1(!
#$-! %$56! 1#! +#$-<'5! 3$, +#!! +#(! 0-1&&! 91#(! 1-! 0/33'009/&:! 7<10! 10! 0$! ?'3+/0'! 3$#(1-1$#0! +5'!
(199'5'#-:! 9%8H#!3444;!)$%'*'5>! -<'!)'#'5+&!*1'%! 10!-<+-!0$9-!5'%+5(0!+5'!?'--'5>!+-!&'+0-!1#!
-<'! &$#)! 5/#>! '*'#! 19! -<'!! +5'! ,$5'! (19913/&-! -$! 1, &','#-:! 7<+-! 10! -<'! ,+1#! 5'+0$#! %<!!
3$, +#1'0! +($ -! <+5(! 5'%+5(0! '*'#! 19! 1-! 10! #$%! 5'3$)#10'(! -<'!! ($! #$-! %$56! 5$ '5&!1! 1-! 10!
'+01'5!-$!1, &','#-!-<',:!

Motivation theories

*$-1*+-1$#! -<'$51'0! ('+&! %1-<! -<'! 5'+0$#0! ?'<1#(! '$ &'0,! ?'<+*1$/5:! 8<'#! 1-! 3$,'0! -$!
,$-1*+-1$#>!-<'!9150-!-<1#)!-$!/#('50-+#(!10!%<+-!,$-1*+-1$#!10:!*$-1*+-1$#!10!-<'!-'#('#3!!-$!
+3-!+#(!-<10!-'#('#3!!3+#!?'!-<'!5'0/&-!$9!1#-51#013!9+3-$50!$5!'.-51#013!9+3-$50:!7<'!(10-1#3-1$#!
<'5'!)$'0!<+#(!1#!<+#(!%1-<!-<'!(199'5'#3'! ?'-%''#!0$9-! +#(!<+5(!5'%+5(0:!"#-51#013!9+3-$50!
3+#!?'!-<$/)<-!$9!+0!0$9-!9+3-$50!9$5!1#-+#)1?&'0;!%<1&'!'.-51#013!9+3-$50!3+#!?'!3$#01('5'(!<+5(!
9+3-$50!9$5!-+#)1?&'0;:!

"#!)'#'5+&>!,$-1*+-1$#!-<'$51'0!3+#!?'!(1*1('(!1#-$!-%$!3+-')$51'01!('%7$%7!-<'$51'0!+#(!
6-'($44!-<'$51'0:!7<'!9$5,'5!3&+00!9$3/0'0!$#!/5,7!#''(0!(/0-19!!0 '31913!?'<+*1$/50>!-<'!&+--'5!
('+&0!%1-<!5'/!-<$0'!#''(0! 5$(/3'!0$,'!?'<+*1$/50:!

!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
C>
!"#!5'+&1-!>!A'31!+#(!=!+#!<+*'!+&0$!1('#-191'(!0$,'!61#(!$9!,$-1*+-1$#!%<13<!10!#'1-<'5!'.-51#013!#$5!
1#-51#013>!1-!10!+#!1#/?'-%''#:!!

=3 !
!
*$-1*+-1$#!9$5!"#$%&'()'!2<+51#)

Content theories

%0! +&5'+(!! '. &+1#'(>! 3$#-'#-! -<'$51'0! &$$6! +-! %<+-! 9+3-$50! (51*'! </,+#! ?'<+*1$/5! %1-<$/-!
-5!1#)! -$! 91)/5'! $/-! <$%! -<'!! (51*'! 1-:! 7<'! ,$0-! $ /&+5! $9! 0/3<! -<'$51'0! 10! -<'! .,40'/=4!
5)$-,-(5:!'8!%$$14!%<13<!(10-1#)/10<'0!+,$#)!91*'!1#(1*1(/+&!#''(01!

! 8<!01$&$)13+&!#''(0!
! 4''(!9$5!0'3/51-!!
! 4''(!9$5!?'&$#)1#)#'00!
! 4''(!9$5!5'3$)#1-1$#>!0-+-/0!+#(! $%'5!
! 4''(!9$5!0'&9/+3-/+&1I+-1$#!!

7<'!-'5,!<1'5+53<!!,'+#0!-<+-!-<'0'!#''(0!<+*'!-$!?'!*10/+&10'(!1#!+! !5+,1(!%<'5'!+-!
-<'!?$--$,!-<'5'!+5'! <!01$&$)13+&!#''(0!+#(!+-!-<'!-$ !-<'!#''(!9$5!0'&9/+3-/+&1I+-1$#:!8'$ &'!
3+#! 0+-109!! +! #''(! $#&!! +9-'5! <+*1#)! 0+-1091'(! -<'! $#'! %<13<! 10! &$%'5! 1#! -<'! !5+,1(:! :$5!
1#0-+#3'>!-<'!#''(!9$5!?'&$#)1#)#'00!3+#!$#&!!?'!0+-1091'(!$#3'!-<'!#''(!9$5!0'3/51-!!<+0!?''#!
9/&91&&'(!-$$:!
2-$--!+#(!8+&6'5!9344G;!+#(!7+, $'!9344>;!5'9'5!-$!-<'!*+0&$%,0!-<'$5!!-$!+5)/'!-<+-!
,$-1*+-1$#!9$5!6#$%&'()'!%$56!3$,'!95$,!-<'!<1)<'0-!<1'5+53<13+&!&'*'&0:!7<'15!1, &13+-1$#!10!
-<+-!6#$%&'()'!%$56'50>!9$5!1#0-+#3'>!($!#$-!0<+5'!6#$%&'()'!?'3+/0'!$9!,$#'!:!7<'!!($!0$!
?'3+/0'!$9!-<'15!('015'!9$5!0'&9/+3-/+&1I+-1$#:!!!
*3#&'&&+#(!934FE;!%'#-!+!&1--&'!?1-!9/5-<'5!-5!1#)!-$!+ &!!-<$0'!-<'$51'0!-$!-<'!%$561#)!
&19':!)'!3+551'(!$/-!,+#!!0-/(1'0!%1-<1#!(199'5'#-!3$, +#1'0!-5!1#)!-$!91)/5'!$/-!%<+-!-<'!,$0-!
1, $5-+#-!,$-1*+-1#)!9+3-$50!+5'!,7!/'-.!+#(!<'5'!10!<10!&10-1!

! 4''(!9$5!+991&1+-1$#!
! 4''(!9$5!+3<1'*','#-!
! 4''(!9$5! $%'5!

%&&!-<'0'!-<'$51'0!($!#$-!<+*'!+!(15'3-!&1#6!%1-<!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#)!?/-!-<'!!3+#!'+01&!!?'!
+ &1'(!1#!0/3<!+!91'&(:!"9!$#'!-<1#60!+?$/-!1->! '$ &'!,+!!0<+5'!6#$%&'()'!?'3+/0'!-<'!!%+#-!
-$! 0+9')/+5(! -<'15! ($?>! $5! -$! )'-! $#! %'&&! %1-<! 3$&&'+)/'0>! $5! -$! ?'! 5'0 '3-'(! ?!! $-<'50>! $5!
?'3+/0'!$9!0 $#-+#'1-!>!$5!(/'!-$!,+#!!$-<'5!5'+0$#0!%<13<!*'5!!$9-'#!9+&&!1#-$!-<'!3+-')$51'0!
5'*1$/0&!!('0351?'(:!!

! =6!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

?#'! +5-13/&+5! -<'$5!! 10! +! *'5!! )$$(! 91-! 9$5! -<'! 100/'! $9! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#):! "-! 10! -<'!
"'&,+#,0! "5$'-:! '8! )'(),0! ;%80#$%($! %<13<! (199'5'#-1+-'0! +,$#)! -<5''! 0$31+&! 1#9&/'#3'!
5$3'00'01!

! 2$31+&! 1#9&/'#3'! ?+0'(! $#! 3$, &1+#3'1! -<10! ,'+#0! -<+-! '$ &'! ,+!! ?'! 1#9&/'#3'(! ?!!
'.-'5#+&! 1#3'#-1*'0:! .+013+&&!>! -<'!! +3-! -$! )'-! 5'%+5(0! $5! -$! +*$1(! /#10<,'#-0:! "9!
+ &1'(! -$! -<'! -$ 13! $9! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)>! 1-! %$/&(! ,'+#! -<+-! '$ &'! ,+!! 0<+5'!
6#$%&'()'!-$!)'-!35'(1-0!+#(!?$#/0'02!
! 2$31+&!1#9&/'#3'!?+0'(!$#!1('#-1913+-1$#!%1-<!$-<'501!+! '50$#!,+!!?'!%1&&1#)!-$!0<+5'!
6#$%&'()'! ?'3+/0'! 90;<'! %+#-0! -$! ?'! +33' -'(! ?!! 3$&&'+)/'0! +#(! ,+#+)'50! $5!
?'3+/0'!90;<'!%+#-0!-$!)'-!$#!%'&&!%1-<!$-<'502!
! 2$31+&! 1#9&/'#3'! ?+0'(! $#! 1#-'5#+&1I+-1$#1! -<10! 10! -<'! -$ ! $9! -<'! !5+,1(! ?'3+/0'! 1-!
1#*$&*'0!*+&/'0!+#(!?'&1'90:!8'$ &'!,+!!0<+5'!6#$%&'()'!?'3+/0'!-<'!!?'&1'*'!1-!10!-<'!
51)<-!-<1#)!-$!($!155'0 '3-1*'!$9!'.-'5#+&!5'%+5(0:!

Process theories

%0! +&5'+(!! ,'#-1$#'(>! /#&16'! 3$#-'#-! -<'$51'0! %<13<! &$$6! +-! %<+-! #''(0! (51*'! </,+#!
?'<+*1$/5>! 5$3'00!-<'$51'0!('+&!%1-<!5'/!-<$0'!#''(0!%$56!+0!,$-1*+-1#)!9+3-$50:!.+013+&&!>!
-<'!!&$$6!+-!-<'! 5$3'00!$9!,$-1*+-1$#:!!
%0! 9+5! +0! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)! 10! 3$#3'5#'(>! "$&'6$*061! +#(! )',1#)'5! 9655C;! 3$#(/3-'(!
0-/(1'0!$#!1#9$5,+-1$#!'.3<+#)'!+#(!(103$*'5'(!0$,'!?'&1'90!-<+-!%$/&(! $-'#-1+&&!!1#9&/'#3'!
-<'!(199/01$#!$9!6#$%&'()'>!1#3&/(1#)1!

! .'&1'90! +?$/-! 1#9$5,+-1$#1! -<'! +/'0-1$#! 10! %<'-<'5! '$ &'! ?'&1'*'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 10! $9!
)$$(!*+&/'!-$!-<',2!
! "#-'5 '50$#+&! ?'&1'901! <'5'! %<+-! ,+--'50! 10! -<'! +/+&1-!! $9! -<'! 5'&+-1$#0<1 ! +,$#)!
3$&&'+)/'02!
! .'&1'90! +?$/-! -<'! $5)+#10+-1$#1! +5'! -<'5'! $01-1*'! #$5,0! +?$/-! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)!
1#01('!+!3$, +#!<2!
! .'&1'90!+?$/-!-<'!-+061!-<10!10!-<'!'.-'#-!-$!%<13<!1#9$5,+-1$#!'.3<+#)'!10!?'&1'*'(!-$!
?'!1, $5-+#-!9$5!-<'!0/33'00!$9!-<'!-+06!%<13<!10!?'1#)!3+551'(!$/-:!

=C !
!
*$-1*+-1$#!9$5!"#$%&'()'!2<+51#)

%33$5(1#)!-$!"$&'6$*061!+#(!)',1#)'5>!-<'0'!?'&1'90!('-'5,1#'!%<'-<'5!$5!#$-! '$ &'!


+5'!%1&&1#)!-$!0<+5'!-<'15!6#$%&'()':!!

Barriers of knowledge sharing

7<'5'! +5'! 0$,'! ?+551'50!%<13<!,+!! $-'#-1+&&!!<1#('5!6#$%&'()'! '.3<+#)':!?#'! +5-13/&+5&!!


3$,,$#! ?+551'5! <+0! -$! ($! %1-<! $#',0! $%#! 1#0'3/51-!! +?$/-! -<'! *+&/'! $5! +/+&1-!! $9! -<'!
1#9$5,+-1$#! 90;<'! 5$*1('0:! "-! 10! +! 61#(! $9! 9'+5! $9! 0+!1#)! &0-/ 1('! -<1#)0! +#(! ,+!! '.10-! '1-<'5!
?'3+/0'! $9! '50$#+&1-!! $5! ?'3+/0'! $9! -<'! $5)+#10+-1$#+&! 3/&-/5'! +#(! -<'! /0/+&! 5'+3-1$#! $9!
3$&&'+)/'0:!7<10!$?0-+3&'!/0/+&&!!'.10-0!%<'#!#'%!<15'0!0-+5-!%$561#):!9%5(13<*1&1!6556;!
*$5'$*'5>!-<'5'!,+!!?'!$-<'5!?+551'50!-$!-<'!,$-1*+-1$#!9$5!0<+51#)!%<13<!3$,'!95$,!
-<'!$/-01('!+#(!-<'!!+5'!'.-'5#+&! 9+3-$50:!7<'!&1-'5+-/5'!9':):! )'#(5160!3444;! $1#-0! $/-!9$/5!
,+1#!?+551'50!-$!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#)!+#(!-<'!!+5'!-<'!9$&&$%1#)1!

! $+36!$9!-1,'!
! 8<!013+&!(10-+#3'!
! $+36!$9!+?1&1-1'0!
! #$)#1-1*'!(10-+#3'!

$+36!$9!-1,'!10!+!)5'+-!?+551'5!-$!0<+5'>!1-!3+#!?'!'*'#!0-5$#)'5!-<+#!-<'!%1&&1#)#'00!$9!+#!
', &$!''!-$!0<+5'!6#$%&'()':!"#(''(>!'*'#!19!+#!', &$!''!)4!%1&&1#)!-$!0<+5'>!90;<'!%1&&!#$-!($!
1-!$5!%1&&! $0- $#'!1-!19!90;<'!9''&0!/#('5!+#!'*'#!0-5$#)'5! 5'00/5'!-$!91#10<!+!3/55'#-! 5$('3-:!
8<!013+&!(10-+#3'!10!1#-/1-1*'1!-<'!3&$0'5! '$ &'!+5'>!-<'!'+01'5!1-!10!-$!0<+5'!6#$%&'()'!
+#(!*13'!*'50+:!$+36!$9!+?1&1-1'0!,'+#0!-<+-!19!$#'!($'0!#$-!0''!<1,0'&9! 5' +5'(!'#$/)<>!90;<'!
%1&&! -'#(! #$-! -$! 0<+5'! %<+-! 90;<'! 6#$%0:! #$)#1-1*'! (10-+#3'! 10! +?$/-! '$ &'! <+*1#)! (199'5'#-!
'50 '3-1*'0!1#!+!%+!!-<+-!-<'!!($!#$-!/#('50-+#(!'+3<!$-<'5:!
"-!10!+&0$!1, $5-+#-!-$!+#+&!0'!-<'!$5)+#10+-1$#+&!3$#(1-1$#0!/#('5!%<13<! '$ &'!$ '5+-':!
7<10!5'9'50!-$!-<'!(' +5-,'#-! '$ &'!%$56!1#:!7<'!,$-1*+-1$#!-$!0<+5'!6#$%&'()'!(' '#(0!$#!
-<'! 0 '31913! 3$#-'.-! $9! -<'! (15'3-! '#*15$#,'#-! 1#! %<13<! ', &$!''0! %$56>! #$-! $#! -<'! %<$&'!
3$, +#!!'#*15$#,'#-:!

! ==!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

The influence of ICT on the motivation for knowledge sharing

%0! 1-! 3+#! ?'! #$-13'(>! -<'5'! '.10-0! ,+#!! +0 '3-0! -<+-! ,+!! <1#('5! -<'! 5$3'00! $9!
6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#):! "-! 0'',0! $?*1$/0! -$! ?'&1'*'! -<+-! 1#-5$(/31#)! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 0!0-',0! %1-<1#!
3$, +#1'0!%$/&(!'#<+#3'!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#):!)$%'*'5>!5'+&1-!!0<$%0!-<+-!-<10!&1#6!10!#$-!-<+-!
+/-$,+-13:! 9A+*'# $5-! +#(! 85/0+6! 344F>! 7100'#! '-! +&:! 344F;! "#(''(>! 19! 1#(1*1(/+&0! +5'! #$-!
1#-51#013+&&!!,$-1*+-'(!-$!0<+5'!-<'15!'. '5-10'!+#(!6#$%/<$%>!-<'!1#-5$(/3-1$#!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!
0!0-',0!%1&&!#$-!,+6'!+!01)#1913+#-!(199'5'#3':!
4$#'-<'&'00>! "#7! ,+!! ?'! +?&'! -$! &$%'5! 0$,'! ?+551'50! +00$31+-'(! %1-<! 6#$%&'()'!
0<+51#)>!0/3<!+0! <!013+&!(10-+#3':!"#9$5,+-1$#!0!0-',0!+&&$%!', &$!''0!$9!-<'!0+,'!3$, +#!!
%$561#)! 1#! (199'5'#-! &$3+-1$#0! -$! 9$&&$%! -<'! 0+,'! 5$('3-0>! +--'#(! -<'! 0+,'! ,''-1#)0! +#(!
1#-'5+3-!%1-<!'+3<!$-<'5!155'0 '3-1*'!$9!%<'5'!-<'!!+5':!9=/))&'0!344E;!
%&0$>! 3$#01('5! -<+-! -<'! + 5'31+-1$#! $9! "#7! -$$&0! ,+!! (199'5! 95$,! $#'! 1#(1*1(/+&! -$!
+#$-<'5:!7<10>!1#!-/5#>!,'+#0!-<+-!<$%!"#7!+ &13+-1$#0!1#9&/'#3'!-<'!,$-1*+-1$#!9$5!6#$%&'()'!
0<+51#)!,+!!%'&&!*+5!!95$,!$#'!1#(1*1(/+&!-$!+#$-<'5:!92-$--!+#(!8+&6'5!344G;!
)'5'! +5'! 0$,'! 3$#35'-'! +3-1*1-1'0! %<13<! 3$, +#1'0! 3$/&(! ',?5+3'! -$! '#<+#3'!
6#$%&'()'!0<+51#)1!

! *+6'!', &$!''0!'. &131-&!!5'0 $#01?&'!9$5!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#)2!


! 85$,$-'!'. '51,'#-+-1$#2!
! D+&/'!+&&!3$#-51?/-1$#0>!155'0 '3-1*'!$9!%<$!3+,'!/ !%1-<!-<',2!
! -1*'!', &$!''0!+ 5$ 51+-'!-$$&0!-$!0<+5'!%<+-!-<'!!6#$%:!

?#3'!+!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)!0-5+-')!!<+0!?''#!1, &','#-'(>!1-!-<'#!<+0!-$!?'!'*+&/+-'(!
1#! $5('5! -$! 91)/5'! $/-! %<'-<'5! -<'! 1#1-1+&! '. '3-+-1$#0! <+*'! ?''#! ,'-! $5! #$-:! 7<'! ,$0-!
1, $5-+#-! -<1#)! -$! ($! 10! -$! +00'00! ', &$!''! '53' -1$#0:! 7<10! 3+#! '+01&!! ?'! ($#'! -<5$/)<!
+/'0-1$##+15'0!$5!1#-'5*1'%0!%<13<!3+#!?'!,+('!3$#01('51#)!,+#!!$9!-<'!100/'0! 5'0'#-'(!0$!
9+5::$5!,$5'!('-+1&0>!0''!95,67$-!<:!

7<'!#'.-!0'3-1$#!10!+?$/-!-<'! <'#$,'#$#!$9!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$561#):!!


!
!
!

=G !
!
*$-1*+-1$#!9$5!"#$%&'()'!2<+51#)

Key ideas
! 7<'5'! +5'! -%$! -! '0! $9! 1#3'#-1*'0! 3$, +#1'0! /0/+&&!! )1*'! 9$5! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)1!
7,%2)90$!+#(!)%7,%2)90$!1#3'#-1*'0:!7+#)1?&'!1#3'#-1*'0!+5'!,$#'!!+#(!?$#/0'0!%<1&'!
1#-+#)1?&'!1#3'#-1*'0!+5'!5'3$)#1-1$#>!'#<+#3'(!5' /-+-1$#>! /?&13! 5+10'!+#(! '50$#+&!
0+-109+3-1$#:!!
! 7<'! ,+1#! 5$?&',! %1-<! '.-51#013! 1#3'#-1*'0! 10! -<+-! -<'!! +5'! &16'&!! -$! 5$(/3'! +!
(!09/#3-1$#+&! ?'<+*1$/5>!01#3'! 1#!,+#!! 3+0'0! -<'!1#3'#-1*'!?'3$,'0!,$5'! 1, $5-+#-!
-<+#!-<'!?'<+*1$/5!1-0'&9:!!
! 7<'!)'#'5+&!*1'%!10!-<+-!1#-+#)1?&'!5'%+5(0!%$56!?'--'5>!+-!&'+0-!1#!-<'!&$#)!5/#>!'*'#!19!
-<'!!+5'!,$5'!(19913/&-!-$!1, &','#-:!!
! 7<'5'!10!#$!01#)&'!?'0-!0$&/-1$#!-<$/)<:!%!3$, +#!!,+!!+($ -!+!0-5+-')!!%<13<!(1(!#$-!
%$56!1#!+#$-<'5!3$, +#!!+#(!0-1&&!91#(!1-!0/33'009/&:!7<10!10!0$!?'3+/0'!3$#(1-1$#0!+5'!
(199'5'#-:!
! "#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)! (' '#(0! $#! ?$-<! $5)+#10+-1$#+&! +#(! '50$#+&! 9+3-$50! +#(! $#! -<'!
1#-'5+3-1$#!?'-%''#!-<',:!
! #$, +#!!3/&-/5'!<+0!+!0-5$#)!1, +3-!$#!-<'!%1&&1#)#'00!-$!0<+5'!6#$%&'()':!
! 8'50$#+&!?'&1'90>!*+&/'0!+#(! '50$#+&1-!!<+*'!+#!1, +3-!-$$:!
! 2$,'!', &$!''0!($!#$-!0<+5'!6#$%&'()'!9$5!9'+5!$9!0+!1#)!&0-/ 1('!-<1#)0:!7<10!,+!!
?'! (/'! -$! -<'15! '50$#+&1-!! ?/-! +&0$! -$! -<'! $5)+#10+-1$#+&! 3/&-/5'! +#(! -<'! %+!!
3$&&'+)/'0! +5'! /0'(! -$! 5'+3-! -$! 3'5-+1#! ?'<+*1$/50:! 7<10! 9'+5! /0/+&&!! <+ '#0! -$! ?'!
5'0'#-!%1-<1#!#'%!3$,'502!
! 7<'5'!0'',0!-$!?'!#$!(15'3-!&1#6!?'-%''#!-<'!1#-5$(/3-1$#!$9!"#7!+ &13+-1$#0!+#(!-<'!
,$-1*+-1$#! 9$5! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#):! )$%'*'5! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 0!0-',0! ,+!! &$%'5! 0$,'!
?+551'50>!0/3<!+0! <!013+&!(10-+#3':!

!
!
!
!

! =>!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

BUSINESS SOCIAL NETWORKS:


NETW ORKS: POTENTIALS, RISKS
RISKS AND OBSTACLES

=M$'60$!/5'!2)?$!#6!.%'/35'/!2$7!.%'/35'/!9,(.!C!

M!3444!21','#0!D13'!85'01('#-!

7<'! /5 $0'! $9! -<10! %$56! 10! -$! ('*'&$ ! +#! 1#-'5#+&! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! %1-<1#! -<'! $$331$#1!
CE
)/,+#3+5'!?/01#'00!/#1-:! 7<10!1('+! 3$,'0!95$,! +!?'&1'91!-<'!)5$%-<! $9!+!0-+5-// !(' '#(0!
#$-!$#&!!$#!-<'!,+56'->!?/-!,+1#&!!$#!-<'!6#$%&'()'!('*'&$ ,'#-!$9!-<$0'!%<$!%$56!9$5!1-:!
2$!-<'!+/'0-1$#! 10>!%<+-!10!-<'! ?'0-!+#(!9+0-'0-!%+!!-$! 1#35'+0'!6#$%&'()'!%1-<1#!+!0-+5-// !
'#0/51#)!<1)<!', &$!''!0+-109+3-1$#!+#(!?/01#'00!0/33'00<!
2$,'!1#1-1+&!-+&60!?'-%''#!-<'!/#('501)#'(!+#(!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5!'#('(!/ !%1-<!
-<'!1('+!$9!('*'&$ 1#)!+!.+&+#3'(!23$5'3+5(!9.2#;!+ 5$+3<!9$3/0'(!$#!</,+#!5'0$/53'0:!%!
.2#!+1,0!-$!,+#+)'!,+#!!+0 '3-0!$9!+!3$, +#!>!1#3&/(1#)1!

! 7<'!91#+#31+&! '50 '3-1*'!


! ='&+-1$#0<1 0!%1-<!3/0-$,'50!!
! "#-'5#+&! 5$3'00'0!
! $'+5#1#)!!

:$5!'+3<!$9!-<'0'! '50 '3-1*'0>!9$/5!'&','#-0!0<$/&(!?'!1('#-191'(1!

! H/+&1-+-1*'!$?('3-1*'0!
! "#(13+-$50!%<13<!+/+#-19!!-<'!+?$*'!$?('3-1*'0!
! 4/,'513+&!-+5)'-0!
! #$#35'-'!+3-1$#0!%<13<!%$/&(!,+6'!1-! $001?&'!-$!+3<1'*'!-<'!-+5)'-0!

7<'! 1#1-1+&! 1('+! %+0!-$! 1('#-19!! -<'0'! 9$/5! 9+3-$50! $#&!! 9$5! -<'! &+0-! '50 '3-1*'>! -<+-! 10>!
0$,-%)%2:! )$%'*'5>! '*'#! -<$/)<! -<'! .2#! 10! 0-1&&! +! *+&/+?&'! + 5$+3<! -$! /0'>! -<'! ('3101$#! -$!
9$3/0!1-!$#!</,+#!5'0$/53'0!<+(!-<'!5106!$9!-5!1#)!-$!+/+#-19!!0$,'-<1#)!%<13<!10!*'5!!(19913/&-!
-$! +/+#-19!:! "-! ,+6'0! &1--&'! 0'#0'! -$! +/+#-19!! 1,,+-'51+&! -<1#)0:! 7<10! ($'0! #$-! ,'+#! -<+-! -<'!
1#-+#)1?&'!%$5&(!10!#$-!1, $5-+#-:!0*'#!19!1-!10!(19913/&-!-$!+/+#-19!!0$,'-<1#)>!1-!($'0!#$-!,'+#!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
CE
!7<'!-'5,!0-+5-// !10!/0'(!?'3+/0'!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!-'+,!10!$#'!$9!-<'!!$/#)'0-!*'#-/5'0!$9!-<'!
$$331$#1!-5$/ :!"-!10!+!61#(!$9!0-+5-// !%1-<1#!+!&+5)'5!$5)+#10+-1$#:!

=E !
!
./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$5601!8$-'#-1+&0>!=1060!+#(!??0-+3&'0

-<+-! -<'5'! 10! #$! *+&/'! 1#! 1-:! %0! (103/00'(! 1#! 95,67$-! 4>! -<'! 1#-+#)1?&'0! +5'! -<'! ,$0-! 5'&'*+#-!
+0 '3-!1#!,$('5#!$5)+#10+-1$#0:!./-!,+!?'!+!#'%!%+!!-$!&$$6!+-!-<10!100/'!10!#'3'00+5!:!!!
21#3'!-<'!+/-<$5!+#(!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5,0!?'&1'9!10!-<+-!-<'!?'0-!%+!!-$!1#35'+0'!
6#$%&'()'!10!-$!0<+5'!1->!-<'!91#+&!1('+!%+0!-$!('*'&$ !+!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!%1-<!-<'!+1,!
$9!9+31&1-+-1#)!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#)!+,$#)!3$&&'+)/'0:!2/3<!+!*15-/+&! &+-9$5,!10!9$5!0$,'!+0 '3-0!
*'5!!01,1&+5!-$!3$#0/,'5!0$31+&!#'-%$560:!%#!% 51&!6>!6536!@,00!)7-$$7!Q'#-%,0!%5-13&'!5'+(1!

=6$/! 4'(),03%$7/'-.)%2! ,660)(,7)'%4!,)+$1!,7!75$! /'-.60,($!9'--'/!8-'+!A,($9''.!)%!75,7!


75$:!$%,90$!/'-.$-4!7'!4$7!#6!6-'8)0$4 !8'-+!2-'#64!,%1!R8'00'/R!$,(5!'75$-S4!47,7#4!#61,7$4!!
8#7!75$!6#-6'4$!)4%S7!B#47!4'(),0!('%%$(7)'%T!-,75$- !)7!)4!7'!)%(-$,4$!6-'1#(7)?)7:!9:!+,.)%2!)7!
$,4)$-! 8'-! $+60':$$4! 7'! )1$%7)8:! /5'! 1'$4! /5,7! /)75)%! ,%! '-2,%)>,7)'%! ,%1! 7'! 45,-$! 75$)-!
.%'/0$12$!C:U!

Potentials

7<'!?'#'91-0!-<+-!+#!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$56!3+#!?51#)!-$!+!3$, +#!!+5'!,+#!:!7<'!9$&&$%1#)!


&10-!1#3&/('0!0$,'! $-'#-1+&0!%<13<!3$/&(!?'!/0'9/&!9$5!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5':!

! -,3.+/,.!0#'01*!+!0$31+&!#'-%$56! %$/&(! ,+6'!1-!'+01'5! -$!3<'36! %<+-!10!)$1#)! $#:!"#!


-<'!0 '31913!3+0'!$9!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'>!-<'!3$,,$#! 5+3-13'!0+%!', &$!''0!(5+9-1#)!
,$#-<&!! 5' $5-0! 9$5! -<'! ./01#'00! @#1-! *+#+)'5:! 7<'0'! 5' $5-0! +5'! '51$(13! ?!!
('91#1-1$#! %<1&'! +! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! %$/&(! ,+6'! -<'! 5' $5-1#)! +3-1*1-!! +! 3$#-1#/$/0!
5$3'002!
! ,'2! #/('**! +! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! %$/&(! 0 ''(// ! -<'! -1,'! %1-<1#! %<13<! +! #'%! <15'!
?'3$,'0! $ '5+-1$#+&:! "#(''(>! 90;<'! %1&&! <+*'! +33'00! 95$,! (+!! $#'! -$! 3$&&'+)/'0,!
5$91&'0! +0! %'&&! +0! -$! (103/001$#0! %<13<! +5'! 5'&'*+#-! -$! -<'! 3$, +#!:! 8'-'5! A5/36'5!
+5)/'(! -<+-! -<'! 0 ''(! +-!%<13<! +! #'%! <15'! ?'3$,'0! $ '5+-1$#+&! 5' 5'0'#-0! -<'! 5'+&!
*+&/'! +(('(! $9! +#!! $5)+#10+-1$#:C4! )'5'! -<'! 5106! 10! 9$5! '$ &'! -$! &$0'! (15'3-! 3$#-+3-!
%1-<! '+3<! $-<'5:! 8<+-! 10! 1, $5-+#-! 9$5! ', &$!''0! -$! /#('50-+#(! 10! -<+-! +! 0$31+&!
&+-9$5,! 10! -<'5'! -$! 1#-')5+-'! $-<'5! +3-1*1-1'0! 90/3<! +0! (15'3-! (1+&$)/';>! #$-! -$!
0/?0-1-/-'!-<',2!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
CF
2:!=%"#0>!)'(),0!6$7/'-.)%2!*$,14!7'!75$!%88)($>!&7<'!8+&&!2-5''-!;$/5#+&'>!% 51&!6>!6536!
C4
!%:!8%2H@%=0$$%>!;0!"#)%7'!)7,7'!!%??$-'!0S)--$4)47)9)0$!,4($4,!1$)!.%'/0$12$!/'-.$-!%$00$!,>)$%1$>!
-/'51#1!'!%00$31+-1>!% 51&!3=>!6533!

! =F!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

! 03&'(,$-! ,'&2+(1**! 2$,'! + &13+-1$#0! )1*'! /0'50! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! 35'+-'! '.-'5#+&!
#'-%$560! -$! <+#(&'! -<'! 5'&+-1$#0<1 ! %1-<! 3/0-$,'50>! +5-#'50! +#(! *'#($50:! 7<10! +&0$!
<+0!+!,+56'-1#)! $%'5!01#3'!1-!%$/&(!,+6'!1-! $001?&'!-$!1, 5$*'!-<'!5'&+-1$#0<1 !%1-<!
3/0-$,'50>!-$!1#9$5,!+#(!0/0-+1#!-<',!+#(!-$!&'+5#!95$,!-<',2!
! 4'*&!%($0&/0'**!%#$-<'5!?'#'91-!3+#! ?'!-<'!0<+51#)! $9!?'0-! 5+3-13'0:! :$5!1#0-+#3'>!V3
/0$?$%>! +! @:2:/?+0'(! 3$, +#!! ', &$!1#)! 6>555! '$ &'! %1-<! 0-$5'0! +&&! +5$/#(! -<'!
3$/#-5!! /0'0! E,++$-! +0! +! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56:! 8<+-! $#3'! <+ '#'(! 10! -<+-! +!
0-$5'! ,+#+)'5! 35'+-'(! +! #'%! 0<$ ! %1#($%! %<13<! %$56'(! +5-13/&+5&!! %'&&! +-!
1#35'+01#)!0+&'0:!)'!-<'#!-$$6!+! <$-$!$9!-<'!0<$ !%1#($%>! $0-'(!1-!$#!B+,,'5!+#(!
+&&! -<'! $-<'5! 0-$5'! ,+#+)'50! 3$/&(! 1,,'(1+-'&!! 0''! 1-:! 2$,'! ('31('(! -$! +($ -! -<'!
0+,'! 0$&/-1$#:! =$?! R'&&>! $'+('50<1 ! A'*'&$ ,'#-! 2 '31+&10-! +-! E/0&'*'#! 0+!0! -<+-!
-<+#60!-$!-<10!*15-/+&! &+-9$5,!=6$'60$!7,0.!,9'#7!/5,7S4!2')%2!'%!)%!,%!)%8'-+,0!/,:!
,%1!5,?$!4'+$!8'-+,0!1'(#+$%7,7)'%!7'!.$$6!7-,(.!'8!9$47!6-,(7)($4!C=5!
! 1$&$*!0$31+&!#'-%$560!+5'!+&0$!/0'(!-$!,$#1-$5!(+-+>!0/3<!+0!+#!$5('5!0-+-/0:!%&&!-<$0'!
%<$! +5'! 1#-'5'0-'(! 1#! ,$#1-$51#)! -<+-! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 3+#! 5'3'1*'! +#! +/-$,+-13!
#$-1913+-1$#!%1-<$/-!<+*1#)!-$!)$!&$$6!9$5!1-2!
! 7/4'! *$5/,.*! .51+#! :5'II+>! 9$/#('5! $9! +! 21&13$#! D+&&'!! ?1$-'3<! 0-+5-// ! %1-<! '1)<-!
', &$!''0! 9/+$-,01! "5$-,6$#7)(4;>! /0'0! F4,%,>! +! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! 9$5! -'+,! 5$('3-!
,+#+)','#-:!.'9$5'!/01#)!%0+#+>!*5:!:5'II+!%+0!/0'(!-$!0 '#(!+&,$0-!<10!'#-15'!(+!!
%1-<! C5/,1#/-'! ,''-1#)0! %1-<! '+3<! $9! <10! ', &$!''0:! 7$(+!! <'! 6'' 0! -<'! %0+#+!
%1#($%!$ '#!+&&!(+!!&$#)!0$!-<+-!<'!6#$%0!<$%! 5$('3-0!+5'!'*$&*1#)!0+*1#)!+!&$-!$9!
-1,':!!

Additional benefits specific to the Humancare area

! :,&'(,$&/+,$-/6$&/+,*! $$331$#1! )/,+#3+5'! 10! +! 0-+5-// ! %<13<! <+0! +&5'+(!! 0-+5-'(! 1-0!
1#-'5#+-1$#+&1I+-1$#! 5$3'00:! 7</0>! *'5!! $9-'#! ', &$!''0! <+*'! -$! 0 '#(! 0$,'! -1,'!
+?5$+(!+#(!-<10!,+6'0!1-!#'3'00+5!!-<+-!-<'!%$56!'. '51'#3'!$#'!<+0!+?5$+(!/! '$ &'!
,'->!3<+&&'#)'0!9+3'(>!#'%0!<'+5(>!'-3:!/!?'3$,'0!-<'!'*'5!?$(!!'&0',0!'. '51'#3':!%!
0$31+&!#'-%$56!3$/&(!<'& !9$5!-<10! /5 $0'2!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
=5
2:!=%"#0>!)'(),0!6$7/'-.)%2!*$,14!7'!75$!%88)($>!&7<'!8+&&!2-5''-!;$/5#+&'>!% 51&!6>!6536!

=4 !
!
./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$5601!8$-'#-1+&0>!=1060!+#(!??0-+3&'0

! 59-70"5! "+447,/&8*! =',',?'5! -<+-! %8?70#%! #$,,/#1-!! 10! +! !'+5&!! ,''-1#)!


$5)+#10'(! ?!! $$331$#1! )/,+#3+5'! 1#! %<13<! 3/0-$,'50! +5'! 1#*1-'(! -$! +5-131 +-':! 7<'!
+1,! 10! -$! ('*'&$ ! +! 0'#0'! $9! ?'&$#)1#)! 1#! +! 3$,,/#1-!! $9! /0'50! +#(! +! 3$#-1#/$/0!
(1+&$)/'!?'-%''#!-<'!3$, +#!!+#(!1-0!3/0-$,'50!+#(!+,$#)!3/0-$,'50!-<',0'&*'0:!
7<10!1('+!10!*'5!! $%'59/&!?/-!+!0$31+&!#'-%$56!3$/&(!,+6'!-<'!3$,,/#1-!!'*'#!,$5'!
'99'3-1*'!+#(!(!#+,13!0$!-<+-!1-!%1&&!#$-!?'!+#!10$&+-'(!'*'#-!$#3'!+!!'+5:!

7<'!+?$*'!&10-!10!#$-!'.<+/0-1*':! 7<'!+ 5$+3<! %+0!-$! 9150-!1('#-19!!1#!-<'$5!! %<+-!-<'!


$-'#-1+&!?'#'91-0!3$/&(!?'!+#(!-<'#!+06! '$ &'!%<+-!-<'!!-<$/)<-!+?$/-!1-:!7<10!%+!!,+('!1-!
$001?&'! -$! 1('#-19!! -<'! ,$0-! + 5$ 51+-'! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! -$! /0'! ?+0'(! $#! %<+-! -<'!
5'+&!#'3'001-1'0!%'5':!
%!6554!"#-5+#'-*+#)','#-=3!+5-13&'!%51--'#!?!!-1+3$,$!*+0$#! $1#-'(!$/-!-<'!100/'!$9!
,135$/?&$))1#)! 9$5! -<'! '#-'5 510':! )'! %5$-'! -<+-! ,135$?&$))1#)! /! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! / (+-'!
$#',0!$%#! '50$#+&!0-+-/0!+#(! $0-!1#9$5,+-1$#!$#!+!*15-/+&! &+-9$5,!/!10! '5<+ 0!-<'!?'0-!%+!!
-$! ,+#+)'! 6#$%&'()':! %061#)! +/'0-1$#0! -$! 3$&&'+)/'0>! ?51#)1#)! +! '50$#! -$! -<'! +--'#-1$#! $9!
$-<'50>!0<+51#)!'. '51'#3'0!+5'!#$-<1#)!?/-!+3-1*1-1'0!3+551'(!$/-!#$5,+&&!!+-!%$56:!%!?/01#'00!
0$31+&! #'-%$56! 3$/&(! '#<+#3'! -<$0'! +3-1*1-1'0! %<13<! +5'! #+-/5+&! 1#! +#!! $5)+#10+-1$#+&!
'#*15$#,'#-:! %33$5(1#)! -$! *5:! *+0$#>! +! ,135$/?&$))1#)! -$$&! 9$5! -<'! '#-'5 510'! 0<$/&(! <+*'!
-<'!9$&&$%1#)!3<+5+3-'510-130>!$5!'&0'!1-!%$/&(!?'!3&+00191'(!+0!+!01, &'!3$#0/,'5!,135$/?&$))1#)!
-$$&!0/3<!+0!7%1--'51!

! 7<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!0<+5'!1#9$5,+-1$#!0' +5+-'&!:!%! '50$#!0<$/&(!?'!+&&$%'(!-$!3<$$0'!


%<$!-$!0'#(!+!,'00+)'!-$>!%<'-<'5!<'5!3$#-+3-0>!+!0 '31913!)5$/ >!'. '5-0>!'*'5!?$(!!
$5!+!01#)&'! '50$#2!
! %#!$#'!0<$/&(!?'!+&&$%'(!-$!3$,,'#-!+#!! $0-!$5!+/'0-1$#2!
! @0'50!0<$/&(!?'!+?&'!-$!&1#6! $0-0!-$!3+-')$51'0!0$!+0!-$!+&&$%!-<',!-$!91#(!1#9$5,+-1$#!
0 '31913!-$!+! +5-13/&+5!-$ 132!
! #$&&'+)/'0!0<$/&(!?'!+&&$%'(!-$!)5+('!+#0%'502!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
=3
"#-5+#'-*+#+)','#-!10!-<'!-1+3$,$!*+0$#,0!?&$):!"-0!+1,!10!-$!0<+5'!1('+0!$#!3$, +#!!3$,,/#1-1'0:!
-1+3$,$!*+0$#!10!+!8'?!,+#+)'5!+#(!'. '5-!+-!1#-'5#+&!3$,,/#13+-1$#>!'/&'+5#1#)!+#(!6#$%&'()'!
0<+51#):!!

! G5!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

! %! '50$#! 9$5!,$5';!0<$/&(!?'! +&&$%'(!-$! 5'0'#-! <'50'&9!+0!+#! '. '5-!+-!+! +5-13/&+5!


91'&(!0$!-<+-!+#!!61#(!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!5'&+-'(!-$!-<+-!-$ 13!%1&&!?'!(15'3-&!!9$5%+5('(!-$!
<'5:!!!

Risks

./01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$560!<+*'!#$-!?5$/)<-!5'0/&-0!'*'5!%<'5'!+#(!+5'!#$-!'*'#!/0'(!1#!,+#!!
$5)+#10+-1$#0! ?'3+/0'! $9! 0$,'! $-'#-1+&! 51060:! 0#-'5 510'! 0$31+&! #'-%$561#)! 10! +! 3$,,$#!
5+3-13'!1#!3$/#-51'0!&16'!-<'!@#1-'(!2-+-'0!?/-!0-1&&!+&,$0-!/#6#$%#!1#!3$/#-51'0!&16'!"-+&!:!
8<1&'!-<'!,10/0'!$9!0/3<!-$$&0!$5!-<'!&+36!$9!3$#-5$&!$*'5!%<13<!1#9$5,+-1$#!10! $0-'(!
+5'! 0''#! +0! 5'+&! 51060>! -<'! ?'#'91-0! +5'! #$-! 3$#01('5'(! -$! ?'! 3$#35'-'! +#(! 1,,'(1+-':! *+#!!
3$, +#1'0!9''&!-<+-!-<'!(5+%?+360!$*'53$,'!-<'! $-'#-1+&0:!7<'!9$&&$%1#)!+5'!$#&!! 0$,'! $9!
-<'! 3$#3'5#0! -<+-! ,+#!! $5)+#10+-1$#0! <+*'! %<'#! ('31(1#)! %<'-<'5! $5! #$-! -$! )1*'! 0$31+&!
&+-9$5,0!+!-5!:!

! 8<+-! 19! 0$,'$#'! $0-0! #$#/ 5$9'001$#+&! 1#9$5,+-1$#<! 81&&! ', &$!''0! /0'! 0/3<!
&+-9$5,0!-$! &+#!0$31+&!'*'#-0!5+-<'5!-<+#!%$56/5'&+-'(!+3-1*1-1'0<!
! 8<+-!19!+#!', &$!''!/0'0!-<$0'!-$$&0!-$!('#1)5+-'!-<'!3$, +#!<!
! #+#!1#9$5,+-1$#!?'!0''#!?!!3$, '-1-$50!$5!?!!0$,'$#'!%<$!0<$/&(!#$-<!

"#!)'#'5+&>!-<'!,$0-!3$,,$#! 5$?&',0!+00$31+-'(!%1-<!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&! #'-%$561#)!+5'!-<'!


9$&&$%1#)!-<5''1!

! 9(+&'0&/+,;!='0'+53<!0<$%0!-<+-!$#!+!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!', &$!''0!#$5,+&&!! $0-!%$56/


5'&+-'(! 1'3'0!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#:!:$5!1#0-+#3'>!+#!1#-'5'0-1#)!,'-513!10!-<+-!$#!7%1--'5!F5J!
$9! -5+9913! 10! 0$31+&:! ?#! 1#-'5#+&! '#-'5 510'! &+-9$5,0>!F5J! 10! 5$9'001$#+&:=6! 7<10! 91)/5'!
0<$%0!-<+-!-<'5'!10!#$!,10/0'!$9!-$$&0!-<+-!+5'!,'+#-!-$!?'!/0'(! 5$9'001$#+&&!:!?#!-<'!
$-<'5! <+#(>! <$%'*'5>! ,+#!! 3$, +#1'0! +5'! %$551'(! +?$/-! <+*1#)! ', &$!''0! $0-1#)!
$#!+! &+-9$5,!1#9$5,+-1$#!('0'5*1#)! 51*+3!2!!!
! 1/*&($0&/+,;! 8+5+($.13+&&!>! +! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! 3$/&(! ?'! 0$! 0/33'009/&! -<+-!
', &$!''0!/0'!1-!+&&!-<'!-1,'!+#(!0-$ !($1#)!-<'!&5'+&'!%$56:!%! $001?&'!0$&/-1$#!3$/&(!
?'!-$!+&&$%!-<',!-$!/0'!-<'! &+-9$5,!$#&!!+-!0 '31913!<$/50:!7<10!9$5!0/5'!%1&&! 5'*'#-!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
=6
.:!"0802>!"/)77$-30).$!7''04!8'-!75$!$%7$-6-)4$>!&0#-'5 510'!6:5'>!;/#'!6G>!6554!

G3 !
!
./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$5601!8$-'#-1+&0>!=1060!+#(!??0-+3&'0

(10-5+3-1$#:! )$%'*'5>! +! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! 10! ?!! ('91#1-1$#! +! &-$$&! $9! 95''($,':! 7</0>!
9$5?1((1#)! '$ &'!-$!/0'!1-!$#!3'5-+1#!<$/50!%$/&(!,+6'!#$!0'#0':!#$, +#1'0!<+*'!-$!
+33' -! -<10! 5106! 6#$%1#)! -<+-! 19! ', &$!''0! /0'! 1->! 1-! 10! 9$5! -<'15! ?'#'91-! +#(! 9$5! -<'!
/&-1,+-'!?'#'91-!$9!-<'!3$, +#!!1-0'&9:!!!
! =/*7*';!7<'!5106!10!-<+-! '$ &'!%1&&!/0'!-<'! &+-9$5,!-$! $0-!-<1#)0!%<13<!<+*'!#$-<1#)!
-$!($!%1-<!-<'15!+3-1*1-!!+-!%$56:!!%)+1#!-<'!91)/5'!,'#-1$#'(!'+5&1'5!,+!!<'& :!8<+-!
<+ '#0!1#!5'+&1-!!10!-<+-!$#!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$560>!$#!+*'5+)'!F5J!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!
10! 5$9'001$#+&! 0-+99:! 9"' '0! 6554;! 7<10! ,'-513! 0<$/&(! ,+6'! -<$0'! %<$! +5'! %$551'(!
+?$/-!-<'!+/+&1-!!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#! $0-'(!&'00!%$551'(:!!

"#!-<'$5!>!-<$0'!51060!+5'!+&&!3$#35'-':!"#! 5+3-13'>!-<1#)0!0'',!-$!?'!,/3<!(199'5'#-:!"-!10!
5'*'+&1#)!%<+-!%#(5'%!8:!*3%9''=C!$#3'!%5$-'!1#!+!)+5*+5(!./01#'00!='*1'%!%5-13&':!)10!&1#'0!
5'+(1!!

=%?$-! 75$! 0,47! 8'#-! :$,-4 ! ;=?$! ,4.$1! $?$-:! ('+6,%:! ;=?$! /'-.$1! /)75! ,9'#7! 75$! /'-47!
75)%24!75,7!5,?$!5,66$%$1!'%!75$)-!4'(),0!4'87/,-$!60,78'-+4!!.:!('00$(7)'%!'8!5'--'-!47'-)$4!)4!
%$,-0:! $+67:!! ;! 5,?$! :$7! 7'! ('+$! ,(-'44! ,! 4)%20$! $6)4'1$! 75,7! +,1$! +$! /'%1$-! /5$75$-!
('+6,%)$4!45'#01%=7!)%?$47!)%!/%7$-6-)4$!3!1!7$(5%'0'2)$4!C!

B'->!,+#!! '$ &'!?'&1'*'!-<+-!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)!<+0!)5'+-'5!51060!-<+#!$-<'5!


?/01#'00! + &13+-1$#0! 0/3<! +0! 3/0-$,'5! 5'&+-1$#0<1 ! ,+#+)','#-! 9#=*;:! 75/-<! 10>! -<'5'! +5'!
0-+#(+5(! 0'3/51-!! 5$3'(/5'0! %<13<! ,+6'! '#-'5 510'! 0$31+&! #'-%$560! 0+9'! &16'! +#!! $-<'5!
?/01#'00! + &13+-1$#:! 7<'!?'&1'9!-<+-!0$31+&! &+-9$5,0!9$5!-<'!?/01#'00!%$5&(!3+#!35'+-'!,$5'!
5$?&',0! -<+#! $-<'5! '#-'5 510'! -$$&0! 5$?+?&!! 3$,'0! 95$,! -<'15! 1#-'5+3-1$#! %1-<! 3$#0/,'5!
0$31+&! #'-%$560! &16'! :+3'?$$6! $5! 7%1--'5:! "#(''(>! -<'! ,+1#! 5$?&',! 10! -<+-! ,+#!! ?/01#'00!
0$31+&! #'-%$560! 3+#! ?'! 1#-')5+-'(! %1-<! 3$#0/,'5! 0$31+&! #'-%$560:! ?#! -<'! $#'! <+#(>! -<10! 10!
('91#1-'&!!/0'9/&2!$#!-<'!$-<'5!<+#(>!1-!,+!!,+6'! 51*+-'!1#9$5,+-1$#! /?&13:!)$%'*'5>!-<10!10!
#$-! +! /#1+/'! 5$?&',! $9! '#-'5 510'! 0$31+&! &+-9$5,0! 01#3'! ,+#!! $-<'5! ?/01#'00! + &13+-1$#0!
+&&$%!1#-')5+-1$#!%1-<!3$#0/,'5!0$31+&!-$$&0>!1#3&/(1#)!'/,+1&:!7<'5'9$5'>!-<'5'!+5'!#$!0 '31913!
51060!+00$31+-'(!%1-<!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$560:!7<'!$#&!!-<1#)!%<13<!<+0!-$!?'!($#'!10!-$!9$&&$%!
3$,,$#!0'3/51-!! 5$3'(/5'0!,%1!3$,,$#!0'#0':!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
=C
!%#(5'%!*3%9''!0-/(1'0!-<'!%+!!"7!+99'3-0!3$, +#1'0:!2 '31913+&&!>!<'!0-/(1'0!-<'!1, +3-!-<+-!"7!<+0!
$#!-<'!%+!!?/01#'00'0!%$56>!$5)+#10'!-<',0'&*'0!+#(!3$, '-':!

! G6!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

Sabre Town: A Case Study

2+?5'! 10! +! @:2:/?+0'(! 3$, +#!! %<13<! 5/#0! ,$0-! $9! -<'! %$5&(,0! +15&1#'! 9&1)<-! 5'0'5*+-1$#!
0!0-',0:!"-!<+0!0$,'!35>555!', &$!''0!9GGJ!%$56!$/-01('!-<'!@:2:;!+#(!+3<1'*'(!)5'+-!5'0/&-0!
95$,!-<'!/0'!$9!1-0!', &$!''!#'-%$561#)! &+-9$5,:!
7<'!3$, +#!! 35'+-'(!1#-'5#+&&!!+! 0$31+&!#'-%$561#)! 0!0-',!/!3+&&'(! ),9-$!"'/%!/!%1-<!
-<'!+1,!$9!('*'&$ 1#)!3$##'3-1$#0!+,$#)!1-0!)'$)5+ <13+&&!!(1*'50'!', &$!''! $ /&+-1$#:!
7<'! /0'5! 5$91&'! +)'! 10! ,$5'! 3+0/+&! +#(! 951'#(&!! -<+#! 5$91&'0! '$ &'! +5'! /0'(! -$:! %,$#)!
$-<'50>!', &$!''0!3+#!0'-!-<',!/ !?!!+#0%'51#)!-<'!9$&&$%1#)!+/'0-1$#01!

! 8<+-,0!!$/5!<$,'-$%#<!

! 8<'5'!($!!$/!&1*'!#$%<!

! 8<+-!($!!$/!5'+&&!!($!9$5!+!&1*1#)<!

! 8<+-!+5'!!$/5!3$5 $5+-'!)1)0!+#(!3$#-+3-0<!

! 8<+-!+5'!!$/5!061&&0>!'. '5-10'!$5!-<1#)0!!$/!5/&'!1#<!

! 8<+-!+5'!-<'!0 $5-0!!$/!3+#,-!&1*'!%1-<$/-<!

! 8<+-!+5'!!$/5!9+*$/51-'!<$??1'0<!

! 8<+-,0!-<'!,/013!!$/! /-!$#!3$#-1#/$/0!5' '+-<!

! 8<+-!3'&'?51-!!+5'!!$/!,$0-!&16'<!

! 8&+3'0!!$/,*'!-5+*'&&'(!

! 8&+3'0!!$/!(5'+,!+?$/-!)$1#)!

?#!2+?5'!7$%#>!', &$!''0!3+#! $0-!+!+/'0-1$#!-$!-<'!'#-15'!3$, +#!!+#(!-<'!0!0-',!


+/-$,+-13+&&!! (15'3-0! -<'! +/'0-1$#! -$%+5(0! -<'! 3G! ,$0-! 5'&'*+#-! ', &$!''0! ?+0'(! $#! %<+-!
-<'!!<+*'!'#-'5'(!1#!-<'15! 5$91&'0!+#(!?&$)! $0-0:!

8'*7-&*!!

! >5J!$9!+/'0-1$#0!+5'!+#0%'5'(!%1-<1#!+#!<$/5!

! 0+3<!+/'0-1$#!5'3'1*'0!$#!+*'5+)'!4!+#0%'50!

GC !
!
./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$5601!8$-'#-1+&0>!=1060!+#(!??0-+3&'0

! *$5'!-<+#!45J!$9!', &$!''0!/0'!2+?5'!7$%#!-$(+!!

A'0 1-'!-<'0'!5'0/&-0>!-<'!,+6'5!$9!2+?5'!7$%#!($'0!#$-!%+#-!-$!3+&&!1-!&0$31+&!#'-%$56':!
&B$/,&&!&$0'!'*'5!$#'!$*'5!C5'>!<'!0+!0:!"#0-'+(>!<'!0/))'0-0!-$!3<$$0'!+!#+,'!-<+-!', &$!''0!
%1&&!'#($!!+#(!9''&!3$,9$5-+?&'!%1-<:==!

Obstacles

./01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$561#)! ,+!! <'& ! (199/0'! +! $01-1*'! $5)+#10+-1$#+&! ?'<+*1$/5:! )$%'*'5>!
-<$0'!%<$!-5!!-$! /0<!-<'15!3$, +#!!-$%+5(0!-<'!+($ -1$#!$9!0$31+&!-$$&0!<+*'!+!<+5(!-1,':!!
2$! -<'5'! ,/0-! ?'! 0$,'-<1#)! %<13<! <1#('5! -<'! +00+)'! -$%+5(0! +! ,$5'! -5+#0 +5'#->!
'$ &'/3'#-5'(!+#(!3$&&+?$5+-1*'!-'+,:!7<'!9$&&$%1#)!&10-!1#3&/('0!0$,'!$9!-<'!$?0-+3&'0!%<13<!
5'*'#-!3$, +#1'0!95$,!/01#)!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)! &+-9$5,0:=G!

F!('%7-'0!(#07#-$!
7<'!+00/, -1$#!-<+-!+#!!$5)+#10+-1$#!%+#-0!-$!?'!-5+#0 +5'#-!+#(! '$ &'/3'#-5'(!3+##$-!?'!
-+6'#!9$5!)5+#-'(:!7<'5'!+5'!0-1&&!,+#!!3$, +#1'0!%<13<!($!#$-!%+#-!-$!+($ -!,'+0/5'0!-<+-!
%$/&(!)1*'!', &$!''0!,$5'! $%'5!+#(!95''($,:!:$5-/#+-'&!>!-<10!10!#$-!-<'!3+0'!+-!$$331$#1:!

A,($9''.!('%%'7,7)'%4!
:$5! ,+#!>! -<'! 1('+! $9! <+*1#)! +#! 1#-'5#+&! 0$31+&! &+-9$5,! 10! #$-! -<+-! '.31-1#):! 7<'!! ?'&1'*'!
'$ &'!%1&&!$#&!!/0'!1-!-$!0<+5'! <$-$0!$5!-+&6!+?$/-!-<1#)0!%<13<!<+*'!#$-<1#)!-$!($!%1-<!%<+-!
-<'!! ($! +-! %$56:! 0*'#! -<'! %$5(! &0$31+&! #'-%$56'! 3$/&(! ($! ,$5'! <+5,! -<+#! )$$(:! 7<10! 10!
'0 '31+&&!! -5/'! 1#! 3$, +#1'0! %1-<! ,+#!! &$*'5! C5'! ', &$!''0:! %)+1#>! -<10! 10! #$-! -<'! 3+0'! +-!
$$331$#1>!%<'5'!-<'!+*'5+)'!', &$!''!10!C6!!'+50!$&(:!

"''!+,%:!;"!7''04!
"-!10! $001?&'!-<+-!+!3$, +#!!/0'0!,$5'!-<+#!$#'!0$31+&!#'-%$56!?'3+/0'! '$ &'!$9!(199'5'#-!
(' +5-,'#-0! 5'9'5! -$! /0'! -<'15! $%#:! "#! -<+-! 3+0'>! -<'! +($ -1$#! $9! -<$0'! -$$&0! 3$/&(! ?51#)!
,$5'!3$#9/01$#!-<+#!?'#'91-0:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
==
7:!8%=A>!/+60':$$!)'(),0!6$7/'-.)%2!+),9-$!"'/%!(,4$!47#1:, !
%%%: 5'031'#-(1)1-+&:3$,Q+5-13&'0Q1#-5+#'-/+5-13&'0Q', &$!''/0$31+&/#'-%$561#)/3+0'/0-/(!!
9%33'00'(!$#!;/&!!F>!6536;!
=G
A:!::!#%==>!"$%!/%7$-6-)4$!)'(),0!6$7/'-.)%2!%947,(0$4>!&7<'!.5+1#B+5('>!;+#/+5!!C>!6536!

! G=!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

&,(.!'8!)%7$2-,7)'%!
"-! 10! 9/#(+,'#-+&! -<+-! +! 0$31+&! #'-%$561#)! + &13+-1$#! ?'! 1#-')5+-'(! %1-<! $-<'5! 3$, +#!! "7!
0!0-',0!9':):!#=*>!)=!0!0-',0>!'-3:;:!0*'#!19!-<'!0/ &1'5!)1*'0!-<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!1#-')5+-'!1-0!
0$9-%+5'!%1-<!+!3$, +#!,0!'.10-1#)!-$$&0>!0$,'!1#-')5+-1$#!%$56!?!!-<'!"7!(' +5-,'#-!10!&16'&!!
?'!#'3'00+5!!+#!%+!:!

9'+6$7)7)'%!8-'+!('%4#+$-!4'(),0!%$7/'-.4!
0, &$!''0!%1&&!1#'*1-+?&!!3$, +5'!-<'15!'. '51'#3'!$#!+!3$, +#!!0$31+&!#'-%$56!%1-<!-<'!$#'!
-<'!!'#($!! $#! 3$#0/,'5!0$31+&!#'-%$560>! 0/3<! +0!:+3'?$$6:!9#+55! 6536;!"9!-<'5'!10!-$$!,/3<!
?/5'+/35+3!!+#(!+(,1#10-5+-1*'!3$#-5$&!+00$31+-'(!%1-<!+!?/01#'00!-$$&!$5!19!1-!3$0-0!-$$!,/3<>!
', &$!''0!%1&&! 5'9'5!-$!/0'!+ &13+-1$#0!<+*1#)!95''!*'501$#0:!7<'!!,1)<-!'*'#! 5'9'5!-$!0<+5'!
1#9$5,+-1$#!(15'3-&!!$#!+!:+3'?$$6!)5$/ :!!

A$,-!'8!45,-)%2!)%8'-+,7)'%!
2$,'-1,'0>! '$ &'! ($! #$-! 9''&! 3$,9$5-+?&'! %1-<! -<'! 1('+! -<+-! 51*+-'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! ,+!!
?'3$,'! /?&13:!"#!-<+-!3+0'>!+!*15-/+&! &+-9$5,!%$/&(!#$-!?'!0''#!+0!+!/0'9/&!-$$&:!

&,(.!'8!)%7$2-,7)'%!/)75!9#4)%$44!6-'($44$4!
:$5!+#!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$56!-$!%$56!'99'3-1*'&!>!1-!10!'.-5','&!!1, $5-+#-!-<+-!-<'!0!0-',!
91-0! %1-<! +! 3$, +#!,0! 1#-'5#+&! 5$3'00'0:! "('+&&!>! +#! ', &$!''! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! 0<$/&(! ,+6'!
%$56! 9+0-'5! +#(! ,$5'! '99131'#-:! )$%'*'5>! 19! 1#! 0$,'! %+!! 1-! ($'0! #$-! +33$,,$(+-'! -<'! %+!!
'$ &'!($!-<1#)0!+-!%$56>!1-!%1&&!$#&!!?'!0''#!+0!+#!'.-5+!%$56&$+(:!

%67)'%,0!?4!!('+6#04'-:!,1'67)'%!
7<'! ?'0-! 0/33'00! 0-$51'0! <+*'! 5$*'#! -<+-! '#-'5 510'! 0$31+&! #'-%$561#)! %$560! ?'--'5! %<'#!
+($ -1$#!?!!', &$!''0!10!*$&/#-+5!:!? -1#)!9$5!+!,+#(+-$5!!0$&/-1$#!10!'+01'5!?/-!%1&&!/#&16'&!!
?51#)!-<'!0+,'!5'0/&-0:!"9!-<10!-$$&!10!<'& 9/&!', &$!''0!%1&&!/0'!1-!#+-/5+&&!!%1-<$/-!(13-+-1$#0!
95$,!-<'!-$ :!"9!-<'!!($!#$->!1-!10!?'3+/0'!-<'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!($'0!#$-!,''-!-<'15!#''(0:!

GG !
!
./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$5601!8$-'#-1+&0>!=1060!+#(!??0-+3&'0

Some questions before choosing a business social network

.'9$5'!3<$$01#)!%<13<!*15-/+&! &+-9$5,!-$!/0'>!1-!10!1, $5-+#-!9$5!+!3$, +#!!-$!+06!1-0'&9!0$,'!


5'&'*+#-!+/'0-1$#0!1#!$5('5!-$!,+6'!0/5'!-<+-!-<'! &+-9$5,!-<+-!%1&&!?'!/0'(!5'+&&!!,''-0!-<'!
#'3'001-1'0:! %#0%'51#)! -<'! 9$&&$%1#)! +/'0-1$#0! %+0! $#'! $9! -<'! %+!0! -$! 3<$$0'! -<'! ,$0-!
+ 5$ 51+-'!0$31+&!,'(1+!-$$&!9$5!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5':=>!

;4!75$!)%7$-8,($!8,+)0),-!7'!75$!#4$-4O!
"9!-<'!1#-'59+3'!$9!-<'!0$31+&!#'-%$56!10!9+,1&1+5!-$!-<'!'#(!/0'50!91-!,+!!&$$6!&16'!:+3'?$$6>!9$5!
1#0-+#3';>!-<'!!%1&&!&16'&!!/0'!1-!,$5':!7<10!<+ '#0!?'3+/0'! '$ &'!+5'!,$5'!3$,9$5-+?&'!%1-<!
-<1#)0! -<'!! +&5'+(!! 6#$%! +?$/-:! )$%'*'5>! -<'! 3$/#-'5! '99'3-! 10! -<+-! '0 '31+&&!! $&('5! '$ &'!
,+!! -'#(! -$! ('35!! -$$&0! ?'1#)! -$$! 01,1&+5! -$! 3$#0/,'5! + &13+-1$#0! 3$#01('51#)! -<',! &16'!
)+,'0:!9A$#0-$#/*1&&'5!6536;!

*'/!-)(5!'8!)%8'-+,7)'%!,-$!#4$-!6-'8)0$4O!
8'50$#+&! 5$91&'0! +5'! 1, $5-+#-! ?'3+/0'! -<'!! +&&$%! '$ &'! -$! ('0351?'! -<'15! 061&&0! +#(!
3$, '-'#3'0>!%<13<!1#!-/5#!+&&$%0!3$&&'+)/'0!-$!0'+53<!9$5!5'&'*+#-!'. '5-10':!7<+-!10!%<!!/0'5!
5$91&'0!0<$/&(!?'!513<!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!+0!%'&&!+0!'+0!!-$!35'+-'!+#(!/ (+-':!

9,%!75$!4:47$+!9$!)%7$2-,7$1!/)75!'75$-!('+6,%:!;"!,660)(,7)'%4O!!
"-! 0<$/&(! ?'! $001?&'! 9$5! /0'50! -$! %$56! $#! $-<'5! "7! + &13+-1$#0! (15'3-&!! 95$,! -<'! 0$31+&!
&+-9$5,:!

;4!75$!4:47$+!4$(#-$O!
%0!,'#-1$#'(!'+5&1'5>!0'3/51-!!10!$#'!$9!-<'!,+1#!100/'0! 3$, +#1'0!+5'! %$551'(!+?$/-:!7</0>!
%<+-'*'5! &+-9$5,!$#'!3<$$0'0!-$!+($ ->!1-!<+0!-$!,''-!3$, +#!!5')/&+-$5!!0-+#(+5(0:!

;4!)7!6'44)90$!7'!+'%)7'-!75$!$88$(7)?$%$44!'8!75$!7''0O!
"#!$5('5!-$!'*+&/+-'!%<'-<'5!$5!#$-!+!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!10!/0'9/&!9$5!-<'!3$, +#!>!1-!10!
#'3'00+5!!-<+-!1-!1-0'&9!1#3$5 $5+-'0!-$$&0!9$5!,+61#)!-<+-!'*+&/+-1$#:!!

P'$4!75$!4:47$+!,00'/!7'!45,-$!8)0$4O!
7<'!+?1&1-!!-$!0<+5'!+#(!%$56!-$)'-<'5!$#!($3/,'#-0!10!35/31+&!1#!,+#!!3$, +#1'0:!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
=>
A:! A?427?4/*"$$0=>! "$%! '#$47)'%4! 9$8'-$! (5''4)%2! ,%! )%7$-%,0! 4'(),0! %$7/'-.! 60,78'-+>! &7<'!
.5+1#B+5('>!;+#/+5!!34>!6536!!!!

! G>!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

P'$4!75$!4:47$+!,00'/!#4$-4!7'!(-$,7$!2-'#64O!
7<10!10!+!+/'0-1$#!-<+-!+#!!3$, +#!!%1&&1#)!-$!/0'!+#!1#-'5#+&!0$31+&!#'-%$56!0<$/&(!+06!1-0'&9:!
"#! +5-13/&+5>!3$, +#1'0!%<$0'!,+1#!+3-1*1-!!10!5' 5'0'#-'(!?!!($?!$5('50!9$$331$#1!10!+! '59'3-!
'.+, &'! $9! -<+-;! 0<$/&(! +!! +5-13/&+5! +--'#-1$#! -$! -<'! +?1&1-!! -$! 35'+-'! )5$/ 0:! 7<10! 10! 0$!
?'3+/0'!'+3<!($?!$5('5!10!*'5!!$9-'#!,+#+)'(!?!!+!(199'5'#-!)5$/ !$9!', &$!''0:!7</0>!)1*1#)!
-<',!-<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!3$$ '5+-'!?'!$#(!3$, +#!!?$/#(+51'0!%$/&(!?'!?'#'9131+&:!

;4!)7!6'44)90$!7'!(#47'+)4$!75$!4:47$+O!
D'5!!0'&($,!%1&&!+! 3$, +#!!91#(!+! 5$(/3-!-<+-!0+-1091'0! +&&! $9!1-0!#''(0:! 7<'5'9$5'! 1-! 10!*'5!!
1, $5-+#-! -<+-! -<'! -$$&! ?'! 3<+#)'+?&'! ?!! -<'! /0'50! 9-<10! 10! -<'! 1('+! ?'<1#(! $ '#! 0$/53'!
0!0-',0;:! )$%'*'5>! 0$,'-1,'0! -<'5'! 10! +! -5+('/$99! ?'-%''#! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! 3/0-$,10'!
0$,'-<1#)! +#(! -<'! '+0'! $9! ($1#)! 1-:! ! "9! 1-! 10! -$$! ,/3<! 3$, &13+-'(! 9$5! +! 3$, +#!! -$! ,+6'!
3<+#)'0!$#!-<'!0!0-',>!-<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!($!1-!($'0!#$-!<'& !+!&$-:!

P'$4!75$!4:47$+!5,?$!+'9)0$!,660)(,7)'%4O!
7<10! 10! +#! 1, $5-+#-! 9'+-/5'! +0! %'&&>! '0 '31+&&!! 9$5! -<$0'! %<$! <+*'! +! (15'3-! 3$#-+3-! %1-<!
3/0-$,'50!9':):!0+&'0! '$ &';:!"9!-<'! &+-9$5,!3+##$-!?'!/0'(!$#!,$?1&'! <$#'0!$5!$-<'5!-$$&0!
90/3<!+0!-+?&'-0;!1-!%1&&!#$-!?'!*'5!!/0'9/&!9$5!-<',:!!!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

GE !
!
./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$5601!8$-'#-1+&0>!=1060!+#(!??0-+3&'0

Case studies

SUPERVALU

2/ '5*+&/! 10! +! )5$3'5!! 3<+1#! %1-<! 0$,'! 6>=55! 0-$5'0! 0 5'+(! +&&! $*'5! -<'!@:2:! +#(! -<'! +5'#-!
3$, +#!!$9!,+#!!$-<'5!%,'513+#!?5+#(0:!!
8<'#!-<'!!5'+&10'(!-<+-!3$,,/#13+-1$#!+,$#)!-<10!*+51'-!!$9!?5+#(0!+#(!0-$5'0!0 5'+(!
+5$/#(!-<'!3$/#-5!!%+0!*'5!! $$5>!-<'!!('31('(!-$!+($ -!1#-'5#+&!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)!%1-<!-<'!
+1,!$9!/#19!1#)!-<$0'!?5+#(0:!7<'!3<$0'#!0$9-%+5'!%+0!E,++$-:!
2/ '5*+&/! #0?! #5+1)! )'56'5-! ,'#-1$#'(! 1#! +#! 1#-'5*1'%! +! 0 '31+&! 3+0'! 1#! %<13<! 0$31+&!
#'-%$561#)!<+0!?''#!*'5!!?'#'9131+&!9$5!-<'!3$, +#!:!)'!0+1(!-<+-!+!#'-%$56!$9!3$&&')'/-$%#!
0-$5'! ,+#+)'50! 3+,'! / ! %1-<! -<'! 1('+! $9! 0'&&1#)! +! N355! ?'(5$$,! 5'951)'5+-$5! +9-'5! <+*1#)!
?$/)<-! N355! %$5-<! $9! ,+#/9+3-/5'5,0! 3$/ $#0! 9$5! 0#+360! +#(! (51#60:! 8<+-! <+ '#'(! -<'#!
%+0! -<+-! -<'0'! 0-$5'! ,+#+)'50! /0'(! B+,,'5! -$! 0<+5'! -<'15! 1('+! %1-<! +&&! -<'! $-<'5! 0-$5'!
,+#+)'50!+35$00!-<'!@:2:!+#(!-<'!5'0/&-!%+0!F>555!5'951)'5+-$5!0$&(:!!
="5,7=4! 4'+$75)%2! 75,7! %$?$-! /'#01! 5,?$! 5,66$%$1! 9$8'-$! /$! 5,1! E,++$-C>! 0+1(! 8+!#'!
2</5-0>!2/ '5*+&/!#<1'9!"#9$5,+-1$#!?9913'5:!
B+,,'5!+&0$!+&&$%0!-<'!#0?!-$!3$##'3-!(15'3-&!!%1-<!0-$5'!,+#+)'50!+5$/#(!-<'!3$/#-5!!
-$!)'-!+!0'#0'!$9!100/'0!<'!%$/&(!$-<'5%10'!#'*'5!<'+5!+?$/-:!%&0$>!1-!,+6'0!1-! $001?&'!9$5!<1,!
-$! 0<$%! -<',! -<+-! <'! +!0! +--'#-1$#! -$! %<+-! -<'!! 0+!! ?!! &$$61#)! +-! -<'15! (103/001$#0! +#(!
3$,,'#-1#)!$5!5' &!1#)!-$!-<',:!
:5$,!-<'!/0'5!5'+/15','#-0!3$&&'3-'(!1#!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!+5'+>!1-!3+,'!$/-!-<+-! '$ &'!
($!#$-!6#$%!%<13<!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<$/&(!?'!+&&$%'(!-$!?'!0<+5'(!+#(!%<13<!0<$/&(!#$-:!2$,'!
5$ $0'(! -$! #$,1#+-'! +! )5$/ ! +(,1#10-5+-$5! %<$! %$/&(! +3-! +0! +! ,$('5+-$5:! "-! 10! <$%'*'5!
1#-'5'0-1#)!-$!0<+5'!-<'!2/ '5*+&/!#"?! $1#-!$9!*1'%!+?$/-!-<+-:!)'!0+!0>!='#-!4)+60$!6-)%()60$!
)4!:'#!45'#01%=7!6#7!,%:75)%2!'%!E,++$-!75,7!/'#01!$+9,--,44!:'#!'-!75$!('+6,%:!)8!:'#!-$,1!
)7!'%!75$!8-'%7!6,2$!'8!75$!6$/!E'-.!")+$4!C!
2/ '5*+&/!#"?!+&0$!0+!0!-<+-!#$?$(!!#''(0!+!-5+1#1#)!3$/50'!-$!)'-!0-+5-'(!$#!B+,,'5!
?'3+/0'!1-!10!*'5!!1#-/1-1*'>!'0 '31+&&!!9$5!?+013!9'+-/5'0:=E!
051#! -5$--0>! -<'! A15'3-$5! $9! "#-'5#+&! #$,,/#13+-1$#0! +-! 2/ '5*+&/! ('0351?'0! -<'!
(199'5'#3'! ?'-%''#! 3$,,/#13+-1$#! %1-<! +#(! %1-<$/-! B+,,'5:! )'! 0+!0! -<+-! 51$5! -$! /01#)!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
=E
A:!::!#%==>!E,++$-!*$064!(-'($-:!95,)%!2%)7$!8-,%14>!&7<'!.5+1#B+5('>!;+#/+5!!4>!6536!

! GF!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

B+,,'5>! '$ &'!/0'(!-$!3$,,/#13+-'!*1+!'/,+1&0!+#(!&+5)'!,''-1#)0:!)$%'*'5>!<'!-<1#60!-<+-!


3$,,/#13+-1$#! 10! #$-! $#'/%+!2! 5+-<'5>! 1-! #''(0! -$! ?'! 3$&&+?$5+-1*':! 2/ '5*+&/,0! ', &$!''0!
#$%! 6#$%! -$! )$! -$! B+,,'5! -$! 0<+5'! #'%0! +#(! -<'!! +&0$! /0'! 1-! -$! )1*'! ''50! +#(! &'+('50!
9''(?+36! $#! 0'*'5+&! 1#1-1+-1*'0:! "#(''(>! -<'! #'%0! ?5'+6($%#! +-! 2/ '5*+&/! 10! 65J! $99131+&!
3$, +#!! #'%0! +#(! F5J! ', &$!''! 3$#-51?/-1$#0:! 7<10! 91)/5'! 0<$%0! <$%! ,/3<! 0$31+&!
#'-%$561#)!3+#!'#)+)'!', &$!''0:!
*5:! -5$--0! +&0$! 0+!0! -<+-! -<'! 51,+5!! /0'! '$ &'! ,+6'! $9! B+,,'5! 10! -$! 0<+5'! ?'0-!
5+3-13'0:!"#(''(>!$#3'!-<'!3$, +#!!&+/#3<'(!-<'!0$31+&!#'-%$56>!+&&!-<'!0-$5'!,+#+)'50!%'5'!
1#*1-'(!-$!($1#!-<'! &+-9$5,!+#(!#$%!-<'!!3+#!0''!<$%!-<'15!0-$5'0>!#$!,+--'5!%<13<!3$, +#!!
?5+#(! -<'!! 0'&&>! +5'! *'5!! 01,1&+5! -$! $-<'5! 0-$5'0:! 7<+#60! -$! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 0<+51#)! %1-<1#! -<'!
&+-9$5,>!0-$5'!,+#+)'50!3+#!3$$ '5+-'!%1-<!'+3<!$-<'5!-$!91#(!0+&'0/(51*1#)!0$&/-1$#0:!!
)'! +&0$! -<1#60! -<+-! 9$5! '#-'5 510'! 0$31+&! #'-%$561#)! -$! ?'! '99'3-1*'>! '$ &'! ,/0-! <+*'!
-<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!+33'00!1-!95$,!'*'5!%<'5':!7<10!10!'0 '31+&&!!-5/'!9$5!-<$0'!%<$!($!#$-!01-!$#!
+! ('06! +&&! (+!! &$#):! 7<+-! 10! %<!! 2/ '5*+&/! )+*'! -<$0'! '$ &'! +#! 18+(! %1-<! B+,,'5! +&5'+(!!
?/1&-/1#!0$!-<+-!-<'!!3$/&(!/0'!-<'! &+-9$5,!%<1&'!?'1#)!$/-01('!-<'!3$, +#!:!!!!!
%33$5(1#)!-$!<1,>!-<'!,$0-!1, $5-+#-!+0 '3-!10!-<+->!+ +5-!95$,!?'1#)!+!3/&-/5'!3<+#)'5>!
B+,,'5!+&0$!?5$/)<-!?/01#'00!?'#'91-0!9$5!-<'!3$, +#!:!"#(''(>!%<'#!+!0-$5'!,+#+)'5!3$,'!
/ !%1-<!+!0+&'0/(51*1#)!1('+>!90;<'!3+#! $0-! <$-$0!+#(!0+&'0!0-+-0!+#(!1#!5'+&!-1,'!+&&!-<'!$-<'5!
0-$5'!,+#+)'50!,+!!%'&&!('31('!-$!+($ -!-<'!0+,'!0$&/-1$#:!7<10!5'+&&!!<+ '#0!+-!2/ '5*+&/:!
"#!+((1-1$#>!<'!0+!0!-<+-!9$5!-<'!9150-!-1,'! '$ &'!%<$!01-!1#!-<'!$9913'0!+&&!(+!!&$#)!/#('50-+#(!
<$%!-<'15!('3101$#0!+99'3-!0-$5'0!+3-1*1-!!+#(!0+&'0:=F!

SPOTIFY

2 $-19!! 10! +! ,/013/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,! %<13<! '#+?&'0! /0'50! -$! &10-'#! -$! +#(! 0<+5'! ,/013! -5+360!
95$,!+!,/013!&1?5+5!!+#(!0<+5'!-<',!%1-<!951'#(0!$#!:+3'?$$6!$5!$-<'5!3<+##'&0!1#!5'+&!-1,':!!
7<'!5+ 1(!1#35'+0'!$9!-<'15!', &$!''0!$*'5! -<'!&+0-! !'+50!<+0!35'+-'(!-<'!#'3'001-!! -$!
/#19!!-<',!+#(!-$!,+6'!-<',!9$3/0'(!$#!-<'!51)<-! 51$51-1'0:=4!8<+-!%+0!<+ '#1#)!+-!2 $-19!!
%+0!-<+-!', &$!''0!9$/#(!1-!(19913/&-!-$!'03+ '!95$,!(+1&!!5$/-1#'!+#(!-$!9$3/0!$#!%<+-!5'+&&!!
(5$*'!?/01#'00!5'0/&-0:!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
=F
.&$)! $0->!G,1)(,0!"-,%46,-$%(:!P-)?$4!8#4)%$44!"-,%48'-+,7)'%!,7!)2M/GKF&2>!
<-- 1QQ?&$):!+,,'5:3$,>!*+!!63>!6536!
=4
!7<'!3$, +#!!<+0!,$5'!-<+#!G55!', &$!''0:!

G4 !
!
./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$5601!8$-'#-1+&0>!=1060!+#(!??0-+3&'0

;$<+#!8'500$#>!?5)+#10+-1$#+&!A'*'&$ ,'#-!*+#+)'5!+-!2 $-19!!<'+5(!+?$/-!G:660$!+#(!


5$ $0'(!1-!-$!<10!#0?!A+#1'&!06!+#(!-<'!3$, +#!!0-+5-'(!/01#)!1-!-$!5'3$)#10'!', &$!''0>!)1*'!
+#(!5'3'1*'!9''(?+36:!
.!!/01#)!=! &'>!2 $-19!,0!', &$!''0!3+#!)$!?'!$#(!'/,+1&0!+#(!)'-!+#!/#('50-+#(1#)!$9!
6'!! $?('3-1*'0! $9! -<'! 3$, +#!:! %-! -<'! -1,'>! -<'! 3$, +#!! +&5'+(!! <+(! +! )$+&/0'--1#)! 0!0-',!
%<13<!<$%'*'5!9+1&'(!-$!35'+-'!-<'!('015'(!-5+#0 +5'#3!:!7<'!3$, +#!!#''('(!+!%+!!-$!,+6'!
)$+&0! 0$31+&>! 5'+&/-1,'! +#(! ?$--$,// :! *+#+)'50! +&0$! %+#-'(! -$! ?'! +5-! $9! ', &$!''!
(103/001$#0! +#(! 0'-! )$+&0! -$)'-<'5:! .+013+&&!>! -<'! 3$, +#!! %+#-'(! 1-0! $?('3-1*'0! -$! ?'! 0$31+&!
+#(! +5-131 +-1*':!!

#$, +#!! ,+#+)'50! 0+!! -<+-! 01#3'! 2 $-19!! 0-+5-'(! /01#)! =! &'>! 1-! <+0! +3<1'*'(! +#!
1#35'+0'!1#!$#'/$#/$#'!3$+3<1#)!(103/001$#0!+#(!1#!', &$!''!/#('50-+#(1#)!$9!6'!!$?('3-1*'0:!
='3$)#1-1$#!?!!,+#+)'50!+#(!', &$!''0!1, 5$*'(!+0!%'&&:!%#!1#-'5'0-1#)!91)/5'!10!-<+-!F5J!$9!
1-0!', &$!''0!('31('(!-$!/0'!=! &':G5!

FACEBOOK

W;7!/,4!75$!8)-47!7)+$!;!8$07!)%!('%7-'0!'8!/5,7!/,4!9$)%2!4,)1!,9'#7!+$=!/!*$51#!?&/%+&'!98+)'!
? '5+-1$#0;:!

851$5! -$! /01#)! =! &'>! :+3'?$$6! %+0! /0'(! -$! 5'&!! $#! +! '59$5,+#3'! ,+#+)','#-! 0$9-%+5'!
%<13<!5'9&'3-'(!+!-5+(1-1$#+&!,1#(0'-:!8<+-!%+0!0-5+#)'!10!-<+-!%<1&'!:+3'?$$6!10!?!!('91#1-1$#!
+! 0$31+&>! 5'+&/-1,'>! 1#-/1-1*'! 5$(/3-Q3$, +#!! 1-0! '59$5,+#3'! ,+#+)','#-! -$$&! (1(! #$-!
5'9&'3-! -<+-! 3/&-/5':! 7<'5'9$5'>! -<'!! ('31('(! -$! +($ -! =! &'! -$! +&&$%! '$ &'! -$! )1*'!
5'3$)#1-1$#>!9''(?+36!+#(!9$5!3$+3<1#):!:+3'?$$6!/0'0!=! &'!9$51!

! 8'59$5,+#3'!0/,,+51'0!
! ='+&/-1,'!9''(?+36!+#(!3$+3<1#)!
! ='3$)#1-1$#!
! "#-'5#!3$+3<1#)!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
G5
=! &'1!#/0-$,'5!#+0'!2-$5!>!P-)?)%2!8#4)%$44!)#(($44!/)75!)'(),0!(',04!3!1>!
<-- 1QQ5! &':3$,Q1,+)'0Q3/0-$,'50Q2 $-19!#+0'2-$5!: (9!9%33'00'(!$#!;/&!!3C>!6536;!

! >5!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

%0! 9+5! +0! -<'! 1#-'5#! 3$+3<1#)! 10! 3$#3'5#'(>! :+3'?$$6! /0'0! =! &'! -$! 0 ''(! / ! -<'!
G3
1#-'5#0<1 ! 5$3'00!$9!#'%!<15'0: !

GILT GROUPE

-1&-!-5$/ '!10!+!0<$ 1#)!%'?01-'!%<13<! 5$*1('0!9$5!1-0!,',?'50!1#9$5,+-1$#!+?$/-!9+0<1$#!


+#(!&/./5!!?5+#(0:!!
;$<#! H/1##>! -1&-! -5$/ '! D13'! 85'01('#-! $9! 0#)1#''51#)! ?'3+,'! 95/0-5+-'(! ?!! -<'!
3$, +#!,0! +##/+&! '59$5,+#3'! 5'*1'%:! )'! %+#-'(! -$! ,+6'! 9''(?+36! ,$5'! 95'+/'#-! +#(!
1#9$5,+&:! 7<+-! 10! %<!! <'! ('31('(! -$! /0'! =! &'! 0-+5-1#)! %1-<! <10! 01.! (15'3-! 5' $5-0:! )10! -'+,!
?')+#! -$! /0'! =! &',0! 9'+-/5'0! 0/3<! +0! 9''(?+36>! 3$+3<1#)! +#(! -<+#60/)1*1#)! -$! )'-! 5+ 1(!
9''(?+36:!)'!%+0!+?&'!-$!+36#$%&'()'!)5'+-!%$56!+0!1-!<+ '#'(!+#(!0''!%<$!%+0! '59$5,1#)!
%'&&:!=! &'!,+('!1-! $001?&'!9$5!<1,!-$!)1*'!', &$!''0!1#0-+#-!9''(?+36!+#(!,+6'!3$55'3-1$#0!
%<'#!#'3'00+5!!?'9$5'!1-!%+0!-$$!&+-':!!
8<+-!10!1#-'5'0-1#)!10!-<+-!1#!(/0-!01.!,$#-<0!E55! '$ &'!0-+5-'(!/01#)!=! &'>!95$,!-<'!
1#1-1+&!01.:!%&0$>!%<'#!/0+)'!5'+3<'(!GG!', &$!''0>!;$<#! 5$ $0'(!-$!.51+#!#<510-,+#!/!-<'!)=!
5'0 $#01?&'!/!-$!5' &+3'!-<'!3$, +#!!'.10-1#)! '59$5,+#3'!,+#+)','#-! 5$3'00!%1-<!=! &':!
%0!+!5'0/&->!+9-'5!+!9'%!,$#-<0>!+&&!E55!', &$!''0!%'5'!/01#)!-<'! &+-9$5,!-$!,+#+)'!
-<'15!)$+&0>!5'3$)#10'!)5'+-!%$56!($#'!?!!$-<'50!+#(!)1*'!$#/)$1#)!9''(?+36:!%#$-<'5!,'-513!
0<$%1#)!-<'!0/33'00!$9!-<10!0-$5!!10!-<+-!', &$!''0!/0'!=! &'!?'-%''#!355!+#(!6G5!-1,'0! '5!
G6
,$#-<! '5! '50$#: !

DigiRedo

A1)1='($!10!+!#'%!,'(1+!3$, +#!!95$,!4'-<'5&+#(0!%<$0'!3$/9$/#('5!10!0516!*+#!('5!R1(('#:!
)'!0+!0!-<+-!-<'!,+1#!/0'!<'!,+6'0!$9!"$,+&,9!10!-$!,+#+)'!0$,'!=5! 5$('3-0!<'!+#(!<10!E/
'$ &'! -'+,! +5'! %$561#)! $#:! )'! /0'0! 7'+,$+?! +&,$0-! '*'5!! (+!! +#(! -<1#60! -<+-! -<'! ,$0-!
/0'9/&!9'+-/5'!1-! 5$*1('0!10! 5$('3-!,+#+)','#-!+#(!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+51#):!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
G3
=! &'1!:+3'?$$6!#+0'!2-$5!>!<-- 1QQ5! &':3$,Q9+3'?$$69%33'00'(!$#!;/&!!C5>!6536;!
G6
=! &'1!#/0-$,'5!#+0'!2-$5!>!G$60,()%2!75$!=P-$,1$1!F%%#,0!G$?)$/C !
<-- 1QQ5! &':3$,Q1,+)'0Q3/0-$,'50Q-1&--5$/ #+0'2-$5!: (99%33'00'(!$#!;/&!!3C>!6536;!

>3 !
!
./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$5601!8$-'#-1+&0>!=1060!+#(!??0-+3&'0

7<'!?/01#'00!?'#'91-! 9$5!A1)1='($!10!-<+-!-<'!!#$%!<+*'!+!3'#-5+&! </?!1#!%<13<!+&&!-<'!


1#9$5,+-1$#!+?$/-!+! +5-13/&+5! 5$('3-!10!)+-<'5'(:GC!

SIEMENS

"#! 3444>! 21','#0! D13'! 85'01('#-! %+0! 1#! 3<+5)'! $9! 35'+-1#)! +! <1)</-'3<! 0$&/-1$#! %<13<! %$/&(!
1, 5$*'! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)! +,$#)! -<'! =>3>555! ', &$!''0! -<'! 3$, +#!! <+(! +5$/#(! -<'!
%$5&(:!!
=M$'60$!/5'!2)?$!#6!.%'/35'/!2$7!.%'/35'/!9,(.C>!<'!/0'(!-$!0+!:!21','#0!35'+-'(!+!
%'?! +)'! 3+&&'(! )5,-$6$7! %<$0'! 9'+-/5'0! %'5'! 1#0-+#-! ,'00+)1#)! 93<+-;>! +! (+-+?+0'! +#(! +!
0'+53<!'#)1#':!7<'!%'?!01-'!+&&$%'(!', &$!''0!-$!0<+5'!+#!-<1#)!-<'!!-<$/)<-!3$/&(!?'!/0'9/&!
9$5!3$&&'+)/'0>!95$,!+!('0351 -1$#!$9!+!0/33'009/&! 5$('3-!-$!+!8$%'58$1#-! 5'0'#-+-1$#:!!
7<10!%+!!3$&&'+)/'0!3+#!?5$%0'!-<'!#'-%$56!+#(!3$#-+3-!(15'3-&!!-<'!/ /&$+('50!19!-<'!!
+5'!1#-'5'0-'(!1#!-<'!3$#-'#-! $0-'(:!
%9-'5!,+#!!!'+50>!-<'!0!0-',!<+(! 5$(/3'(!<+5(!?/01#'00!?'#'91-0:!7<'!3$0-!$9!-<'!-$$&!
%+0!NE:F!,1&&1$#!?/-!1-!+(('(!N366!,1&&1$#!1#!0+&'0:!:$5!'.+, &'>!1-!,+('!1-! $001?&'!-$!3&$0'!+!
NC! ,1&&1$#! 3$#-5+3-! 9$5! ?/1&(1#)! +! 1&$-! ?5$+(?+#(! #'-%$56! 9$5! 7'&'3$,! *+&+!01+:! $$3+&!
0+&'0 '$ &'!(1(!#$-!<+*'!-<'!'. '5-10'! -$!,+6'!+#! $99'5:! .!!/01#)! 2<+5'4'-!-<'!!(103$*'5'(!
-<+-!+!21','#0!-'+,!1#!A'#,+56!<+(!+&5'+(!!($#'!+!01,1&+5! 5$('3-:!@01#)!-<'!'. '5-10'!$9!-<'!
A'#,+56!)5$/ >!-<'!*+&+!01+!-'+,!$?-+1#'(!-<'!3$#-5+3-:!!

7+?&'6:3<1)<&1)<-0! %<13<! 3$, +#!! 3<$0'! %<13<! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56:! "-! +&0$! 5',1#(0! -<'!
5'+0$#0!?'<1#(!-<'!('3101$#:!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
GC
7'+,$+?!.&$)>!"$,+&,9!#4$-!4#(($44!47'-:!X3*!*'/!;!8'#%1!,!W(5$,6$-=!6-'B$(7!+,%,2$+$%7!4'0#7)'%!
(0'4$!$%'#25!7'!+:!6$-8$(7)'%>!?3-$?'5!33>!6535!!

! >6!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!
!

Table 2.1
2.1 Companies using enterprise social networking

"+4%$,8! 47*/,'**!*+0/$-!,'&2+(1! 8'$*+,*!$,9:+(!;','</&*!


7$!/#19!!,+#!!?5+#(0!+5$/#(!
-<'!@:2:>!-$!0<+5'!?'0-!
2@80=D%$@! B+,,'5!
5+3-13'0>!-$!1, 5$*'!
3$,,/#13+-1$#!
7$!/#19!!', &$!''0>!9$5!
28?7":B! 9''(?+36!+#(!5'3$)#1-1$#>!-$!
,+6'!)$+&0!0$31+&!
:$5! '59$5,+#3'!0/,,+51'0>!
=! &'!
:%#0.??"! 3$+3<1#)!-$!0 ''(!/ !
1#-'5#0<1 0!
:$5!,$5'!95'+/'#-!+#(!
-"$7!-=?@80!
1#9$5,+&!9''(?+36!
:$5!,+#+)1#)!=5! 5$('3-0!+#(!
A1)1='($! 7'+,$+?!
E! '$ &'!
:$5!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)!+,$#)!
2"0*042! 2<+5'4'-!
', &$!''0!

>C !
!
./01#'00!2$31+&!4'-%$5601!8$-'#-1+&0>!=1060!+#(!??0-+3&'0

Key ideas

! 7<'!0/33'00!$9!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!(' '#(0!#$-!$#&!!$#!-<'!,+56'->!?/-!,+1#&!!
$#!-<'!6#$%&'()'!', &$!''0!('*'&$ !$*'5!-1,':!!
! 7<'! ?'0-! %+!! -$! ('*'&$ ! 6#$%&'()'! 10! -$! 0<+5'! 1-:! %! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56!
%$/&(!9+31&1-+-'!6#$%&'()'!0<+51#)!+,$#)!3$&&'+)/'0:!!
! 7<'! ,+1#! $-'#-1+&0! $9! +! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! +5'1! $#/)$1#)! 3<'360>! -<'!
0 ''(// ! $9! #'%! <15'0,! 1#-5$(/3-1$#>! '.-'5#+&! #'-%$560! -$! 3$$ '5+-'! %1-<!
3/0-$,'50!+#(! +5-#'50>!?'0-! 5+3-13'!0<+51#)>!(+-+!-5+361#)>!-1,'!0+*1#):!!
! 7<'!-<5''!,+1#!51060!+5'! 5$-'3-1$#>!(10-5+3-1$#!+#(!#$#/ 5$9'001$#+&!/0':!
! 2$,'! '#-'5 510'! 0$31+&! #'-%$561#)! $?0-+3&'0! 1#3&/('1! +! 3$#-5$&! 3/&-/5'>!
:+3'?$$6! 3$##$-+-1$#0>! 5'0'#3'! $9! -$$! ,+#!! "7! -$$&0! 1#! +! 3$, +#!>! &+36! $9!
1#-')5+-1$#! %1-<! $-<'5! ?/01#'00! + &13+-1$#0>! &+36! $9! 1#-')5+-1$#! %1-<! ?/01#'00!
5$3'00'0>! 3$, '-1-1$#! 95$,! 3$#0/,'5! 0$31+&! #'-%$560>! 9'+5! $9! 0<+51#)!
1#9$5,+-1$#>!3$, /&0$5!!+($ -1$#:!

!
!

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

! >=!
!
!

Chapter 3
RESEARCH QUESTION AND METHOD
7<10! 3<+ -'5! +#0%'50! -<'! 5'0'+53<! +/'0-1$#! ?'<1#(! -<10! -<'010! +#(! '. &+1#0! -<'! ,'-<$(!
9$&&$%'(!-$!+#0%'5!-<+-!+/'0-1$#>!1#3&/(1#)!+#!!('-+1&0!+?$/-!<$%!(+-+!+#(!1#9$5,+-1$#!<+*'!
?''#! )+-<'5'(:! 7<'! 5'0'+53<! +/'0-1$#! -<'! 3/55'#-! -<'010! %+#-0! -$! +#0%'5! 10! -<'! 9$&&$%1#)1!
@5,7!)4!75$!9$47! /,:! 7'! +,%,2$! .%'/0$12$!/)75)%!,! .%'/0$12$39,4$1! 47,-73#6!+,.)%2!4#-$!
75,7!$+60':$$4!0$,-%!,4!8,47!,4!6'44)90$O!
7<10!-<'010!%+#-0!-$!+#0%'5!-<'!+?$*'!+/'0-1$#!?!!,+61#)!+!-'0-!%1-<1#!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!
-'+,!$9!-<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ :!7<'!9150-!0-' !%+0!-$!+55+#)'!%''6&!!,''-1#)0!%1-<!-<'!$$331$#1!
)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5!1#!%<13<!<'!%'#-!-<5$/)<!,+#!!100/'0!<10!-'+,!<+0!-$!('+&!%1-<:!!
7<'#>!85$9'00$5!;$<#!=:!23<'5,'5<$5#>!;5:!%+0!1#*$&*'(!1#-$!-<'!(103/001$#!+#(!-$)'-<'5!
-<'!+/-<$5>!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5!+#(!-<'!85$9'00$5!3+,'!/ !%1-<!+#!+#0%'5>!-<+-!10>!75$!
9$47!/,:!7'!+,%,2$!.%'/0$12$!)4!7'!45,-$!)7:!!7<10!%+0!+&0$!1#0 15'(!?!!+!8+&&!2-5''-!;$/5#+&!
%5-13&'G=! 1#! %<13<! 2<+!#(1! =+13'! 1#-5$(/3'(! -<'! 100/'! $9! 0$31+&! #'-%$561#)! 1#! -<'! %$56 &+3':!
7<'5'9$5'>! -<'! 91#+&! ('3101$#! %+0! -$! 1#-5$(/3'! %1-<1#! -<'! )/,+#3+5'! (' +5-,'#-! $9! -<'!
$$331$#1! -5$/ ! +! 6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,! %<13<! %$/&(! 9+31&1-+-'! 6#$%&'()'! +#(!
1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+51#)!+,$#)!3$&&'+)/'0:!
7<'! #'.-! 0-' ! %+0! -<'! +#+&!010! $9! -<10! #'%! <'#$,'#$#! -5!1#)! -$! 91)/5'! $/-! %<+-!
$-'#-1+&0>!51060!+#(!$?0-+3&'0!%'5'!+00$31+-'(!%1-<!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$561#):!#+0'!0-/(1'0!
<+*'! +&0$! ?''#! 3$&&'3-'(! 1#! $5('5! -$! ('-'5,1#'! %<'-<'5! $-<'5! 3$, +#1'0! %'5'! -+61#)!
+(*+#-+)'!$9!-<10!$ $5-/#1-!!+#(>!19!0$>!<$%!-<'!!%'5'!-+61#)!+(*+#-+)'!$9!1-:!%9-'5!-<+->!/0'5!
5'+/15','#-0!95$,!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!-'+,!%'5'!3$&&'3-'(:!7<'! /5 $0'!%+0!-$!/#('50-+#(!%<+-!
-<'15!#''(0!%'5'!+#(>!'0 '31+&&!>!%<+-!-<'15! '53' -1$#0!%'5'!+?$/-!-<10!#'%!1('+:!7$!($!-<+->!
1#(1*1(/+&!+0!%'&&!+0!)5$/ !1#-'5*1'%0!<+*'!?''#!3$#(/3-'(!%1-<!-<'!-'+,!,',?'50:!?#&!!&+-'5!
<+0! -<'! +#+&!010! )$#'! -<5$/)<! -<'! 3<$13'! $9! %<13<! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! %$/&(! <+*'! ?'0-!
,'-! -<'! #'3'001-1'0! $9! -<'! -'+,:! 7<'! + 5$+3<! <'5'! %+0! -$! 91)/5'! $/-! %<+-! -<'! ,+56'-! %+0!
+&5'+(!!$99'51#):!0&'*'#!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,0!<+*'!?''#!+#+&!0'(!%1-<!-<'!+/-<$5!01)#1#)!
1#!+#(!/01#)!'+3<!$9!-<$0'!1#!$5('5!-$!0''!%<+-!9'+-/5'0!-<'!! 5$*1('(!+#(!+-!%<13<!3$0-:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
G=
2:!=%"#0>!)'(),0!6$7/'-.)%2!*$,14!7'!75$!%88)($>!&7<'!8+&&!2-5''-!;$/5#+&'>!% 51&!6>!6536!

>G !
!
='0'+53<!+/'0-1$#!+#(!,'-<$(

8&'+0'!3$#01('5!-<+-!1-!%+0! 5'9'5+?&'!9$5!-<'!3$, +#!!-$!3+55!!$/-!-<10!'. '51,'#-!+-!


#$!$5!&1,1-'(!3$0-:!"#!+!9'%!%''60!$9!(15'3-!/0+)'!$9!+&&!-<'0'! &+-9$5,0>!-<'!91#+&!&10-!1#3&/('(!
-<5''!$9!-<'!'&'*'#!+ &13+-1$#0:!:1#+&&!>!?+0'(!$#!-<'!/0'5!5'+/15','#-0!3$&&'3-'(!'+5&1'5>!$#!
-+&60!%1-<!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5!+#(!$#!-<'!9'+-/5'0!-<+-!'+3<! &+-9$5,! 5$*1('(>!-<'!$#'!
%<13<!0'','(!-$!?'!-<'!,$0-!+ 5$ 51+-'!9$5!-<'!-'+,!%+0!3<$0'#:!%9-'5!-<+->!+!+/'0-1$##+15'!
%+0!<+#('(!$/-!-$!-<'!', &$!''0!1#!$5('5!-$!/#('50-+#(!%<'-<'5!-<'!!%'5'!+33/0-$,'(!-$!
0$31+&! #'-%$560! 1#! )'#'5+&>! %<'-<'5! -<'!! &16'(! -<'! 1('+! $9! 1#-5$(/31#)! +! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&!
&+-9$5,!%1-<1#!-<'!-'+,!+#(!%<'-<'5!-<'5'!%+0!5$$,!9$5!0/3<!+!-$$&:!%9-'5!-%$!,$#-<0>!-<'!
6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,!%+0!&+/#3<'(!+#(! '$ &'! <+*'!?''#!/01#)!1-!9$5!+! =/,$#-<!-'0-!
'51$(>! 95$,! ;/&!! 6E-<! /#-1&! 4$*',?'5! 6G-<>! 6536:! A/51#)! -<+-! '51$(>! -<'! +/-<$5! 3+551'(! $/-!
?$-<!+/+&1-+-1*'!+#(!+/+#-1-+-1*'! '51$(13!+#+&!010:!7<'!!1#3&/('(!<$%!,+#!! $0-0!+#(!%<13<!
61#(!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!'+3<!-'+,!,',?'5!<+(!?''#!0<+51#):!7<'!!+&0$! $1#-'(!$/-!%<13<!+5'+!$9!
-<'!)/,+#3+5'!-'+,!%+0!0<+51#)!,$5'!1#9$5,+-1$#!+#(!%<13<!+5'+!%+0!0<+51#)!&'00:!
#$#01('5! -<+-! -<'! $$331$#1! -5$/ ! 10! +&0$! %$561#)! $#! +! *'5!! 01,1&+5! 5$('3-1! -;@;!
9-%'/0$12$! @'-.$-! ;%8-,47-#(7#-$;:! 7<10! 10! ?'3+/0'! -<'! 3$, +#!! 10! *'5!! 0'51$/0! +?$/-!
6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#):! 7<'! (199'5'#3'! 10! -<+-! ""8"! 10! ?'1#)! ('*'&$ '(! 1#01('! $$331$#1>! %<1&'! -<'!
3/55'#-! 5$('3-! 1#*$&*'(! +! 0$&/-1$#! +&5'+(!! +*+1&+?&'! $#! -<'! ,+56'->! +#(! %<1&'! ""8"! %1&&! ?'!
/0'(! ?!! -<'! %<$&'! $5)+#10+-1$#>! -<'! &+-9$5,! 3<$0'#! 9$5! -<10! 5$('3-! 10! &1,1-'(! -$! $$331$#1!
)/,+#3+5':! % +5-! 95$,! -<+->! +! /0'9/&! 3$$ '5+-1$#! ?'-%''#! -<'! -%$! 5$('3-0! %+0! ?$5#! +#(!
01#3'!""8"!<+0!+!,/3<!)5'+-'5!03$ '!+#(!+!&$#)'5!$51'#-+-1$#>!-<10!%$56!-<'010!<+0!?''#!/0'(!
?!!-<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ !-$!0''!<$%!', &$!''0!9150-!5'+3-'(!-$!-<'!1, &','#-+-1$#!$9!+!?/01#'00!
0$31+&! #'-%$56! +#(! %<'-<'5! 1-! ,+('! 0'#0'! -$! 0 '#(! -1,'! +#(! 5'0$/53'0! $#! +#! '*'#! ?1))'5!
5$('3-:!!
?#3'!-<'!-'0-! '51$(!'. 15'(>!+!91#+&!'*+&/+-1$#!%+0!,+(':!7<10!$#'!1#3&/('(!-<'!-$-+&!
#/,?'5!$9! $0-0!0<+5'(>!-<'!#/,?'5!$9! $0-0!0<+5'(!?!!'+3<!/0'5>!-<'!#/,?'5!$9! $0-0!0<+5'(!
?!! '+3<! +5'+! $9! -<'! )/,+#3+5'! -'+,>! +&%+!0! ,+61#)! +! 3$, +510$#! %1-<! -<'! 1#1-1+&!
'. '3-+-1$#0:!2$,'!3$#3&/01$#0!%'5'!+&0$!(5+%#!?!!&$$61#)!+-!-<'!91#+&!5'0/&-0!+#(!3$, +51#)!
-<',!-$!-<'!+#0%'50!$9!-<'!1#1-1+&!+/'0-1$##+15':!$16'!-<'! '51$(13!+#+&!0'0>!-<'!91#+&!'*+&/+-1$#!
1#3&/('(! +! +/+&1-+-1*'! +00'00,'#-! $9! -<'! 3$#-'#-! -$$:! :1#+&&!>! +#$-<'5! +/'0-1$##+15'! %+0!
<+#('(! $/-! 1#! $5('5! -$! 0''! %<+-! '$ &'! -<$/)<-! +?$/-! -<10! -'0-! +#(! -$! ('-'5,1#'! 9/-/5'!
(15'3-1$#0!9$5!-<'!3$, +#!:!

! >>!
!
!

Chapter 4
CASE STUDY: LOCCIONI HUMANCARE
R/+60':$$! $%2,2$+$%7! )4! ,! ('-$! '9B$(7)?$! /$=-$! 6#-4#)%2! ,4! ,! ('+6,%: ! ,%1! >,%! $%7$-6-)4$!
4'(),0!%$7/'-.?!)4!'%$!'8!75$!9$47!/,:4!;!.%'/!7'!8,()0)7,7$!75,7!!;7!0$74!#4!0$?$-,2$!75$!6'/$-!'8!
('++#%)7:!R!
M!#<510-1+#!:&'36>!*+#+)1#)!A15'3-$5!$9!$'.104'.10!@"!K!"5'&+#(!

7<'! 5'0'#-!0'3-1$#!1#-5$(/3'0!%<+-!-<'! '$ &'!+-!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!-<$/)<-!+?$/-!


-<'! 1('+! $9! /01#)! +#! '#-'5 510'! 0$31+&! #'-%$56:! "-! +&0$! )1*'0! 0$,'! 0/))'0-1$#0! $#! %<13<!
1#9$5,+-1$#!3+#!?'!,$*'(!95$,!%51--'#!5' $5-0!-$!+!*15-/+&!(+0<?$+5(:!"-!-<'#!)$'0!-<5$/)<!+#!
+#+&!010!$9!%<13<!?/01#'00!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!%$/&(!?'!-<'!,$0-!+ 5$ 51+-'!9$5!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!
-'+,:!:1#+&&!>!1-!0<$%0!+!+/'0-1$##+15'!)1*'#!-$!-<'!', &$!''0!?'9$5'!&+/#3<1#)!-<'! &+-9$5,!
1#!$5('5!-$!/#('50-+#(!%<'-<'5!$5!#$-!-<'5'!%+0!5$$,!9$5!0/3<!+#!'. '51,'#-:!!

User requirements

.'9$5'! &$$61#)! +-! %<13<! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! %$/&(! ?'0-! 91-! -<'! #''(0! $9! -<'! )/,+#3+5'!
-'+,>!1-!%+0!#'3'00+5!!-$!/#('50-+#(!%<+-!-<'15!#''(0!%'5':!7<+-!10!%<!!+!0'51'0!$9!1#-'5*1'%0!
+#(!-+&60!<+*'!?''#!3$#(/3-'(:!7<10!0'3-1$#!3$#-+1#0!-<'!,+1#!1('+0!3$&&'3-'(:!!
7<'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! )+-<'5'(! <+0! ?''#! )5$/ '(! -$)'-<'5! 1#-$! -<5''! ,+1#! +5'+0>! '+3<! $9!
%<13<!('0351?'0! +! (199'5'#-! +3-1*1-!! +-! $$331$#1! )/,+#3+5'1!*+56'-!%5'+>!7'3<#13+&! %5'+!+#(!
#/0-$,'5!#+5':!"#!+((1-1$#>!$#'/$#/$#'!-+&60!%1-<!-<5''!,+#+)'50!<+*'!?''#!3$#(/3-'(1!$#'!
%1-<!-<'!2+&'0!*+#+)'5!95'0 $#01?&'!$9!-<'!*+56'-!%5'+;>!-<'!$-<'5!%1-<!-<'!5'0 $#01?&'!$9!-<'!
7'3<#13+&!%5'+!+#(!-<'!91#+&!$#'!%1-<!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5:!

:$5! +! ?'--'5! /#('50-+#(1#)>! $ 1#1$#0! <+*'! ?''#! (1*1('(! 1#-$! $01-1*'>! #'/-5+&! +#(!
#')+-1*':!7<'!$ 1#1$#0!$9!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!-'+,!+?$/-!-<'! $001?1&1-!!$9!/01#)!+!?/01#'00!0$31+&!
#'-%$56!+5'!&10-'(!?'&$%:!

>E !
!
#+0'!2-/(!1!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'

Humancare Sales Manager

6$2,7)?$!?)$/!
8<'#!1-!3$,'0!-$!3$, &'.! 5$('3-0!1-!%$/&(!?'!?'--'5!-$!<+*'!+!9'%! '$ &'!1#*$&*'(>!5+-<'5!
-<+#!-$$!,+#!:!7</0>!9$5!-<$0'! 5$('3-0!+!0$31+&!#'-%$56!3$/&(!35'+-'!0$,'! 5$?&',0:!

6$#7-,0!?)$/!
%#!', &$!''!0$31+&!#'-%$56!9$5!1#-'5#+&! /5 $0'0!%$/&(!?'!,$5'!?'#'9131+&!-<+#!+#!'.-'5#+&/
$51'#-'(! &+-9$5,:!0.-'5#+&!#'-%$560!3$/&(!%$56!%1-<!0$,'!9$5'1)#! +5-#'50!/!#$-!+&&!-<$/)<!/!
?/-!#$-!%1-<!-<'!"-+&1+#!$#'0!+0!-<'!!+5'!#$-!!'-!5'+(!!9$5!1-:!

M'4)7)?$!?)$/!

! 7<'! &+-9$5,!3$/&(!?'!9$3/0'(!$#!-<'!#'-%$56!+&5'+(!!'0-+?&10<'(>!?$-<!#+-1$#+&!+#(!
1#-'5#+-1$#+&:!:$5!1#0-+#3'>!+!0$31+&!*'501$#!$9!-<'!))0?$-!Y'%$GG!3$/&(!?'!('*'&$ '(2!
! 0/,+1&0! +5'! +&%+!0! 9$5,+&>! %<1&'! $0-0! $#! +! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! +5'! 1#9$5,+&:! :$5! 0$,'!
1'3'0!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!+#(!1#!0$,'!3153/,0-+#3'0!1#9$5,+&1-!!10! 5'9'5+?&'2!!
! 7<'5'!10!&1--&'!3$,,/#13+-1$#!+,$#)!(199'5'#-!+5'+0!$9!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!-'+,!+#(!#$-!
'*'5!?$(!! 6#$%0! %<+-! $-<'50! +5'! ($1#):! 7<'5'9$5'>! +! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! 3$/&(!
,+6'!3$,,/#13+-1$#!'+01'5!+#(!,$5'!'99'3-1*'2!
! 7<10!-$$&!3$/&(!<'& !0+&'0! '$ &'!0<+5'!?'0-! 5+3-13'0!+,$#)!'+3<!$-<'5:!:$5!1#0-+#3'>!
-<'!,$0-!'. '5-!0+&'0! '50$#!3$/&(!/0'!-<'! &+-9$5,!-$!)1*'!#'%!0+&'0! '$ &'!-1 0!$#!
<$%!-$!('+&!%1-<!+! +5-13/&+5!3/0-$,'5:!

Humancare Technical Manager

6$2,7)?$!?)$/!

! 7<'!)/,+#3+5'!+5'+!<+0!+&5'+(!!)$-!+!0$9-%+5'!%<13<!%$/&(!'#+?&'! '$ &'!-$!9$&&$%!


0$,'!(+-+!/!&16'!-<'!0-+-/0!$9!+#!$5('5!/!-<5$/)<!+#!',+1&!#$-1913+-1$#!?/-!1-!($'0!#$-!
%$56:!8<!!0<$/&(!+!0$31+&!#'-%$56!%$56<2!
! 7<'!5106!10!-$!,+6'! '$ &'!9''&!/#('5!3$#-5$&2!
! 81-<!',+1&0!$5!26! '! '$ &'!3+#!($!-<'!0+,'!-<1#)0:!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
GG
! 7<'! 21&*'5! R$#'! 10! +! -'5,! /0'(! ?!! $$331$#1! -$! ('0351?'! -<'! 5'&+-1$#0<1 ! ?'-%''#! -<'! 3$, +#!! +#(!
'. '5-0!1#!0$,'!91'&(0!$5!1#(/0-5!:!7<'!!+5'!+(*10$50!%<$!%$56!9$5!$$331$#1!9$5!+!&1,1-'(!-1,'! '51$(:!!

! >F!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

6$#7-,0!?)$/!

! %!,$('5+-$5!%<$!3$#-5$&0!%<+-!10! $0-'(!10!#'3'00+5!2!
! %0! 9+5! +0! -<'! '.-'5#+&! #'-%$56! 10! 3$#3'5#'(>! ,$0-! ', &$!''0! +-! ,+#!! <$0 1-+&0G>!
3+##$-! 0/59! -<'! 1#-'5#'->! 0$! +! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! -$! 3$,,/#13+-'! %1-<! -<',! %$/&(! ?'!
/0'&'00:! ./-! 0$,'! ', &$!''0! (,%! 0/59! -<'! #'->! 0$! +! *15-/+&! 3$$ '5+-1$#! %1-<! -<$0'!
3$/&(!9&$/510<2!
! *+!?'!$#&!!-<'!,+#+)','#-!0<$/&(!0-+5-!/01#)!-<10! &+-9$5,!+0!+#!'. '51,'#-:!

M'4)7)?$!?)$/!
7<'5'! 10! &1--&'! 3$,,/#13+-1$#! +,$#)! +5'+0:! "#! 5'+&1-!! -<'5'! 10! +! 9$&('5! %<'5'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 10!
6' ->!?/-!#$?$(!!&$$60!+-!1-:!%!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!3$/&(! /0<! '$ &'!-$%+5(0!0<+51#)!+#(!&$$61#)!
9$5!1#9$5,+-1$#:!

Technical Area
.'&$%!+5'!0$,'!100/'0!5+10'(!?!!-<'!7'3<#13+&!-'+,!+0!+!%<$&':!

6$2,7)?$!?)$/!

! 7<'5'! $#&!! +5'! -<5''! 0$9-%+5'! '. '5-0! %<$! ($! #$-! #''(! +! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! -$!
3$,,/#13+-'!%1-<!'+3<!$-<'5>!-<'!!/0'!(15'3-!3$,,/#13+-1$#2!
! ='+&/-1,'!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+51#)!10!(19913/&-!%<'#!', &$!''0!,''-!3/0-$,'50!01#3'!*'5!!
$9-'#!-<'!!($!#$-!<+*'!+33'00!-$!-<'!1#-'5#'-2!
! 7<'5'!10!#$!*+&/'!+(('(!1#!0<+51#)!#'%0!1#!5'+&!-1,'2!
! #$,,/#13+-1$#!+,$#)!'+3<!$-<'5!10!$6+!>!-</0!+!0$31+&!#'-%$56!9$5!1#-'5#+&! /5 $0'0!
10!#$-!#''('(:!!
! %!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!3$/&(!%$56!9$5!-<'!'#-15'!-5$/ >!,+!?'!0-+5-1#)!%1-<!+!9'%!,+#+)'50!
$9!'+3<!?/01#'00!/#1->!,/3<!&'00!19!/0'(!$#&!!%1-<1#!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!+5'+:!

6$#7-,0!?)$/!
7<'5'!10!+!#''(!-$!91)/5'!$/-!%<+-!10!+&&$%'(!-$!?'! $0-'(!+#(!%<+-!10!#$-:!
!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
G>
!#$#01('5!-<+-!-<'!/0/+&!3/0-$,'5!$9!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!+5'+!+5'!<$0 1-+&0:!!

>4 !
!
#+0'!2-/(!1!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'

M'4)7)?$!?)$/!

! 2$9-%+5'!'. '5-0!+5)/'!-<+-!+!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!3$/&(!?'!/0'9/&!19!1-!3$##'3-0!+&&!
$9!-<'!3$, +#!,0!0$9-%+5'!'. '5-0>!#$-!$#&!!-<'!)/,+#3+5',0:!7$(+!!-<'!!5'&!!+!&$-!$#!
9$5/,0!-$!6#$%!<$%!-$!($!-<1#)0!%<1&'!-<'!!3$/&(!5'&!!,$5'!$#!1#-'5#+&!'. '5-10'2!
! 7<10! -$$&! 3$/&(! %$56! 19! -+5)'-'(! -$! -<'! 91#+&! 3/0-$,'5! +#(! %$/&(! 1, 5$*'! 1#-'5#+&!
5$3'00'0! -$$:! 0*'#! -<$/)<>! 0$,'! 3/0-$,'50! %1&&! /0'! 1-! 9-<'! ,$5'! 5$+3-1*'! $#'0;!
%<1&'! 0$,'! $-<'50! %1&&! #$-:! %! 0$31+&! &+-9$5,! 3$/&(! ?'! '*'#! ,$5'! $%'59/&! 19!
3/0-$,'50! +5'! +&&$%'(! -$! 1#-'5+3-! %1-<! '+3<! $-<'5:! 7<'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! -<+-! 3$/&(! ?'!
)+-<'5'(!?!!-<'15!1#-'5+3-1$#!%1&&!?'!*'5!!/0'9/&!9$5!?$-<! +5-01!$$331$#1!+#(!3/0-$,'50!
-<',0'&*'02!
! "-! 3$/&(! ?'! /0'9/&! -$! <+*'! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! 3$,'! 1#! -<'! ,$5#1#)! +#(! -! '! $#! +!
&+-9$5,!%<+-!-$!($!(/51#)!-<'!(+!!$5!(/51#)!-<'!%''6>!%<$!($'0!1-!+#(!+&&!-<'! '$ &'!
1#*$&*'(!%1&&!1,,'(1+-'&!!)'-!+!#$-1913+-1$#:!!

Customer Care
7<10!10!-<'! $1#-!$9!*1'%!$9!-<'!#/0-$,'5!#+5'!-'+,:!

6$2,7)?$!?)$/!

! "#! -<'! )/,+#3+5'! (1*101$#! '$ &'! +&5'+(!! 3$$ '5+-'! +! &$-! %1-<! '+3<! $-<'5>! 0$! +#!
1#-'5#+&! &+-9$5,!3$/&(!?'!0''#!+0!+#!'.-5+!%$56&$+(!%1-<$/-!+!5'+&!+(*+#-+)'2!
! $+#)/+)'! 10! +! 0-5$#)! ?+551'5! 9$5! ('*'&$ 1#)! +#! '.-'5#+&! #'-%$56! 01#3'! #$-! +&&! $9! -<'!
9$5'1)#! +5-#'50!0 '+6!0#)&10<:!8<13<!&+#)/+)'!0<$/&(!?'!/0'(!-<'#<!

6$#7-,0!?)$/!
%!?/01#'00! 0$31+&!#'-%$56!%$/&(!?'!,/3<!,$5'!'99'3-1*'! 19!/0'(!%1-<1#!-<'!%<$&'!3$, +#!>!
#$-!(/0-!%1-<1#!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!+5'+:!

M'4)7)?$!?)$/!

! %! 0$31+&! &+-9$5,! %$/&(! ?'! /0'9/&! 19! -+5)'-'(! -$! 3/0-$,'50>! ?$-<! -$! '#<+#3'! -<'!
*101?1&1-!! $9!%<+-!$$331$#1!10!($1#)! +#(!-$!0<+5'! <'+&-<! ?'0-! 5+3-13'0!9+-!-<'!#+-1$#+&!
+#(!1#-'5#+-1$#+&!&'*'&;2!

! E5!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

! 7<10! -$$&! %$/&(! ?'! +&0$! '99'3-1*'! 19! /0'(! -$! 1, 5$*'! -<'! 5'&+-1$#0<1 ! %1-<! 9$5'1)#!
(10-51?/-$50!1#!-<'!3$#-'.-!$9!+#!1#-'5#+-1$#+&1I+-1$#! 5$3'00:!!

Humancare Manager
%9-'5!<+*1#)!-+&6'(!-$!'+3<!,',?'5!$9!-<'!-'+,>!+#!1#-'5*1'%!%1-<!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5!
<+0!?''#!3$#(/3-'(:!)'5'!10!<10! $1#-!$9!*1'%!+?$/-!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$5601!

! 7<'!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$56!0<$/&(!$#&!!?'!/0'(!9$5!1#-'5#+&! /5 $0'0!+#(!3/0-$,'50!


0<$/&(!#$-!?'!1#*$&*'(>!+-!&'+0-!+-!-<'!?')1##1#)2!
! %#! '.-'5#+&! #'-%$56! 3$/&(! 1#0-'+(! ?'! /0'(! -$! <+#(&'! -<'! 5'&+-1$#0<1 ! %1-<! 0$,'!
3$, +#!!+(*10$502!
! 8'$ &'!<+*'!-$!3$,,/#13+-'!,/3<!,$5'!%1-<!'+3<!$-<'5:!"-!10!#'3'00+5!!-<+-!1#!0$,'!
+5'+0!'*'5!?$(!!6#$%0!%<+-!10!)$1#)!$#!+#(!-<10!($'0!#$-!+&%+!0!<+ '#!#$%2!
! "-!10!#$-!-5/'!-<+-!',+1&0!$5!26! '!'#+?&'! '$ &'!-$!($!-<'!0+,'!-<1#)0!$9!+!?/01#'00!
0$31+&!#'-%$56:!.!!0'#(1#)!',+1&0!-<'!5106!10!-$!9$5)'-!0$,'$#'>!%<1&'!+!26! '!3+&&!10!+!
$#'/$#/$#'!3$#*'50+-1$#!9$5!+!0,+&&!)5$/ !3$#*'50+-1$#!+-!,$0-;:!%#!', &$!''!0$31+&!
#'-%$56! ,+6'0! 1-! $001?&'! -$! 0<+5'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! %1-<! '*'5!?$(!! $5! %1-<! +! 0 '31913!
)5$/ !$5!%1-<!%<$,!1-!10!3$#3'5#'(2!
! 8'$ &'!0<$/&(!?'!)1*'#!-$-+&!95''($,!+?$/-!%<13<!61#(!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!-$! $0-2!
! %-! &'+0-! +-! -<'! ?')1##1#)! -<'! 0$31+&! &+-9$5,! 0<$/&(! #$-! ?'! /0'(! -$! 0<+5'! 51*+-'!
3$, +#!!1#9$5,+-1$#!0/3<!+0!'3$#$,13!(+-+2!
! "#!$5('5!-$!+*$1(!-<'!5106!$9! '$ &'!0''1#)!-<10!-$$&!+0!+#!'.-5+!%$56&$+(>!1-!10!#'3'00+5!!
#$-! -$! )1*'! -<',! ,$5'! -<1#)0! -$! ($:! 7<+-! 10! %<!! -<'! &+-9$5,! 0<$/&(! ?'! +0! '+0!! +0!
$001?&':!

%0!1-!3+#!?'!#$-13'(>! '$ &'!<+(!-<'15!*1'%0!+?$/-!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$560>!0$,'!%'5'!


(10-+#->! $-<'50! %'5'! 01,1&+5! +#(! '*'5!?$(!! 5+10'(! ?$-<! #')+-1*'! +#(! $01-1*'! 100/'0:! 7<'0'!
-+&60!<+*'!?''#!/0'9/&!-$!)'-!+#!$*'5+&&!1('+!$9!%<+-!-<'!?/01#'00!/#1-!5'+&&!!-<$/)<-!+?$/-!1->!
%<+-!-<'!!#''('(!+#(!%<+-!+!0$31+&!#'-%$56!3$/&(!($!-$!,''-!-<$0'!#''(0:!
!
!
!

E3 !
!
#+0'!2-/(!1!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'

Which information to share on the virtual dashboard

7<'!+1,!$9!-<'! 5'0'#-!0'3-1$#!10!-$!0'-!0$,'!)/1('&1#'0!$#!%<13<!1#9$5,+-1$#!-$!0<+5'!$#!+!
0$31+&! &+-9$5,:! )$%'*'5>! -<10! 0'3-1$#! <+0! -$! ?'! 3$#01('5'(! $#&!! +0! +! )/1('&1#'! 01#3'! -<'!
)'#'5+&!5/&'!10!-<+-!75$-$! ,-$!%'!-#0$4!!8'$ &'!,/0-!9''&!95''!-$!0<+5'!%<13<'*'5!1#9$5,+-1$#!
-<'!! %10<! +0! &$#)! +0! 1-! <+0! -$! ($! %1-<! -<'15! ?/01#'00! +3-1*1-!:! 7<10! )/1('&1#'! <+0! ?''#! )1*'#!
?'3+/0'! 0$,'! 3$&&+?$5+-$50! %+#-'(! -$! )'-! +#! 1('+! $9! %<13<! 1#9$5,+-1$#! -$! 0<+5':! #$#01('5!
-<+-!0$,'!$9!-<',!%'5'!#$-!9+,1&1+5!%1-<!0$31+&!#'-%$560>!-<+-!10!%<!!-<'!!5+10'(!-<10!100/':!!!

$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!10!,+('!/ !$9!91*'!+5'+01!

! *+56'-!%5'+!
! 7'3<#13+&!%5'+!91#3&/(1#)! 5$(/3-1$#>!=KA!+#(!3/0-$,'5!3+5';!
! 231'#-1913!%5'+!
! H/+&1-!!*+#+)','#-!
! #$,,/#13+-1$#!

0+3<! ,$#-<! -<'! ./01#'00! @#1-! *+#+)'5! 5'3'1*'0! +! 5' $5-! 95$,! '+3<! $9! -<$0'! +5'+0!
('0351?1#)!-<'!+3-1*1-!!?'1#)!3+551'(!$/-!1#!-<+-!,$#-<:!7</0>!1#!$5('5!-$!)1*'!0$,'!1#(13+-1$#!
$#! %<13<! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 3$/&(! ?'! 0<+5'(! $#! +! *15-/+&! (+0<?$+5(>! +&&! $9! -<'! 5' $5-0! <+*'! ?''#!
+#+&!0'(:! 7<'! 1('+! %+0! -<+-! 0$,'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! 3$/&(! ?'! ,$*'(! 95$,! +! %51--'#! 5' $5-! -$! +!
&*15-/+&!5' $5-':GE)'5'!+5'!0$,'!'.+, &'01!

! %!0<$5-!0/,,+5!!$9!-<'!+3-1*1-!!?'1#)!3+551'(!$/-2!
! %!?51'9! &+#!$9!-<'!#'.-!,$#-<!+3-1*1-!2!
! "#9$5,+-1$#!$#!#$#/3$, &1+#3'!100/'0!+#(!3&+1,02!
! ='0/&-0!$9!3/0-$,'5!0+-109+3-1$#!+#+&!0'02!
! 8'+6#'00'0!+0!%'&&!+0!0-5'#)-<0!-$!+36#$%&'()'2!
! D101-0!,+('!+#(! '$ &'!,'-2!!
! "#9$5,+-1$#!+?$/-!$99'50!,+('!+#(!3$#-5+3-0!01)#'(:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
GE
!%!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!3+#!?'!-<$/)<-!$9!+0!+!*15-/+&!5' $5-!1#!%<13<! '$ &'! $0-!-<'15!%$56!
+3-1*1-!:!"#0-'+(!$9!<+*1#)!1-!%51--'#!$#! + '5>!1-!10!%51--'#!$#!+!*15-/+&!0 +3':!

! E6!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

8&'+0'! 3$#01('5! -<+-! 1#! 5'+&1-!! -<'! )/1('&1#'! %+0! ,/3<! ,$5'! 0 '31913! ?/-! 9$5! 51*+3!!
5'+0$#0!$#&!!0$,'!100/'0!<+*'!?''#!1#3&/('(!1#!-<10!-<'010:!!
.!! 0<+51#)! 1#9$5,+-1$#>! +-! -<'! '#(! $9! '*'5!! %''6! -<'! *15-/+&! (+0<?$+5(! %1&&! )1*'! +#!
$*'5*1'%!$9!%<+-!10! )$1#)! $#:! .!!&$$61#)!+-!$-<'50,! 5$91&'0>! 3$&&'+)/'0!3+#!3$,,'#-!-$!)1*'!
+(*13'>! 5+10'>!0'-!-<'!(15'3-1$#>!0+!!%<'5'!-$!1, 5$*'!+#(!0$!9$5-<:!
.'+5!1#!,1#(!-<+-!-<10!)/1('&1#'!10!(/0-!+#!+--', -!+-!3+-')$51I1#)!1#9$5,+-1$#!+33$5(1#)!
-$!%<+-!10!3/55'#-&!!?'1#)!1#3&/('(!1#!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!5' $5-0:!??*1$/0&!>!'*'5!?$(!!<+0!-$!9''&!
95''!-$!0<+5'!%<+-'*'5!1#9$5,+-1$#!10!3$#01('5'(!-$!?'!%$5-<!0<+51#)>!0/3<!+01!

! %5-13&'0!!
! D1('$0!
! 8<$-$0!
! 85'0'#-+-1$#0!
! -$+&0!+3<1'*'(!
! 0-3:!

"#! )'#'5+&>! +#!-<1#)! /0'9/&! -$! 1#35'+0'! 6#$%&'()'>! 1, 5$*'! 3$,,/#13+-1$#>! '#-'5-+1#!
+#(!?/1&(!+!)5'+-!-'+,!10!%'&3$,'!$#!-<'!*15-/+&!(+0<?$+5(:!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

EC !
!
#+0'!2-/(!1!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'

Which enterprise social network is appropriate for Loccioni Humancare

"#! $5('5! -$! ('31('! %<13<! 0$31+&! &+-9$5,! %$/&(! ?'! -<'! ,$0-! + 5$ 51+-'! 9$5! -<'! )/,+#3+5'!
+5'+>!-<'!+/-<$5!3+551'(!$/-!-%$!,+1#!+3-1*1-1'01!!

! %!5'0'+53<!$9!+!#/,?'5!$9!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$560!+&5'+(!!+*+1&+?&'!$#!-<'!,+56'-2!
! 21)#!/ !-$!'+3<!$9!-<$0'!1#!$5('5!-$!/#('50-+#(!(15'3-&!!%<+-!-<'!5'+&!9/#3-1$#+&1-1'0!
%'5':!

0&'*'#!*15-/+&! &+-9$5,0!<+*'!?''#!+#+&!0'(!?/-!-<'!91#+&!&10-!1#3&/('0!-<5''!+ &13+-1$#0!


9G:660$>! "$,+&,9! +#(! E,++$-;! %<13<! %'5'! 3$#01('5'(! -<'! ,$0-! 0/1-+?&'! 9$5! $$331$#1!
)/,+#3+5'! -+61#)! 1#-$! +33$/#-! -<+-! -<'! 3$, +#!! %+#-'(! +! 95''! 0$&/-1$#:! 7<10! 0'3-1$#! 10! +!
('0351 -1$#! $9!-<'0'!-<5''! &+-9$5,0!+#(!1#3&/('0!9'+-/5'0! 5$*1('(>!&+#)/+)'0!+*+1&+?&'!+#(!
'+0'!$9!/0':!7<'!'+0'!$9!/0'!<+0!?''#!('-'5,1#'(!?!!3$#01('51#)!0/3<!+0 '3-0!+0!<$%!1#-/1-1*'!
-<'!0!0-',!10>!<$%!9+0-!/0'50!3+#! '59$5,!+3-1$#0>!-<'! '59$5,+#3'!$9!-<'!,$?1&'!+ >!'-3:!7<'!
03$5'!)$'0!95$,!3!-$!G>!%<'5'!3!,'+#0!?$-:!1)88)(#07!7'!#4$!+#(!G!?$-:!$,4::!

Rypple

=! &'! 10! +! %'?/?+0'(! 0$31+&! '59$5,+#3'! ,+#+)','#-! &+-9$5,! 9$5! 0'--1#)! )$+&0>! )1*1#)!
9''(?+36!+#(!5'3$)#101#)!3$&&'+)/'0:!"-0!95''!*'501$#! 5$*1('0!?+013!9'+-/5'0>!0/3<!+01!

! ='+&/-1,'!5'3$)#1-1$#!
! 2$31+&!#'%09''(GF!
! #/0-$,!?+()'0!9(199'5'#-!061&&0!3$55'0 $#(!-$!(199'5'#-!?+()'0:!?#!-<'!?+010!$9!%<13<!
?+()'0!+!/0'5!5'3'1*'0>!=! &'!0<$%0!-<'!061&&0!'+5#'(;!!
! G5!/0'50!+5'!+&&$%'(!-$! +5-131 +-'!

:1):=:3!0<$%0!<$%!-<'!1#1-1+&!(+0<?$+5(!&$$60:!
!
!
!
!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
GF
%!#'%0!9''(!10!+!9$5,+-!/0'(!9$5! 5$*1(1#)!/0'50!%1-<!95'+/'#-&!!/ (+-'(!3$#-'#-:!

! E=!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

Fig. 4.1
4.1Rypples initial
initial dashboard

!
=! &'!+&&$%0!/0'50!-$! $0-!#'%0>!-<+#6!3$&&'+)/'0!9$5!-<'15!+33$, &10<,'#-0! +#(!0''!
$#!+!(+0<?$+5(!+&&!-<'! #'%0! $0-'(!?!! '+3<!01#)&'! /0'5!9-<+#60! -$!1-0!#'%09''(;:!??('3-1*'0!
3+#! ?'! 35'+-'(! +#(! ,+('! 51*+-'! $5! /?&13:! 0, &$!''! 5$91&'0! 0<$%! -$ ! +#(! 3/55'#-! /?&13!
$?('3-1*'0>! 3$, &'-'(! $?('3-1*'0>! -<+#60! 5'3'1*'(>! -<+#60! )1*'#>! 061&&0! '+5#'(! +#(! %<$! '+3<!
/0'5!10!3$##'3-'(!%1-<:!%!,$?1&'!+ !10!+*+1&+?&'!9$5!18<$#'!+#(!%#(5$1(:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!0+0'!$9!/0'!!!!!!!!!!G!
$+#)/+)'!!!!!!!!0#)&10<!

Final evaluation
7<'! '53' -1$#! 10! -<+-! =! &'! 10! '59'3-! 19! -<'! 51,+5!! $?('3-1*'! $9! +! 3$, +#!! 10! ', &$!''!
5'3$)#1-1$#! +#(! '59$5,+#3'! 9''(?+36:! @#9$5-/#+-'&!>! ,+#!! 1#-'5'0-1#)! 9'+-/5'0! +5'! #$-!
+*+1&+?&'!$#!-<'!95''!*'501$#!%<13<!10!5+-<'5! $$5:!

EG !
!
#+0'!2-/(!1!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'

TeamLab

7'+,$+?!10!+!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!%1-<!9$/5!,+1#!9'+-/5'01!

! 85$('3-!,+#+)','#-!
! #=*!9#/0-$,'5!='&+-1$#0<1 !*+#+)','#-;!
! A$3/,'#-0!
! #$,,/#1-!!

7<'!,+.1,/,!+&&$%'(!91&'!0-$5+)'!10!3!-.!+#(!35!*.!3+#!?'!/ &$+('(!+-!+!-1,':!"-!10! $001?&'!


-$!35'+-'!', &$!''! 5$91&'0>!+33'00!5'3'#-!+3-1*1-1'0!$9!'+3<!/0'5!9 5$('3-0!-<'!!+5'!1#*$&*'(!1#>!
91&'0! 0<+5'(>! +3-1*1-!! $#! -<'! 3$,,/#1-!;! +#(! /0'! 1-! 95$,! $#',0! $%#! ,$?1&':! 7'+,$+?! +&0$!
5$*1('0!+!3<+-!+#(!+!3+&'#(+5!-$!$5)+#10'!+3-1*1-1'0:!!
:1):!=:6!(10 &+!0!<$%!-<'!#$,,/#1-!!(+0<?$+5(!&$$60:!

Fig. 4.2
4. 2TeamLab community dashboard

!
%!)$$(!-<1#)!10!-<+-!%1()'-0!3+#!?'! '50$#+&10'(!+#(!,$*'(!%<'5'!'+3<!/0'5! 5'9'50:!!
!
!
!
!

! E>!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

)'5'!+5'!-<'!9'+-/5'0!$9!-<'!#$,,/#1-!!(+0<?$+5(1!

! ?#'! +)'!9$5!'+3<!/0'5!0<$%1#)!+!?51'9! 5$91&'!+#(!5'3'#-!+3-1*1-1'0!


! 0*'#-0!
! .&$)!
! :$5/,!
! 8<$-$0!
! .$$6,+560!-$!0<+5'!1#9$5,+-1$#!$9!-<'!%'?!%1-<!3$&&'+)/'0!
! 8161!-$!35'+-'!+#(!%$56!$#! +)'0!95$,!-<'!%'?!?5$%0'5!

7<'! %'+6#'00! $9! 7'+,$+?! 10! -<+-! 1-! &+360! +! 0$31+&! #'%09''(! %<'5'! /0'50! 3+#! 0''!
1#9$5,+-1$#! $0-'(!?!!3$&&'+)/'0:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!0+0'!$9!/0'!!!!!!!!!!!!!!=!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!$+#)/+)'!!!!!!!!!!!!!"-+&1+#!!!!!

Final evaluation
7<'! '53' -1$#!10!-<+-!7'+,$+?!10!,$5'!3$, &'-'!-<+#!-<'!$-<'5!-%$! &+-9$5,0!3$#01('5'(!1#!
-<10!+#+&!010!01#3'!1-! 5$*1('0!,+#!!9'+-/5'0:!"#! +5-13/&+5>!1-!'#+?&'0!/0'50!-$!9$&&$%! 5$('3-0!
(15'3-&!!95$,!-<'! &+-9$5,!+#(!1-!<+0!+!#=*!-$$&!?/1&-/1#:!?#!-<'!$-<'5!<+#(>!$-<'5! &+-9$5,0!
90/3<!+0!-<'!$#'!0<$%#!#'.-;!0'',!-$!?'!?'--'5!$#!-<'!4'(),03$H6$-)$%($!01(':!!!!

EE !
!
#+0'!2-/(!1!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'

Yammer

B+,,'5!10!$#'!$9!-<'!,$0-!1#-/1-1*'!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$560!01#3'!1-0!(+0<?$+5(!10!*'5!!01,1&+5!
-$!:+3'?$$6:!*+#!!3+&&!1-!-<'!&3$/01#'!$9!7%1--'5!9$5!1-0!,135$/?&$))1#)!0-!&':!!!
:1):=:C!0<$%0!%<+-!-<'!,+1#!035''#!&$$60!&16':!

Fig. 4.3
4.3 Yammer virtual dashboard

B+,,'5! 5$*1('0!+!95''!*'501$#!%<$0'!9'+-/5'0!+5'!-<'!9$&&$%1#)1!

! 0, &$!''! 5$91&'02!
! A103/001$#0>! $&&0>! 5+10'!3$&&'+)/'0>!+06!+/'0-1$#0>! &+#!'*'#-02!
! .+013!)5$/ 0!9$5!-'+,!3$&&+?$5+-1$#2!
! .+013!'.-'5#+&!#'-%$56!9$5!3$$ '5+-1$#!%1-<! +5-#'50>!3/0-$,'50>!'-32!
! :1&'!0<+51#)2!
! 8+)'0!9$5!01,/&-+#'$/0!3$#-'#-!3$&&+?$5+-1$#!+#(!35'+-1$#2!
! A'06-$ !+ &13+-1$#2!
! *$?1&'!% 0!91?2>!%#(5$1(>!.&+36?'55!>!81#($%0!8<$#';2!
! :1&'!0-$5+)'1!3-.!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!0+0'!$9!/0'!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!G!
$+#)/+)'!!!!!!!!!!!!!0#)&10<!

! EF!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

Final evaluation
:$5! -<'! 1('+! ?'<1#(! -<'! )/,+#3+5'! *15-/+&! (+0<?$+5(>! B+,,'5! 0'',0! -$! ?'! -<'! ,$0-!
+ 5$ 51+-'! &+-9$5,:! ?#! -<'! 0$31+&! 01('>! 1-! 10! -<'! '+01'0->! 9+0-'0-! +#(! ,$0-! 1#-/1-1*'! -$$&:!
)$%'*'5>!1-!($'0!#$-!$99'5! +0!,+#!!9'+-/5'0!+0!7'+,$+?!($'0>!0/3<!+0! 5$('3-! ,+#+)','#-!
+#(!#=*:!!

7<'! 9$&&$%1#)! &10-! 3$#-+1#0! +&&! -<'! $-<'5! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$560! 3$#01('5'(! 1#! -<'!
+#+&!010!%<13<!9$5!,+#!!5'+0$#0!(1(!#$-!9+&&!1#-$!-<'!91#+&!&10-:!

! ;1*'!!
! 2-+-/04'-!
! %0+#+!!
! .1-51.6=!!
! 8$(1$!
! 81*$-+&!!
! $19'5+!!
! #$#9&/'#3'!!

Final decision
.+0'(!$#!-<'!/0'5!5'+/15','#-0!3$&&'3-'(!'+5&1'5!1#!-<'! 5$3'00!+#(!+9-'5!<+*1#)!0 $6'#!%1-<!
-<'!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5>!-<'!3<$0'#! &+-9$5,!%+0!E,++$-:!7<'!,+1#!5'+0$#!10!-<+-!B+,,'5!
10!-<'!3&$0'0-!-$$&!-$!-<'!1('+!?'<1#(!-<10!%$56:!7<'!1('+!10!-$!<+*'!+!*'5!!01, &'>!1#-/1-1*'!+#(!
1,,'(1+-'!*15-/+&!(+0<?$+5(!-$!0-+5-!0<+51#)!1#9$5,+-1$#!+#(!6#$%&'()'!+,$#)!', &$!''0:!!
7<10! &+-9$5,!<+0!-<'! $-'#-1+&!-$! 5$(/3'! 5'+&!?/01#'00!?'#'91-0:!??*1$/0&!>!?+0'(! $#!
<$%! +! 3$, +#!! /0'0! 1-! +#(! ?+0'(! $#! %<13<! *'501$#! $#'! ('31('0! -$! + &!! 9$5>! ?'#'91-0! ,+!!
*+5!:!:$5!-<10!%$56>!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!%1&&!/0'!$#&!!-<'!?+013!*'501$#:!7<'!+(*+#-+)'!10!-<+-!1-!
10!95''!+#(! 5$*1('0!,+#!!$9!-<'!9'+-/5'0!-<'!-'+,!%+0!1#-'5'0-'(!1#:!7<'!(10+(*+#-+)'!10!-<+-!
/0'50!%1&&!#$-!)5+0 !+&&!$9!-<'! $-'#-1+&!?'#'91-0!?'3+/0'!-<'!!3+##$-!+33'00!6-$+)#+!9'+-/5'0:!!
!

E4 !
!
#+0'!2-/(!1!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'

Questionnaire

.'9$5'!&+/#3<1#)!-<'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,>!+!+/'0-1$##+15'!<+0!?''#!(5+9-'(!+#(!<+#('(!$/-!-$!-<'!
3$&&+?$5+-$50:! 7<'! 5'+0$#! $9! -<'! +/'0-1$##+15'! %+0! -$! )'-! +#! 1('+! $9! %<+-! '$ &'! -<$/)<-!
+?$/-!0$31+&!#'-%$560!1#!)'#'5+&!+#(!%<+-!-<'!!-<$/)<-!+?$/-!9#4)%$44!0$31+&! &+-9$5,0:!!
"#!+((1-1$#>!0$,'!0 '31913!+/'0-1$#0!%'5'!+06'(!-$!/#('50-+#(!%<'-<'5!$5!#$-!-<'5'!%+0!
5$$,!9$5!0/3<!+!-$$&:!7<'!9$&&$%1#)!10!-<'!+/'0-1$##+15'!)1*'#!-$!-<'!-'+,:!

4%*01!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2@=4%*01!
%=0%1!

M#7!,!(-'44!)%!75$!('--$(7!,%4/$-!!

3: %5'!!$/!9+,1&1+5!%1-<!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)<!
B02!!!!!!!!!!4?!

6: )$%!$9-'#!($!!$/!/0'!3$#0/,'5!0$31+&!#'-%$560!9':):!:+3'?$$6>!7%1--'5>!'-3:;<!!
0D0=B!A%B!!!!!!!!!!?4#0!%!800"!!!!!!!!!!?4#0!%!*?47)!!!!!!!!!!40D0=!

C: )+*'!!$/!'*'5!<'+5(!+?$/-!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)!?'9$5'!6#$%1#)!$9!,!!-<'010<!
B02!!!!!!!!!!4?!

=: "-!3$/&(!?'!/0'9/&!9$5!-<'!)/,+#3+5'! '$ &'!-$!0<+5'!1#9$5,+-1$#!$#!+!*15-/+&!0 +3':!


27=?4-$B!%-=00!!!!!!!!!!%-=00!!!!!!!!!!A"2%-=00!!!!!!!!!!27=?4-$B!A"2%-=00!

G: A$!!$/!3$#01('5!+#!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$56!+0!0$,'-<1#)!-<+-!3$/&(!0&$%!($%#!!$/5!
(+1&!!+3-1*1-!<!
B02!!!!!!!!!!4?!

>: $10-!C! $-'#-1+&!?'#'91-0!$9!+#!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$56:!


! SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!
! SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!
! SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!

! F5!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

E: $10-!C! $-'#-1+&!51060Q$?0-+3&'0:!
! SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!
! SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!
! SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!

F: )$%!,/3<!($!!$/!6#$%!+?$/-!-'3<#13+&!/ (+-'0!$9!%8?70#%3<',$<!
D0=B!*@#)!!!!!!!!!!04?@-)!!!!!!!!!!4?7!*@#)!!!!!!!!!!4?7)"4-!*@#)!

4: )$%!,/3<!($!!$/!6#$%!+?$/-!-<'!+3-1*1-!!$9!-<'!231'#-1913!%5'+<!
D0=B!*@#)!!!!!!!!!!04?@-)!!!!!!!!!!4?7!*@#)!!!!!!!!!!4?7)"4-!*@#)!

35: )$%!,/3<!($!!$/!6#$%!+?$/-!<$%!#')$-1+-1$#0!%1-<!3/0-$,'50!+5'!)$1#)!+<'+(<!
D0=B!*@#)!!!!!!!!!!04?@-)!!!!!!!!!!4?7!*@#)!!!!!!!!!!4?7)"4-!*@#)!

33: )$%! ,/3<! ($! !$/! 6#$%! +?$/-! 3/0-$,'50! 0-+-/0! / (+-'0! 9':):! 9/#3-1$#1#)! $9!
%8?70#%3<',$>!3/55'#-! 5$?&',0!$9!3/0-$,'50>!'-3:;<!!
D0=B!*@#)!!!!!!!!!!04?@-)!!!!!!!!!!4?7!*@#)!!!!!!!!!!4?7)"4-!*@#)!

36: -5+('!-<'!-'+,!0 151-!&'*'&!+,$#)!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!-'+,:!


D0=B!-??A!!!!!!!!!!-??A!!!!!!!!!!.%A!!!!!!!!!!D0=B!.%A!

Results

$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!10!,+('!/ !$9!65! '$ &'!+#(!+&&!$9!-<',!<+*'!91&&'(!1#!-<'!+/'0-1$##+15':!


)'5'!+5'!-<'!5'0/&-01!

3: %5'!!$/!9+,1&1+5!%1-<!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)<!

!
!

F3 !
!
#+0'!2-/(!1!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'

6: )$%!$9-'#!($!!$/!/0'!3$#0/,'5!0$31+&!#'-%$560!9':):!:+3'?$$6>!7%1--'5>!'-3:;<!!

!
!
C: )+*'!!$/!'*'5!<'+5(!+?$/-!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)!?'9$5'!6#$%1#)!$9!,!!-<'010<!

!
!
=: "-!3$/&(!?'!/0'9/&!9$5!-<'!)/,+#3+5'! '$ &'!-$!0<+5'!1#9$5,+-1$#!$#!+!*15-/+&!0 +3':!

!
!
!
!
!
!

! F6!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

G: A$!!$/!3$#01('5!+#!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$56!+0!0$,'-<1#)!-<+-!3$/&(!0&$%!($%#!!$/5!
(+1&!!+3-1*1-!<!

!
!
>: $10-!C! $-'#-1+&!?'#'91-0!$9!+#!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$56:!

!
!
E: $10-!C! $-'#-1+&!51060Q$?0-+3&'0:!

!
!
!
!

FC !
!
#+0'!2-/(!1!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'

F: )$%!,/3<!($!!$/!6#$%!+?$/-!-'3<#13+&!/ (+-'0!$9!%8?70#%3<',$<!

!
!
4: )$%!,/3<!($!!$/!6#$%!+?$/-!-<'!+3-1*1-!!$9!-<'!231'#-1913!%5'+<!

!
!
35: )$%!,/3<!($!!$/!6#$%!+?$/-!<$%!#')$-1+-1$#0!%1-<!3/0-$,'50!+5'!)$1#)!+<'+(<!

!
!
!
!

! F=!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

33: )$%! ,/3<! ($! !$/! 6#$%! +?$/-! 3/0-$,'50! 0-+-/0! / (+-'0! 9':):! 9/#3-1$#1#)! $9!
%8?70#%3<',$>!3/55'#-! 5$?&',0!$9!3/0-$,'50>!'-3:;<!!

!
!
36: -5+('!-<'!-'+,!0 151-!&'*'&!+,$#)!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!-'+,:!

%0! (+-+! 0<$%>! +&,$0-! <+&9! $9! -<'! -'+,! 10! #$-! 9+,1&1+5! %1-<! 0$31+&! #'-%$561#):! .'01('0>! +?$/-!
<+&9! $9! -<'! 5'0 $#('#-0! +&,$0-! #'*'5! /0'! 0/3<! -$$&0! 1#! -<'15! 0 +5'! -1,':! 7<10! 3$/&(! ?'! +!
5$?&',!-$!-<'!('*'&$ ,'#-!$9!+#!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$56:!A'0 1-'!-<+->!-<'!)5'+-!,+($51-!!
?'&1'*'0! -<+-! 0<+51#)! 6#$%&'()'! +#(! 1#9$5,+-1$#! $#! +! *15-/+&! 0 +3'! 3$/&(! ?'! /0'9/&! 9$5! -<'!
-'+,!+#(!,$0-!$9!-<',!($!#$-!-<1#6!1-!3$/&(!0&$%!($%#!-<'15!(+1&!!+3-1*1-!:!%,$#)!-<'!,+#!!
?'#'91-0!+!?/01#'00!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!3+#!?51#)>! '$ &'!3+,'!/ !%1-<!-<'!9$&&$%1#)!-<5''1!

! 7<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!0<+5'!1#9$5,+-1$#!#$-!#'3'00+51&!!-<5$/)<!(15'3-!3$#-+3-!
! ", 5$*'(!-'+,!0 151-!
! ='+&/-1,'!/ (+-'0!

FG !
!
#+0'!2-/(!1!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'

%,$#)!-<'!51060!-<'!!-<$/)<-!$91!!

! "-!3+#!?'!-1,'!3$#0/,1#)!
! 8'50$#+&!5'&+-1$#0<1 0!3+#!?'!+-!5106!
! 8'$ &'!3+#! $0-!#$#/ 5$9'001$#+&!1#9$5,+-1$#!

H/'0-1$#0!F!-$!33!<+*'!?''#!+06'(!-$!/#('50-+#(!%<'-<'5!-<'5'!%+0!&+36!$9!3$,,/#13+-1$#!
+,$#)!(199'5'#-!+5'+0!$9!-<'!-'+,:!%#0%'50!0<$%!-<+-!G5J!$9!-<'!-'+,!($'0!#$-!6#$%!,/3<!
+?$/-!%<+-!-<'!231'#-1913!%5'+!($'0!+#(!+&,$0-!<+&9!$9!-<'!5'0 $#('#-0!($'0! #$-!6#$%!+!&$-!
+?$/-!<$%!#')$-1+-1$#0!%1-<! $-'#-1+&!3/0-$,'50!+5'!)$1#):!7<10!1, &1'0!-<+-!+-!&'+0-!-<'5'!10!
5$$,!9$5!+!#'%!-$$&!-<+-!%$/&(!,+6'!3$,,/#13+-1$#!'+01'5:!%!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!($'0!
#$-! 5'-'#(!-$!?'!+! +#+3'+>!#$#'-<'&'00!1-!3+#! 5$(/3'!0$,'!?'#'91-0:!!!

Key ideas
! 8'$ &'!%'5'!)1*'#!-$-+&!95''($,!+?$/-!%<'#!+#(!<$%!-$!/0'!-<'! &+-9$5,:!0*'5!?$(!!
<+(! -$! 9''&! 95''!-$! 0<+5'! %<+-'*'5! 1#9$5,+-1$#! %+0! 3$#01('5'(! -$! ?'! %$5-<! 0<+51#)>!
0/3<!+0!)'#'5+&!/ (+-'0>!+5-13&'0>!*1('$0>! <$-$0>! 5'0'#-+-1$#0>!)$+&0!+3<1'*'(>!'-3:!
! 7<'! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! E,++$-! 0'','(! -$! ?'! -<'! ,$0-! + 5$ 51+-'! &+-9$5,!
01#3'!-<'!1('+! %+0!-$!<+*'!+!*'5!!01, &'!*15-/+&!(+0<?$+5(!-$!0<+5'! 1#9$5,+-1$#!+#(!
6#$%&'()'!+,$#)!', &$!''0:!B+,,'5!10!*'5!!01, &'>!1#-/1-1*'!+#(!1,,'(1+-':!!
%&,$0-!<+&9!$9!-<'!-'+,!%+0!#$-!9+,1&1+5!%1-<!0$31+&!#'-%$561#):!.'01('0>!+?$/-!<+&9!$9!
-<'!5'0 $#('#-0!+&,$0-!#'*'5!/0'!0/3<!-$$&0!1#!-<'15!0 +5'!-1,':!7<10!3+#!?'!+! 5$?&',!
-$!-<'!('*'&$ ,'#-!$9!+#!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$56:!!
4$-!'*'5!?$(!!6#$%0!%<+-!$-<'50!+5'!($1#)!+-!%$56:!7<10!1, &1'0!-<+-!+-!&'+0-!-<'5'!10!
5$$,!9$5!+!#'%!-$$&!-<+-!%$/&(!,+6'!3$,,/#13+-1$#!'+01'5:!!

! F>!
!

Chapter 5
ANALYSIS, CONCLUSIONS
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
DIRECTIONS
=-%'/0$12$!)4!75$!'%0:!.)%1!'8!/$,075!75,7!+#07)60)$4!/5$%!:'#!2)?$!)7!,/,:!C!

M!8'-'5!23<%+5-IG4!

?#!;/&!!6E>!6536!-<'!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,! %+0!&+/#3<'(!%1-<1#!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!


-'+,:! 0, &$!''0! <+*'! ?''#! /01#)! 1-! 9$5! +! =/,$#-<! -'0-! '51$(! 1#! %<13<! +/+#-1-+-1*'! +#(!
+/+&1-+-1*'! '51$(13!+#+&!0'0!%'5'!3+551'(! $/-!?!!-<'!+/-<$5:! 7<'!('+(&1#'!$9!-<'!-'0-! '51$(!
%+0! 0'-! -$! ?'! 4$*',?'5! -<'! 6G-<:! 7<10! '51$(! %+0! -<'! $#'! ?'1#)! %1-<1#! -<'! /5 $0'! $9! -<'!
3/55'#-!%$56!+#(!+9-'5!-<+-!-<'!+3-1*1-!!$#! -<'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!3$#-1#/'(!+0!#$5,+&!%1-<!-<'!
$#&!!(199'5'#3'!-<+-!#$!,$5'!9$5,+&!+#+&!0'0!%'5'!3$#(/3-'(:!
:150-!$9!+&&>!+!#'%!#+,'!%+0!)1*'#!-$!-<'!0$31+&!#'-%$56:!B+,,'5!10!-<'!)'#'5+&!#+,'>!
-<'! $#'! -<+-! ,+#!! $-<'5!3$, +#1'0! /0'! +5$/#(! -<'! %$5&(>! &16'! O'5$.>! A'&$1--'! +#(! $-:! ! ./-!
%1-<1#!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!(' +5-,'#->!+!#'%!#+,'!%+0!?'1#)!/0'(!-$!,+6'!1-!,$5'!& '50$#+&':!

Choice of the name

"#!$5('5!-$!91#(!$/-!+!#+,'!9$5!-<'!*15-/+&!(+0<?$+5(>!+!?5+1#0-$5,1#)!+3-1*1-!!<+0!?''#!
($#':!7<'!91#+&!('3101$#!9'&&!1#-$!-<5''!#+,'0!%<13<!%'5'!-<'#! 5$ $0'(!-$!-<'!-'+,:!7<'!1('+!
%+0!-$!&'-! '$ &'!('31('!-<'!#+,'!$9!+!-$$&!%<13<!%+0!-<$/)<-!9$5!-<',:!)'5'!+5'!-<'!-<5''!
$ -1$#0:!

1) KOINE

7<'! -'5,! -')%$! 0-',0! 95$,! -<'! -5''6! +#(! 1-! ,'+#0! &9'++'%! &,%2#,2$C!! .'9$5'! -<'! =-<!
3'#-/5!!.'9$5'!#<510-! '$ &'!/0'(!-$!3$,,/#13+-'!1#!&$3+&!(1+&'3-0:!7<+-! %+0!+!?1)! 5$?&',>!
'0 '31+&&!!9$5! '$ &'0!3$,1#)!95$,!(199'5'#-! &+3'0:!!
7<'!"$1#T!%+0!-<'!9150-!3$,,$#!&+#)/+)'!%<13<!+&&$%'(!(199'5'#-! '$ &'0!$9!-<'!=$,+#!
0, 15'!-$!3$,,/#13+-'!%1-<!'+3<!$-<'5>5:!"-!%+0!#$-!+!%51--'#!&+#)/+)'2!5+-<'5>!-<'!5'0/&-!$9!
-<'! 1#-'5+3-1$#! +,$#)! (199'5'#-! '$ &'0! %<13<>! ?!! (1#-! $9! 3$,,/#13+-1#)>! 9$/#(! +! %+!! -$!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
G4
!8'-'5!23<%+5-I!10!+!9/-/510->!1##$*+-$5>!+/-<$5>!+#(!3$/9$/#('5!$9!-<'!-&$?+&!./01#'00!4'-%$56>!+!
3$5 $5+-'!0-5+-')!!915,!0 '31+&1I1#)!1#!9/-/5'/-<1#6!+#(!03'#+51$! &+##1#):!
>5
!7<10!&+#)/+)'!%+0!,+1#&!!/0'(!+,$#)! '$ &'0!$9!-<'!*'(1-'55+#'+#!+5'+:!

FE !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

/#('50-+#(! '+3<! $-<'5:! %! *15-/+&! (+0<?$+5(! 10! #$-<1#)! ?/-! +! %+!! 9$5! '$ &'! 3$,1#)! 95$,!
(199'5'#-!?+36)5$/#(0!-$!3$,,/#13+-'!?'--'5:!

2) PRODO

M-'1'!0-',0!95$,!-<'!$+-1#!+#(!1-!,'+#0!&;!('++#%)(,7$C!!%)+1#>!-<'!3$,,/#13+-1$#!9+3-$5!10!
<1)<&1)<-'(:! 7<'! -5+#0&+-1$#! 0'',0! +/1-'! + 5$ 51+-'! 9$5! +! *15-/+&! 0 +3'! 1#! %<13<! '$ &'! 3+#!
3$,,/#13+-'!+#(!0<+5'!1#01)<-0:!

3) SHAU

)5,#!10!+!,+('// !%$5(!%<$0'!1('+!?'<1#(!10!45,-)%2:!7<'!9150-! '$ &'!%<$!'. '51'#3'(!-<'!


3$#3' -!$9!0<+51#)!%'5'!-<'!8$&!#'01+#!*+$51:!7<'!!?'&1'*'(!-<+-!$?('3-0!<+(!-<'15!$%#!0 151-!
$5!0$/&!%<13<!%+0!3+&&'(!5,#:!7<'!5,#!%+0!+!0 151-!%<13<! /0<'(!-<$0'!%<$!5'3'1*'(!+!)19-!-$!
)1*'! 0$,'-<1#)! ?+36:! "-! %+0! +! 61#(! $9! ,+)13! $%'5! $9! -<'! )1*'5! +)+1#0-! -<$0'! %<$! %$/&(! )$!
?+36!$#!-<'15!5'31 5$31-!!$?&1)+-1$#:!7<'!1#1-1+&!)!0-+#(0!9$5!25,-$!!

7<'!91#+&!('3101$#!%+0!,+('!?!!-<'!-'+,!(15'3-&!!-<5$/)<!+! $&&!$#!B+,,'5!+#(!"?"40,!
%$#!1->!+0!0<$%#!1#!-<'!9$&&$%1#)!1,+)':!

!
Z@5)(5!%,+$!1'!:'#!6-$8$-!8'-!'#-!?)-7#,0!1,459',-1<!
7<'! #'.-! 0'3-1$#! 10! +! +/+#-1-+-1*'! '*+&/+-1$#! $9! <$%! -<'! -'+,! /0'(! "?"40,! (/51#)! -<'! -'0-!
'51$(:!
!
!
!

! FF!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

Quantitative evaluation of the activity on the social platform

7<10!0'3-1$#!1#3&/('0!+#!'*+&/+-1$#!$9!-<'!+3-1*1-!!$*'5!-<'!=/,$#-<! '51$(!1#!%<13<!-<'!+3-1*1-!!
$#!-<'!0$31+&!#'-%$56!<+0!?''#!,$#1-$5'(:!7<10! '51$(!)$'0!95$,!;/&!!6E!-$!4$*',?'5!6G:!
:150-! $9! +&&>! ?'9$5'! &+/#3<1#)! -<'! '. '51,'#->! -<'! +/-<$5! +#(! -<'! )/,+#3+5'! *+#+)'5!
<+*'! +)5''(! -$! 0'-! +! ,1#1,/,! 5'+/15','#-! %1-<! 5')+5(! -$! <$%! ,+#!! $0-0! -$! '. '3-! 95$,!
'+3<! '50$#:!7<'!,1#1,/,!5'+/15','#-!%+0!$#'! $0-! '5!%''6! '5! '50$#:!7<10!<+0!0'5*'(!+0!
+!?'#3<,+56!9$5!-<'!91#+&!'*+&/+-1$#:!7<10!%+!!1-!%+0! $001?&'!-$!('-'5,1#'!%<13<! '50$#!+#(!
%<13<!(' +5-,'#-!,'-!-<'! '. '3-+-1$#0!+#(! %<13<! (1(!#$-:! 8&'+0'!#$-13'!-<+-!-<'!+ 5$+3<!
%+0!#$-!-$!$?&1)'!', &$!''0!-$!0<+5'!+-!&'+0-!$#'! $0-!+!%''62!5+-<'5>!-<'!!%'5'!)1*'#!-$-+&!
95''($,! +?$/-! <$%! +#(! %<'#! -$! /0'! -<'! &+-9$5,>! +0! 1-! 0<$/&(! ?'! 1#! +! 6#$%&'()'/?+0'(!
3$, +#!!1#!%<13<!%$56'50!6#$%!?!!-<',0'&*'0!%<+-!-$!($!+#(!<$%!-$!($!1-:!7<'!'. '3-+-1$#!
$#&!!0'5*'(!-$!,+6'!+#!'*+&/+-1$#!+-!-<'!'#(!$9!-<'!-'0-! '51$(:!!
2$,'!,1)<-!+5)/'!-<+-!$#'! $0-!+!%''6!10!+! 5'--!!'+0!!-+5)'-!-$!,''-:!)$%'*'5>!-<'5'!
+5'!+!3$/ &'!$9!5'+0$#0!%<13<!(/0-19!!-<10!3<$13'1!

! 2$,'!-'+,!,',?'50!%'5'!#$-!9+,1&1+5!%1-<!0$31+&!#'-%$560!+#(!%'5'!#$-!+33/0-$,'(!
-$!/01#)!1-2!
! 851-1#)! $#'! $0-! ($'0! #$-! ,'+#! %51-1#)! $#'! 5$%:! 2$,'-1,'0>! 1#(''(>! '$ &'! <+*'!
0<+5'(!&$#)! $0-0!+?$/-!-<'15!%<$&'!%''6&!!+3-1*1-!!+#(!-<10!%+0!%<+-!%'!%+#-'(:!7<'!
1('+!10!-<+-!+0!&$#)!+0! '$ &'!0<+5'!%<+-!-<'!!+5'!%$561#)!$#>!1-!($'0!#$-!,+--'5!<$%!
,+#!! $0-0!-<'!!%51-'!-$!($!0$:!

7<'! 9150-! 5'0/&-! %<13<! ('0'5*'0! +--'#-1$#! 10! -<'! -$-+&! #/,?'5! $9! $0-0! +3-/+&&!! 0<+5'(!
3$, +5'(! -$! -<'! ,1#1,/,! '. '3-+-1$#:! -1*'#! -<+-! 65! '$ &'! +5'! +5-! $9! -<'! -'+,! +#(!
3$#01('51#)! $#'! $0-! '5! '50$#! '+3<! %''6>! -<'! -$-+&! ,1#1,/,! 5'+/15','#-! %+0! C65! $0-0!
$*'5! +! =! ,$#-</ '51$(:! "#-'5'0-1#)&!! '#$/)<>! -<'! +3-/+&! #/,?'5! $9! $0-0! 0<+5'(! 10! (/0-! C65!
90''!91):!G:3;:!!
!
!
!
!
!

F4 !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

Fig. 5.1 Expectation of the number of posts to be shared in the social network
compared to actual posts shared.

!
7<10!5'0/&-!3+#!?'!0''#!95$,!-%$! $1#-0!$9!*1'%1!

! ?#!-<'!$#'!<+#(>!-<'!1#1-1+&!)$+&!<+0!?''#!,'-!+#(!-<10!,+!!&'+(!-$!-<'!3$#3&/01$#!-<+-!
-<'!'. '51,'#-!<+0!?''#!0/33'009/&2!
! ?#! -<'! $-<'5! <+#(>! <$%'*'5>! #$-! '*'5!$#'! <+0! ,'-! <10Q<'5! $%#! 5'+/15','#->! +0!
0<$%#!&+-'5:!"#(''(>!0$,'! '$ &'!0<+5'(!&'00!-<+#!$#'! $0-!+!%''6!$#!+*'5+)':!7<'!
5'+0$#! %<!! -<'! 1#1-1+&! $?('3-1*'! <+0! ?''#! +3<1'*'(! 10! -<+-! $-<'5! ,',?'50! <+*'!
'.3''('(! -<'! 1#1-1+&! '. '3-+-1$#0:! 7<'5'9$5'>! <+(! '*'5!$#'! 5'+3<'(! +-! &'+0-! -<'!
,1#1,/,!-+5)'->!-<'!$*'5+&&!5'0/&-!3$/&(!<+*'!?''#!,/3<!?'--'5:!

7+?&'G:3!0<$%0!-<'!91#+&!5+#6:!

Table 5.1 Number of posts shared by each member of the Humancare team

7'$4!4'4;'(! ,+;!+<!%+*&*!
*',?'5!3! 6!
*',?'5!6! 6!
*',?'5!C! 6!
*',?'5!=! =!
*',?'5!G! =!
*',?'5!>! G!
*',?'5!E! G!
*',?'5!F! G!
*',?'5!4! E!
*',?'5!35! E!
*',?'5!33! 35!
*',?'5!36! 35!

! 45!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

*',?'5!3C! 36!
*',?'5!3=! 36!
*',?'5!3G! 3C!
*',?'5!3>! 3F!
*',?'5!3E! 34!
*',?'5!3F! 65!
*',?'5!34! 6E!
*',?'5!65! C5!

%33$5(1#)!-$!-<'!1#1-1+&!)$+&>!'+3<! '50$#!%+0!'. '3-'(!-$!0<+5'!+-!&'+0-!3>! $0-0!$*'5!


-<'!-'0-! '51$(:!%0!1-!3+#!?'!#$-13'(>!$#&!!G!$/-!$9!65!<+*'!+3<1'*'(!-<+-!9+$+9$-4!4J!7'!31;:!
A'0 1-'!-<+->!-<'!$*'5+&&!$?('3-1*'!<+0!?''#!,'-!-<+#60!-$!0$,'!/0'50!%<$!'.3''('(!-<'!
,1#1,/,!5'+/15','#-:!!
8&'+0'!#$-13'!-<+-!-<10! +5-!$9!-<'!+#+&!010!$#&!!-+6'0!1#-$!3$#01('5+-1$#!(15'3-! $0-0>!-<+-!
10>!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+5'(!?!!'+3<! '50$#!-<5$/)<!+#!+3-/+&! $0-!$#!-<'! &+-9$5,:!7<+-!10!%<!!-<'!
-$-+&! #/,?'5! $9! $0-0! ($'0! #$-! ,+6'! C65! +0! 5'*1$/0&!! +#-131 +-'(:! )$%'*'5>! $#'! <+0! -$!
3$#01('5!-<+-!+-!'+3<! $0-!$#'!$5!,$5'!3$,,'#-0!,+!!9$&&$%!+#(!-<10!%+0!$9-'#!-<'!3+0':!!
.!! 3$#01('51#)! #$-! $#&!! (15'3-! $0-0! ?/-! +&0$! $-<'5! 3$,,'#-0>! -<'! +,$/#-! $9!
1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+5'(!10!5' 5'0'#-'(!?!!C65! $0-0>!%<13<!10!+!,/3<!,$5'! $01-1*'!91)/5':!
:1):G:6!)1*'0!+!#13'!*10/+&!1, +3-!$9!<$%!-<1#)0!%'#-:!7<'!5'(!&1#'!1#(13+-'0!-<'!'. '3-+-1$#:!

Fig. 5.2 Number of posts shared by each team member over the test period.

43 !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

?#'!+0 '3-!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5!9$3/0'(!<10!+--'#-1$#!$#!%+0!-<'!?'<+*1$/5!$#!-<'!
0$31+&! &+-9$5,! $9! <10! C! (15'3-! 5' $5-0>! -<'! ,+#+)'50! $9! -<'! 7'3<#13+&>! *+56'-! +#(! 231'#-1913!
+5'+0:!)'5'!-<'5'!10!$#'!#')+-1*'!+#(!$#'! $01-1*'!5'0/&-1!

! 4')+-1*'!01('1!-%$!,+#+)'50!(1(!#$-!,''-!-<'!'. '3-+-1$#0!+#(!(1(!#$-!/0'!-<'!*15-/+&!
(+0<?$+5(!+!&$-2!
! 8$01-1*'!01('1!$#'!,+#+)'5!10!-<'! '50$#!%<$!0<+5'(!-<'!,$0-:!!!

7<10! 10! +! 5'&'*+#-! 100/'! 19! $#'! 5',',?'50! -<'! 0-$5!! $9! -<'! )$#)! "$#)/?+0'(! 3$, +#!!
%<13<! 9+1&'(! +-! 1, &','#-1#)! +! 6#$%&'()'! ,+#+)','#-! 0!0-',:! ?#'! $9! -<'! 5'+0$#0! 9$5! -<'!
9+1&/5'!$9!-<'15!1#1-1+-1*'!%+0!(/0-!-<+-!,+#+)','#-!(1(!#$-!&'+(!?!!'.+, &':!7<10!+0 '3-!%+0!
*'5!! 1, $5-+#-! 9$5! -<'! )/,+#3+5'! *+#+)'5! -$! 0''! %<'-<'5! $5! #$-! <10! (15'3-! 5' $5-0!
/#('50-$$(! -<'! 1('+! ?'<1#(! -<10! -'0->! -<+-! 10>! 35'+-1#)! 0$,'-<1#)! %<13<! %$/&(! 1, 5$*'!
6#$%&'()'!0<+51#)!+,$#)!<10!-'+,:!7<'!5'0/&-!10!+/'0-1$#+?&'1!%<1&'!$#'!,+#+)'5!0<$%'(!<'!
/#('50-$$(!-<'!)$$(#'00!$9!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)!0!0-',0>!1-!($'0!#$-!0'',!-$!?'!-<'!3+0'!9$5!
-<'!$-<'5!-%$:!7<10!100/'!10!'.-5','&!!1, $5-+#-! +#(!10! +5-!$9! +!&+5)'5!,+--'5!%<13<!%1&&!?'!
(103/00'(! 1#! -<'! 3$#3&/01$#0>! -<+-! 10>! -<'! 9+3-! -<+-! -<10! #'%! 0$31+&! -$$&! <+0! +&0$! )1*'#! -<'!
3$, +#!!#'%!'&','#-0!-$!'*+&/+-'!1-0!', &$!''0:!

%9-'5! -<+->! +#$-<'5! 61#(! $9! '*+&/+-1$#! %+0! ,+(':! 7<10! $#'! <+(! -$! ($! %1-<! <$%! ,+#!!
$0-0!'+3<!,-$,!<+(!0<+5'(:!%0! +&5'+(!!,'#-1$#'(>! -<'!)/,+#3+5'! -'+,!10!(1*1('(!1#-$!91*'!
+5'+01!

! 7'3<#13+&!%5'+>3!
! *+56'-!
! 231'#-1913!%5'+!
! #$,,/#13+-1$#!
! H/+&1-!!

8&'+0'!#$-13'>!<$%'*'5>!-<+-!+!0-+5-// !10!?!!('91#1-1$#!+!%$561#)!'#*15$#,'#-!1#!%<13<!
#$!'.+3-!5$&'0!'.10-2!5+-<'5>!-<'5'!,+!!?'!0$,'! '$ &'!?'1#)!1#*$&*'(!1#!,$5'!-<+#!(/0-!$#'!
(' +5-,'#-!+#(!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!10!#$!'.3' -1$#:!7<10!<+0!,+('!1-!3$, &13+-'(!-$!,+6'!+!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
>3
!#/0-$,'5!#+5'>!85$(/3-1$#!+#(!=KA!9+&&!1#-$!-<'!7'3<#13+&!%5'+:!!

! 46!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

+/+#-1-+-1*'! +#+&!010! ?!! (' +5-,'#-:! )$%'*'5>! +#! +#+&!010! <+0! ?''#! 3$#(/3-'(! +#(! -<'!
9$&&$%1#)! 5'0/&-0! ,/0-! ?'! 3$#01('5'(! 9$5! +! 3$, 5'<'#01*'! '*+&/+-1$#! ?/-! -<'!! ,/0-! +&0$! ?'!
-+6'#!%1-<!+!)5+1#!$9!0+&-:7+?&'G:6!(10 &+!0!-<'!5'0/&-0:!

Table 5.2 Number of posts shared by area

5('$! 9+*&*!
7'3<#13+&!%5'+! E4!
231'#-1913!%5'+! >4!
*+56'-! ==!
#$,,/#13+-1$#! 65!
H/+&1-!! 6!

7+?&'G:6!0<$%0!-<+-!-<'!+5'+!%<13<!0<+5'(!-<'!,$0-!10!-<'!7'3<#13+&!%5'+!%1-<!E4! $0-0!
$*'5! -<'!-'0-! '51$(:!)$%'*'5>!$#'! <+0!-$! 3$#01('5!-<+-! '+3<!+5'+! 10!,+('!/ !$9!+! (199'5'#-!
#/,?'5! $9! '$ &':! :$5! 1#0-+#3'>! H/+&1-!! *+#+)','#-! +#(! #$,,/#13+-1$#! +5'! $#&!! -%$!
'$ &'>!%<1&'!-<'!7'3<#13+&!%5'+!1#3&/('0!,$5'!-<+#!35! '$ &':!7</0>!%<1&'!-<'! 5'*1$/0!-+?&'!
)1*'0! +! *+&1(! 1#(13+-1$#! $9! %<+-! 61#(! $9! 1#9$5,+-1$#! <+0! ?''#! 0<+5'(! -<'! ,$0->! 1-! 3+##$-! ?'!
/0'(! -$! 3$, +5'! (' +5-,'#-0:! =+-<'5>! 1-! %$/&(! ?'! %5$#)! -$! 5+#6! -<',! %1-<$/-! -+61#)! 1#-$!
+33$/#-!<$%!,+#!! '$ &'!'+3<!+5'+!10!,+('!/ !$9:!7<10!1#9$5,+-1$#!10!)1*'#!?!!7+?&'!G:C:!

Table 5.3 Number of members in each Humancare area

5('$! ='4;'(*!
7'3<#13+&!%5'+! 36!
231'#-1913!%5'+! C!
*+56'-! C!
#$,,/#13+-1$#! 3!
H/+&1-!! 3!

7<10!1#9$5,+-1$#!,+6'0!1-! $001?&'!-$!('-'5,1#'!%<13<!+5'+!,'-!-<'!1#1-1+&!'. '3-+-1$#!


+#(!%<13<!(1(!#$->!+0!0<$%#!1#!:1)!G:C:!

4C !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

Fig. 5.3 Total number of posts shared by each area over the test period and minimum
requirement.

!
?-<'5!-<+#!-<'!#/,?'5!$9! $0-0!0<+5'(>!:1):G:C!+&0$!0<$%0!-<'!,1#1,/,!-+5)'-!9$5!'+3<!
+5'+! 9)%! -$1;:! "-! 10! $001?&'! -$! #$-13'! -<+->! %<1&'! -<'! 7'3<#13+&! %5'+! <+0! 0<+5'(! -<'! <1)<'0-!
#/,?'5! $9! $0-0>! 1-! 10! *'5!! 9+5! 95$,! ,''-1#)! 1-0! -+5)'-:! 7<10! %+0! 5'(13-+?&'! 01#3'! 1#! )'#'5+&!
-'3<#131+#0!+5'!#$-!/0/+&&!!+33/0-$,'(!-$!3$,,/#13+-1#):!?/-!$9!91*'!+5'+0>!-%$!<+*'!5'+3<'(!
-<'!-+5)'-1!231'#3'!+#(!#$,,/#13+-1$#2!+#(!-<'!*+56'-!+5'+!<+0!3$,'!*'5!!3&$0'!-$!1-:!
#$#01('5! -<+-! 2+&'0! '$ &'>! %<$! +5'! +5-! $9! -<'! *+56'-! +5'+>! %'5'! '. '3-'(! -$! 0<+5'!
,$5'!1#01)<-0!-<'#!-<'!!(1(:!7<10!10!+&0$!(/'!-$!-'3<#13+&!5'+0$#0!%<13<!%1&&!?'!(103/00'(!1#!-<'!
3$#3&/01$#0:!7<'!$*'5+&&!5'0/&-!?'3$,'0!3&'+5'5!%<'#!-<'!#/,?'5!$9! $0-0!0<+5'(!?!!'+3<!+5'+!
10! %'1)<-'(! ?!! -<'! #/,?'5! $9! '$ &'! 1#! -<+-! +5'+>! +0! 0<$%#! 1#! :1):! G:=>! %<13<! (10 &+!0! -<'!
+*'5+)'! #/,?'5! $9! $0-0! 0<+5'(! ?!! +! '50$#! 1#! '+3<! +5'+:! %)+1#>! -<'! 5'(! &1#'! 1#(13+-'0! -<'!
,1#1,/,!-+5)'-:!

!
!
!
!
!

! 4=!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

Fig. 5.4 Average number of posts shared by a person in each area.

%#$-<'5! 1#(13+-$5! /0'(! -$! '*+&/+-'! -<10! -'0-! 10! -<'! +,$/#-! $9! 91&'0! 0<+5'(:! 7<10! 3+#!
1#3&/('!5' $5-0>! 5'0'#-+-1$#0>!1,+)'0>!*1('$0>!'-3:!A/51#)!-<'!-'0-! '51$(!F3!91&'0!<+*'!?''#!
0<+5'(!%1-<1#!-<'! &+-9$5,>!1#3&/(1#)1!

! >!($3/,'#-0!
! E=!1,+)'0!
! 3!*1('$!

8&'+0'! #$-13'! -<+-! -<'! )/,+#3+5'! *+#+)'5! <+(! 0/))'0-'(! -<'! -'+,! #$-! -$! 0<+5'!
($3/,'#-0! (15'3-&!! $#! -<'! &+-9$5,:! )'! +06'(! 3$&&+?$5+-$50! -$! %51-'! ($%#! +! &1#6! +-! %<13<! +!
+5-13/&+5!91&'!3$/&(!?'!9$/#(!1#!-<'!3$, +#!!1#-5+#'-:!7<10!%+0!9$5!0'3/51-!!5'+0$#0>!-<+-!10>!9$5!
9'+5!$9!3$, '-1-$50!&'+5#1#)!+?$/-!0'#01-1*'!1#9$5,+-1$#:!"9!-<$0'!&1#60!+5'!3$#01('5'(!+0!%'&&>!
-<'!5'+&!#/,?'5!$9!91&'0!0<+5'(!)'-0!&+5)'5:!
%! *'5!! 1#-'5'0-1#)! -<1#)! -<+-! <+ '#'(! 10! -<+-! +9-'5! +! 3$/ &'! $9! ,$#-<0! 01#3'! -<'!
1#-5$(/3-1$#! $9! B+,,'5>! -<'! -'+,! <+0! ('31('(! -$! 35'+-'! +#! '.-'5#+&! #'-%$56! /! 3+&&'(!
FM%"/9F9'++#%)7:! /! -$! 9$0-'5! -<'! 5'&+-1$#0<1 ! %1-<! +&&! -<$0'! %<$! )5+*1-+-'! +5$/#(!
%8?70#%3<',$:! 7<'! +1,! %+0! -$! 0<+5'! '. '51'#3'0! +#(! '. '5-10'! -$%+5(0! -<'! 9/-/5'! $9!

4G !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

<$0 1-+&! <+5,+3!! -'3<#$&$)!:! 7<+-! 10! +! 9150-! 0-' ! -$! '#)+)'! 3/0-$,'50! +#(! +5-#'50! 1#! +!
3$&&+?$5+-1*'!+#(!1#-'5+3-1*'!%+!!+#(!3+#!?'!3$#01('5'(!$#'!$9!-<'!,$0-!'.31-1#)!5'0/&-0!$9!-<'!
3/55'#-!%$56:!

Concluding
Concluding remarks

%&&! 1#! +&&>! -<10! '. '51,'#-! <+0! ?''#! +#! 1, $5-+#-! 0-' ! -$%+5(0! -<'! 35'+-1$#! $9! +! 6#$%&'()'/
0<+51#)! 3$, +#!:! *+#!! 3$, +#1'0! +5$/#(! -<'! %$5&(! +5'! /01#)! 0$31+&! ,'(1+! -$! 0<+5'!
6#$%&'()'! ,$5'! '99'3-1*'&!:! 7<'! (199'5'#3'! <'5'! 10! -<+-! -<'! $5)+#10+-1$#! %<'5'! +! ?/01#'00!
0$31+&!#'-%$56!<+0!?''#!1, &','#-'(!10!+!0-+5-// !%<13<!?+0'0!1-0!0/33'00!$#!-<'!('*'&$ ,'#-!
$9!6#$%&'()'!?!!1-0!', &$!''0:!7<'!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5!<1,0'&9!10!/0'(!-$!0+!!-<+-!
-<'! 0/33'00! $9! -<10! ?/01#'00! 1#1-1+-1*'! ($'0! #$-! (' '#(! ,/3<! $#! ,+56'5! 9$53'02! 5+-<'5>! 1-!
(' '#(0!$#!<$%!9+0-!<10!3$&&+?$5+-$50!+3+/15'!#'%!6#$%&'()':!.+0'(!$#!-<10!?'&1'9>!-<'!*15-/+&!
&+-9$5,!<+0!?'3$,'!+!5'+&!-$$&!%<13<!3$#-51?/-'!-$!-<'!0/33'00!$9!-<10!0-+5-// :!!
4+-/5+&&!>! 0$,'!$?0-+3&'0!<+*'!?''#!'#3$/#-'5'(!+#(! -<+-! %+0! 5'(13-+?&':! )$%'*'5>!
0$,'! ?'+/-19/&! &0-$51'0'! <+*'! 3$,'! / ! +0! %'&&>! 0/3<! +0! -<'! 35'+-1$#! $9! +#! '.-'5#+&! #'-%$56!
9FM%"/9F9'++#%)7:;! -$! 9$0-'5! -<'! 5'&+-1$#0<1 ! %1-<! +&&! -<'! %$5&(%1('! /0'50! $9!
%8?70#%3<',$:!"#!+((1-1$#>!-<'!#'%!-$$&!<+0!)1*'#!-<10!3$, +#!!(' +5-,'#-!#'%!'&','#-0!
-$! '*+&/+-'! ', &$!''0:! :$5! 1#0-+#3'>! 1-! ,+('! 1-! $001?&'! -$! /#('50-+#(! %<$! 10! 5$+3-1*'!
'#$/)<!-$!1#*$&*'!<1,Q<'50'&9!1#-$!#'%!+#(!1##$*+-1*'!+3-1*1-1'0>!0/3<!+0!-<'!/0'!$9!+!0$31+&!
#'-%$56!1#01('!+!3$, +#!>!+#(!%<$!10!#$-:!
%0!9+5!+0!-<'!+/+#-1-+-1*'!+#+&!010!10!3$#3'5#'(>! &'+0'!#$-13'!-<+-!+&-<$/)<!1-!<+0!?''#!
*'5!!1, $5-+#-!-$!91)/5'!$/-!<$%!-<1#)0!%'#->!1-!3+##$-!?'!3$#01('5'(!+!&)1*'#'!5'0/&-!?'3+/0'!
1#!+!0-+5-// !5$&'0!+5'!#$-!'.+3-&!!('91#'(:!"#!+!%+!>!'*'5!$#'!($'0!'*'5!-<1#)!1#!+!0-+5-// >!0$!
1-!%+0!#$-!'+0!!-$!('-'5,1#'!%<13<!+5'+!$9!-<'!-'+,!0<+5'(!,$5'!1#01)<-0>!%<13<!0<+5'(!&'00>!
%<13<! +5'+! ,'-! -<'! 1#1-1+&! '. '3-+-1$#0! +#(! %<13<! (1(! #$-:! "#! +#!! 0-+5-// >! +#(! $$331$#1!
)/,+#3+5'! 10! #$! '.3' -1$#>! -<'5'! +5'! &?$5('5&1#'! 5$&'0'! %<13<! ,+6'! 1-! #'3'00+5!! -$! -+6'!
91)/5'0!$?-+1#'(!%1-<!+!)5+1#!$9!0+&-:!!
.'01('0!-<'!+/+#-1-+-1*'!+#+&!010>!+!+/+&1-+-1*'!0-/(!!%+0!+&0$!3+551'(!$/-:!7<'!1('+!%+0!
-$!/#('50-+#(!#$-!$#&!!<$%!,/3<!1#9$5,+-1$#! '$ &'!<+*'!?''#!0<+51#)!?/-!+&0$!%<+-!61#(!$9!
1#9$5,+-1$#!-<'!!<+*'!?''#!0<+51#)!+#(!-<'!+/+&1-!!$9!-<'!3$#-'#-:!7<10!10!#'3'00+5!!?'3+/0'!
+/+#-1-+-1*'! (+-+! +&$#'! ($! #$-! )1*'! +! 3$, &'-'! 13-/5'! $9! -<'! 0/33'00! $5! 9+1&/5'! $9! -<10!

! 4>!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

1#1-1+-1*':!"#(''(>!$#'!,+!!0<+5'!,+#!! $0-0!$9!*'5!!&1--&'!*+&/'!%<1&'!$-<'50!,+!!0<+5'!9'%'5!
$0-0!$9!+!,/3<!<1)<'5!+/+&1-!:!H/+#-1-!!($'0!#$-!,'+#!+/+&1-!:!7<10!+#+&!010!%+0!3$#(/3-'(!
?!!-<'!+/-<$5!+#(! '51$(13+&&!!0<$%#!-$!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!*+#+)'5!(/51#)!-<'!-'0-! '51$(:>6!
%9-'5!<+*1#)!3$#(/3-'(!+!+/+#-1-+-1*'!+0!%'&&!+0!+!+/+&1-+-1*'!+#+&!010>!-<'!#'.-!0-' !%+0!
-$!('-'5,1#'!%<'-<'5!$5!#$-!-<'5'!%+0!+!&1#6!?'-%''#!-<'! '53' -1$#!-<+-! '$ &'!<+(!+?$/-!
0$31+&!#'-%$561#)!?'9$5'!&+/#3<1#)!-<'!-'0-!+#(!-<'15!+3-/+&!?'<+*1$/5!%<'#!1-!3+,'!-$!/01#)!
-<'!#'%!*15-/+&! &+-9$5,:!7$!($!-<+->!0$,'!0 '31913!+#0%'50!1#!-<'!1#1-1+&!+/'0-1$##+15'!)1*'#!?!!
-<'!-$ !+#(!?$--$,!-<5''!/0'50>C!<+*'!?''#!3$, +5'(:!"#! +5-13/&+5>!-<'!-%$!+/'0-1$#0!%<13<!
<+*'!?''#!3$#01('5'(!%'5'!-<'!9$&&$%1#)1!

! %5'!!$/!9+,1&1+5!%1-<!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)<!
! )$%!$9-'#!($!!$/!/0'!3$#0/,'5!0$31+&!#'-%$560<!

7<'! 1('+! <'5'! %+0! -$! 0''! %<'-<'5! '$ &'! %<$! %'5'! 9+,1&1+5! %1-<! 3$#0/,'5! 0$31+&!
#'-%$561#)!/0'(!-<'!?/01#'00! &+-9$5,!-$!-<'!0+,'!'.-'#-!+#(!%<'-<'5!-<$0'!%<$!%'5'!#$-!
+33/0-$,'(! -$! /01#)! 3$#0/,'5! 0$31+&! #'-%$560! +3-/+&&!! 9'&-! -<'! 0+,'! %<'#! 1-! 3+,'! -$! +#!
'#-'5 510'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,:!7<'!9$&&$%1#)!-+?&'!0/,,+510'0!-<'!5'0/&-0:!

4+&&+4! !7*'(*! ($4/-/$(/&8!2/&#!*+0/$-!,'&2+(1/,.! (('=7',08!+<!7*'!


*',?'5!3! 4?! 40D0=!
*',?'5!6! 4?! 40D0=!
*',?'5!C! 4?! 40D0=!
!
7+%! !7*'(*! ($4/-/$(/&8!2/&#!*+0/$-!,'&2+(1/,.! (('=7',08!+<!7*'!
*',?'5!65! 4?! 40D0=!
*',?'5!34! B02! A%"$B!
*',?'5!3F! B02! A%"$B!

"#-'5'0-1#)&!!'#$/)<>!+&&!$9!-<'!?$--$,!-<5''!/0'50!<+(!('3&+5'(!?'9$5'!&+/#3<1#)!-<'!-'0-!#$-!
-$!?'!9+,1&1+5!%1-<!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)!+#(!#$-!-$!/0'!0/3<! &+-9$5,0!+-!+&&2!%<1&'!-%$!$9!-<'!-$ !

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
>6
!:$5! 51*+3!!,+--'50>!-<'!+/+&1-+-1*'!+#+&!010!<+0!#$-!?''#!1#3&/('(!1#!-<10!-<'010:!!!!
>C
"'6!+#(!9'77'+!+5'!$#&!!-'5,0!-$!('0351?'!-<$0'!%<$!/0'(!-<'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!$9-'#!+#(!-<$0'!%<$!
/0'(!1-!0'&($,>!5'0 '3-1*'&!:!

4E !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

-<5''!/0'50!%'5'!*'5!!9+,1&1+5!%1-<!-<',!-$!-<'!'.-'#-!-<+-!-<'!!%'5'!/01#)!-<',!'*'5!!(+!:!
??*1$/0&!>!0/3<!+!0,+&&!0+, &'!($'0!#$-!+&&$%!/0!-$!(5+%!3$#3&/01$#0>!+&0$!?'3+/0'!-<'! '50$#!
%<$! /0'(! -<'! &+-9$5,! -<'! ,$0-! 9+&&0! 1#-$! -<'! &;! ,+! %'7! 8,+)0),-! /)75! 4'(),0! %$7/'-.4C!
3+-')$5!:! 4$#'-<'&'00>! 1-! 3+#! ?'! #$-13'(! -<+-! #$#'! $9! -<'! -<5''! ?$--$,! /0'50! %'5'!
+33/0-$,'(! -$! /01#)! 0/3<! -$$&0! +#(! -<10! ,1)<-! <+*'! &+!'(! +! 5$&'! 1#! -<'15! 0/?0'+/'#-!
?'<+*1$/5:!

Final questionnaire

%-! -<'! '#(! $9! -<'! -'0-! '51$(>! +! 91#+&! +/'0-1$##+15'! %+0! <+#('(! $/-! -$! +&&! -<$0'! %<$! %'5'!
1#*$&*'(!1#!-<'! 5$('3-:!7<'!+1,!%+0!-$!/#('50-+#(!%<'-<'5!$5!#$-!-<'!!%'5'!0+-1091'(!+?$/-!
-<'!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,>!%<'-<'5!-<'!#'%!-$$&!<'& '(!-<',!&'+5#!0$,'-<1#)!-<'!!(1(!
#$-! 6#$%! ?'9$5'! +#(! %<'-<'5! +#(! <$%! -<'!! %$/&(! <+*'! &16'(! -$! 3$#-1#/'! -$! /0'! 1-! 1#! -<'!
9/-/5':!7<'!9$&&$%1#)!10!-<'!+/'0-1$##+15'!)1*'#:!

Humancare virtual dashboard: evaluation and future scenarios


7<10!+/'0-1$##+15'!+1,0!+-!'*+&/+-1#)!-<'!=/,$#-<!-'0-!+3-1*1-!!$#!B+,,'5!+#(!('31(1#)!<$%!
-$!3$#-1#/'!%1-<!1-:!

3: )$%!,/3<!+5'!!$/!0+-1091'(!+?$/-!B+,,'5<!
3!!!!!!6!!!!!!C!!!!!!=!!!!!!G!!!!!!>!!!!!!E!!!!!!F!!!!!!4!!!!!!35!
+4![!%'7!,7!,00T!41![!7'7,00:!4,7)48)$1,!

6: )$%!$9-'#!<+*'!!$/!?''#!&$$61#)!+-!B+,,'5<!
A%"$B! ! ! ! ! 6/C7"*02! %! 800"800"$B! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 0D0=B! 78?! 800"2! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! *?47)$B!!!!!!!!!!
40D0=!

C: )+*'! !$/! (103$*'5'(! $5! &'+5#-! 0$,'-<1#)! !$/! (1(! #$-! 6#$%! ?'9$5'! +?$/-! -<'!
)/,+#3+5'!+3-1*1-!!-<+#60!-$!B+,,'5<!
B02!!!!!!!!4?!

=: "9!0$>!%<+-<!
SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!

! 4F!
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

G: ?#'!0 '31913!-<1#)!!$/!&16'(!+?$/-!B+,,'5:!
SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!

>: ?#'!0 '31913!-<1#)!!$/!(1(!#$-!&16'!+?$/-!B+,,'5:!


SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!

E: 8+0!-<10!'. '51,'#-!/0'9/&!9$5!6#$%&'()'!+#(!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+51#)<!
B02!!!!!!!!4?!

F: "0!-<'5'!+#!!9/#3-1$#+&1-!!!$/!%$/&(!&16'!-$!+((!-$!-<'! &+-9$5,<!
SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!

4: )$%! %$/&(! !$/! &16'! -$! 3$#-1#/'! %1-<! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)<! 8&'+0'! )1*'! 0 '31913!
0/))'0-1$#0:!
SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!

7<'!5'0/&-0!+5'!0<$%#!?'&$%:!

3: )$%!,/3<!+5'!!$/!0+-1091'(!+?$/-!B+,,'5<!+4![!%'7!,7!,00T!41![!7'7,00:!4,7)48)$1,!

!
7<'!<$51I$#-+&!+.10!1#(13+-'0!'+3<!,',?'5!$9!-<'!-'+,:!%0!1-!3+#!?'!#$-13'(>!$#&!!=!$/-!
$9! 65! ', &$!''0! )+*'! +! ,+56! &$%'5! -<+#! >! +#(! -<'! &$%'0-! )5+('! )1*'#! 10! G:! ?#! +*'5+)'>!
', &$!''! 0+-109+3-1$#! 10! >:EG! $/-! $9! 35:! 7<10! 0/))'0-0! -<+-! '$ &'! &16'(! -<'! 1('+! $9! /01#)! +!

44 !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,>! ?/-! -<'5'! ,/0-! <+*'! ?''#! 0$,'-<1#)! %<13<! 5'*'#-'(! -<',!
95$,!/01#)!1-!,$5'! '99'3-1*'&!:!:/5-<'5! ('-+1&0!$#! $?0-+3&'0!'#3$/#-'5'(!3+#!?'!9$/#(!1#!-<'!
9$&&$%1#)!+#0%'50:!

6: )$%!$9-'#!<+*'!!$/!?''#!&$$61#)!+-!B+,,'5<!

!
7<'! $?('3-1*'! $9! -<10! 5$('3-! %+0! -$! <+*'! ', &$!''0! /0'! -<'! &+-9$5,! +-! &'+0-! $#3'! +!
%''6:! 7<10! )$+&! <+0! 9/&&!! ?''#! ,'-! 01#3'! +&,$0-! '*'5!?$(!! <+0! ?''#! &$$61#)! +-! -<'! 0$31+&!
#'-%$56!+-!&'+0-!$#3'!+!%''6:!=GJ!$9!-<'!-'+,!<+0!?''#!/01#)!1-!'*'#!,$5'>!-<+-!10>!'1-<'5!6QC!
-1,'0!+!%''6!$5!'*'#!(+1&!:!7<'!1#-'5'0-1#)!-<1#)!10!-<+-!'*'#!-<$0'!%<$!(1(!#$-!0<+5'!,+#!!
1#01)<-0!(/51#)!-<'!-'0-! '51$(!%'5'!+#!%+!!/0'(!-$!&$)!1#!+#(!0''!%<+-!$-<'50!%'5'! $0-1#):!
7<10!10!0/5'&!!0$,'-<1#)!('015+?&':!!

! 355
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

C: )+*'! !$/! (103$*'5'(! $5! &'+5#-! 0$,'-<1#)! !$/! (1(! #$-! 6#$%! ?'9$5'! +?$/-! -<'!
)/,+#3+5'!+3-1*1-!!-<+#60!-$!B+,,'5<!

!
8<'-<'5! ', &$!''0! <+*'! &'+5#-! 0$,'-<1#)! -<'!! (1(! #$-! 6#$%! ?'9$5'! -<+#60! -$! -<'!
0$31+&! &+-9$5,! 10! '5<+ 0! $#'! $9! -<'! ,$0-! 1, $5-+#-! -<1#)0! -$! 91)/5'! $/-:! "#(''(>! -<'! ,+1#!
)$+&!$9!-<10!'. '51,'#-!%+0!-$!,+6'!1-! $001?&'!9$5!', &$!''0!-$! +3+/15'!#'%!6#$%&'()'! +0!
9+0-!+0! $001?&'!?'3+/0'!-<'!('*'&$ ,'#-!$9!-<'15!6#$%&'()'!10!-<'!6'!!(51*'5!$9!-<'!3$, +#!!
0/33'00:! %0! -<'! +?$*'! 3<+5-! 0<$%0>! -<'! )5'+-! ,+($51-!! 0+1(! -<+-! B+,,'5! <'& '(! -<',! &'+5#!
0$,'-<1#)! -<'!! (1(! #$-! 6#$%! ?'9$5':! 7<10! 10! $#'! $9! -<'! ,$0-! $01-1*'! +0 '3-0! $9! -<'!
'. '51,'#-:!

=: "9!0$>!%<+-<!

8<'#!+06'(!/5,7!-<'!!<+(!&'+5#->!+#0%'50!<+*'!?''#!(1*'50':!"#!)'#'5+&>!', &$!''0!$9!
$#'!(' +5-,'#-!0+1(!-<'!!#$%!6#$%!,$5'!$9!+#$-<'5!(' +5-,'#-,0!+3-1*1-!:!:$5!1#0-+#3'>!-<'!
2+&'0!*+#+)'5!+5)/'(!<'!#$%!<+0!+!,$5'!3$, 5'<'#01*'!*1'%!$9!-<'!=KA!+3-1*1-!>!0$,'-<1#)!
-<+-!%+0!<+5(!9$5!<1,!-$!9$&&$%!?'3+/0'!<'!10!+&%+!0!$/-!-$!-<'!3/0-$,'50:!?#!-<'!$-<'5!<+#(>!
=KA! '$ &'!0+1(!-$!<+*'!,$5'!1#01)<-0!$#!,+56'-!+#(!3/0-$,'5!3+5'!100/'0:!"#!)'#'5+&>! '$ &'!
'53'1*'!-$!<+*'!+!?'--'5!/#('50-+#(1#)!$9!-<'!%<$&'!+3-1*1-!!3+551'(!$/-!%''6&!!?!!3$&&'+)/'0:!

G: ?#'!0 '31913!-<1#)!!$/!&16'(!+?$/-!B+,,'5:!

7<'!-<5''!,+1#!-<1#)0!', &$!''0!&16'(!+?$/-!-<'!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!+5'!-<'!9$&&$%1#)1!

! 7<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!0<+5'!1#9$5,+-1$#!+#(!6#$%&'()'!$#!+!?)-7#,0!46,($2!
! 7<'!$,4$!'8!#4$!$9!-<'! &+-9$5,2!
! 7<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!0<+5'!+#(!)'-!/ (+-'0!1#!-$,0!7)+$:!

353 !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

*$5'$*'5>!-<'!!&16'(!-<'!9+3-!-<+-!-<'!!3$/&(!0<+5'!91&'0!0/3<!+0!($3/,'#-0!+#(! <$-$0>!
3$,,/#13+-'!%1-<!'+3<!$-<'5!1#!+!9+0-!+#(!%'%35)$-,-(5)(,0!%+!>!3$,,/#13+-'!%1-<!3$&&'+)/'0!
+?5$+(>!-+)! '$ &'!+#(!35'+-'! 51*+-'!)5$/ 0:!!

>: ?#'!0 '31913!-<1#)!!$/!(1(!#$-!&16'!+?$/-!B+,,'5:!

7<'5'!+&0$!+5'!0$,'!-<1#)0!', &$!''0!(1(!#$-!&16'!+?$/-!-<'! &+-9$5,:!:$5!1#0-+#3'>!-<'!!%'5'!


?$-<'5'(! ?!! -<'! 0&$%#'00! $9! -<'! 0!0-',! %<'#! 0<+51#)! 91&'0! &16'! <$-$0:! 0, &$!''0! &16'! -<'!
$001?1&1-!!-$!0<+5'!91&'0!?/-!19!1-!-+6'0!-$$!&$#)!-$!($!1->!-<'!!'1-<'5!($!#$-!($!1-!$5!)'-!?$-<'5'(:!
2$,'! +5)/'(! -<+-! -<'! 35'+-1$#! $9! +! 51*+-'! )5$/ ! 9$5! -<'! $#&!! )/,+#3+5'! +5'+! ,+('!
0$,'! 3$#9/01$#! +0! -$! %<'5'! -$! $0-! 1#9$5,+-1$#>! %<'-<'5! 1#! -<'! 51*+-'! )5$/ ! $5! 1#! -<'!
)'#'5+&!(+0<?$+5(!+33'001?&'!-$!+#!!$$331$#1,0!', &$!'':!!
8'5<+ 0>! -<'! -<1#)! '$ &'! &16'(! -<'! &'+0-! 10! -<+-! 0$,'-1,'0! -<'! 0+,'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! %+0!
0<+5'(! -%13'! $5! '*'#! -<5''! -1,'0:! "#(''(>! 01#3'! ', &$!''0! %'5'! #$-! 0/5'! +?$/-! %<'5'! -$!
0<+5'!0$,'! 1'3'0!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#>!-<'!!/0'(!?$-<!-<'!#'%!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!+#(!-<'!',+1&!+#(!
-<'!3$, +#!!1#-5+#'-:!7<10!?'<+*1$/5!,/0-!?'!3$#01('5'(!?!!+!3$, +#!!%<13<!10!0'51$/0!+?$/-!
6#$%&'()'!0<+51#):!%33$5(1#)!-$!-<'!+/-<$5>!1#!-<'!9/-/5'!-<'!3$, +#!!<+0!-$!,+6'!1, $5-+#-!
('3101$#0! ,+61#)! 1-! 3&'+5! -<+-! $#3'! +! 1'3'! $9! 1#9$5,+-1$#! <+0! ?''#! 0<+5'(! $#! +! *15-/+&!
(+0<?$+5(>! -<'!9+3-!-<+-! '$ &'!6#$%!-<+-!1#9$5,+-1$#! %$/&(!?'!-+6'#!9$5!)5+#-'(:!7</0>!+-!
&'+0-!9$5!0$,'! 1'3'0!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!-<'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!,/0-!?'3$,'!-<'!&#'%!',+1&':!!
7<'5'! 10! +?0$&/-'&!! #$! $1#-! 1#! 0<+51#)! -<'! 0+,'! 1'3'! $9! 1#9$5,+-1$#! $#! -%$! $5! '*'#!
-<5''! (199'5'#-! -$$&0:! 7<10! ($'0! #$-! ,'+#! -<+-! $$331$#1! )/,+#3+5'! +#47! 3<$$0'! +! ?/01#'00!
0$31+&!#'-%$56!-$!0<+5'!6#$%&'()'>!?/-!19!1-!($'0!0$>!-<'!#'%!-$$&!<+0!-$!?'!/0'(!-$!,+6'!%$56!
'+01'5!%1-<$/-!?'1#)!+#!'.-5+!%$56&$+(:!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

! 356
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

E: 8+0!-<10!'. '51,'#-!/0'9/&!9$5!6#$%&'()'!+#(!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+51#)<!

!
%#$-<'5! $01-1*'! +#0%'5! 10! -<+-! + +5-! 95$,! $#'! ', &$!''! 9GJ! $9! -<'! 5'0 $#('#-0;>!
'*'5!?$(!!+5)/'(!-<+-!-<10!-'0-!<+0!?''#!/0'9/&!9$5!6#$%&'()'!+#(!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+51#):!%&0$>!
?!!-+&61#)!1#9$5,+&&!!-$!', &$!''0>!%<+-!3+,'!$/-!10!-<+-!'*'#!-<$0'!%<$!(1(!#$-!(10-1#)/10<!
-<',0'&*'0! 9$5! +#! '#-</01+0-13! +5-131 +-1$#! 1#! -<'! '. '51,'#-! 0''! 6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)!
&+-9$5,0! +0! /0'9/&! -$$&0! %<13<! (,%! ?51#)! ?/01#'00! ?'#'91-0:! 7<'5'9$5'>! ?!! 5',$*1#)! 0$,'!
$?0-+3&'0! -<'!! -<',0'&*'0! <+*'! <1)<&1)<-'(>! -<10! #'%! + 5$+3<! ,1)<-! ?'! 0/33'009/&! 1#! -<'!
9/-/5':!

F: "0!-<'5'!+#!!9/#3-1$#+&1-!!!$/!%$/&(!&16'!-$!+((!-$!-<'! &+-9$5,<!

*+#!! $9! -<'!', &$!''0! 5' &1'(! -<+-!-<'!! %'5'! <+ !! %1-<! -<'! 3/55'#-! 9'+-/5'0! 5$*1('(! ?!!
-<'! &+-9$5,:! ?-<'50>! <$%'*'5>! ,+('! 0$,'! 0/))'0-1$#0! 9$5! 1, 5$*','#-0:! 7<'! -<5''! ,$0-!
+06'(!9'+-/5'0!+5'!-<'!9$&&$%1#)1!

>/9'+! 0+,<'(',0':5/9'+! 0$--*! -<10! %+!! '*'#! 26! '! 3$/&(! ?'! 5' &+3'(:! 8&'+0'! 3$#01('5!
-<+-! %<+-! ,+--'50! 10! #$-! -<'! '&1,1#+-1$#! $9! -$$&0! &16'! 26! '>! %<13<! 10! *'5!! /0'9/&:! 8<+-! 10!
9/#(+,'#-+&>!<$%'*'5>!10!-<+-!', &$!''0!3+#!/0'!$#&!!$#'!-$$&!-$!3+55!!$/-!-<'15!(+1&!!+3-1*1-!:!
7$!,+6'!-<10!<+ '#>!-<10!-$$&!,/0-!1#3$5 $5+-'!+&&!-<'!9'+-/5'0!', &$!''0!/0/+&&!!/0':!
7<'!,$5'!+!*15-/+&! &+-9$5,!10!1#-')5+-'(!%1-<!'.10-1#)!?/01#'00!+ &13+-1$#0>!-<'!,$5'!/0'9/&!1-!
?'3$,'0!+#(!-<'!,$5'!/0'9/&!1-!?'3$,'0>!-<'!,$5'!1-!%1&&!?'!/0'(!?!! '$ &':!
7+%/0*! &+! 0$&'.+(/6'! %+*&**! -<'! 1('+! 10! -$! 3&+0019!! '+3<! $0-! ?!! (' +5-,'#-1! *+56'->!
231'#3'>!=KA>!#/0-$,'5!#+5'>!'-3:!7<10!%$/&(!1, 5$*'!-<'!0/591#)!'. '51'#3'!,+61#)!1-!'+01'5!
-$! 5'/0'+53<! +! +5-13/&+5! 1'3'! $9! 1#9$5,+-1$#! +9-'5! %''60>! ,$#-<0! $5! '*'#! !'+50:! %-! -<'!
?')1##1#)>! -<'! 3&+001913+-1$#! $9! $0-0! %+0! #$-! +06'(! 1#-'#-1$#+&&!! ?'3+/0'! -<'! 1('+! %+0! -<+-!

35C !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

6#$%&'()'!,/0-!?'!,1.'(!0$!-<+-!'*'5!$#'!)'-0!+-!&'+0-!+#!1('+!$9!%<+-!10!)$1#)!$#!1#!'+3<!
(' +5-,'#-:!%9-'5!+!9'%!,$#-<0>!<$%'*'5>!-<10!#'%!9'+-/5'!3$/&(!?'!1#-5$(/3'(!19!-<10!10!%<+-!
', &$!''0!%+#-:!
,+&/</0$&/+,**!<$%!,+#!! '$ &'!5'+(!+! $0-!+#(!19!-<'!!5'+(!1-:!

"#-'5'0-1#)&!! '#$/)<>! $#'! $/-! $9! -<5''! 9'+-/5'0! ', &$!''0! %+#-! 10! +&5'+(!! ?/1&-/1#! 1#-$! -<'!
&+-9$5,!+7'6)(4!7'!(,7$2'-)>$!6'474,:!8'$ &'!(/0-!#''(!-$!0-+5-!/01#)!-<10!9'+-/5'!19!-<'!!%+#-!
-$:!

4: )$%! %$/&(! !$/! &16'! -$! 3$#-1#/'! %1-<! 6#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)<! 8&'+0'! )1*'! 0 '31913!
0/))'0-1$#0:!

0, &$!''0!)+*'!0 '31913!0/))'0-1$#0!$#!<$%!-<'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!3$/&(!?'!/0'(!1#!-<'!9/-/5':!


2$,'!%$/&(!&16'!-$!1#*$&*'!0$,'!3/0-$,'50!1#-$!-<'!3$#*'50+-1$#:!7<'15!%1&&1#)#'00!10!-$!0-+5-!
0<+51#)!?/01#'00!1#9$5,+-1$#!#$-!$#&!!+,$#)!'+3<!$-<'5!?/-!+&0$!%1-<!5'+&!3/0-$,'50:!!
%#$-<'5! 1#-'5'0-1#)! 0/))'0-1$#! 10! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! &$$6! +-! 0-+-10-130! 0/3<! +0! '$ &'!
3$##'3-'(! '5!(+!>!,$0-!9$&&$%'(!-$ 130>!'-3:>!(/0-!&16'!%<+-!-$$)&'!%#+&!-130!($'0:!7<'!95''!
*'501$#!$9!B+,,'5!($'0!#$-! 5$*1('!/0'50!%1-<!-<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!9$&&$%!0-+-10-130>!<$%'*'5!1-0!
5',1/,!*'501$#0!($:!!
%)+1#>! ', &$!''0! <+*'! <1)<&1)<-'(! -<'! &+36! $9! 1#-')5+-1$#! %1-<! '.10-1#)! ?/01#'00!
+ &13+-1$#0>! 1#! +5-13/&+5! %1-<! -<'! ',+1&:! "#! 5'+0$#>! -<'!! ($! #$-! &16'! -$! 5' '+-! 1#9$5,+-1$#!
-%13':!)$%'*'5>!-<'! &+-9$5,!-<+-!', &$!''0!<+*'!?''#!/01#)!10!+&5'+(!!1#-')5+-'(!%1-<!-<'!
3$, +#!! ',+1&:! 7<10! ,'+#0! -<+-! $#3'! 0$,'$#'! $0-! +! 1'3'! $9! 1#9$5,+-1$#! $#! -<'! *15-/+&!
(+0<?$+5(>!+&&!-<'!$-<'50!3+#!)'-!+!#$-1913+-1$#!*1+!',+1&!19!-<'!!%+#-!-$:!7</0>!', &$!''0!(/0-!
#''(!-$!-/5#!-<10!$ -1$#!$#!+#(!0-$ !5' '+-1#)!1#9$5,+-1$#!-%13'!(/0-!-$!,+6'!0/5'!'*'5!?$(!!
)$-!1-!?'3+/0'!1-!,+6'0!*'5!!&1--&'!0'#0':!7'3<#$&$)!!-$!0$&*'!-<10! 5$?&',!'.10-0>!-<'! 5$?&',!
10!-<+-!0$,'-1,'0!-'3<#$&$)!!($'0!#$-!%$56!%<'#!1-!)$'0!+)+1#0-! '$ &',0!?'<+*1$/5:!!
"#!-<10!01-/+-1$#>!', &$!''0!+5'!0$!/0'(!-$!0<+5'!1#9$5,+-1$#!?!!',+1&!-<+-!1-!10!(19913/&-!
-$!<+*'!-<',!#$-!($!-<10!+#!,$5':!7<'!5'0/&-!10!-<+-!-<'!!0<+5'!1#9$5,+-1$#!-%13'1!$#!-<'!#'%!
&+-9$5,! +#(! *1+! ',+1&:! 7<'! 3$, +#!! 0<$/&(! -5!! -$! 1#3'#-1*1I'! ', &$!''0! -$! 5'9'5! +! *15-/+&!
(+0<?$+5(!-$!-<'!',+1&! +5-13/&+5&!!%<'#!0<+51#)!0$,'! 1'3'0!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#:!!
!

! 35=
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

:1#+&&!>! 5'0 $#('#-0! $9! -<'! +/'0-1$##+15'! <+*'! )1*'#! -%$! +5-13/&+5! 0/))'0-1$#0! %<13<!
+5'!%$5-<!?'1#)!,'#-1$#'(1!

! 7<'!!%$/&(!&16'!-$! +5-131 +-'!1#!%''6&!!$5!,$#-<&!!,''-1#)0!%1-<!-<'!%<$&'!-'+,!-$!


(103/00!+?$/-!-<'!,+1#!-$ 130!5+10'(!$#!-<'! &+-9$5,2!
! 2/5*'!0!3$/&(!?'!0<+5'(!(15'3-&!!$#!-<'!0$31+&!#'-%$56!%<'5'!', &$!''0!+5'!+06'(!-$!
+#0%'5!+/'0-1$#0!$#!(199'5'#-!-$ 130!-$!0''!%<'5'!$#'!&+360!6#$%&'()':!#$#0'+/'#-&!>!
0 '31913! &'00$#0! 9#$-! #'3'00+51&!! 95$#-+&! &'3-/5'0;! 3$/&(! ?'! 03<'(/&'(! -$! -5+1#!
', &$!''0!+#(!91&&!-<$0'!)+ 0:!

.!!,+61#)!-<'0'!3<+#)'0!+#(!+33$,,$(+-1#)!', &$!''0,!%+#-0>!-<'15!'#)+)','#-!$#!
-<'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!3$/&(!0$+5:!!

Concluding remarks

7<'!)'#'5+&! '53' -1$#!10!-<+-!', &$!''0!+5'!0+-1091'(!+?$/-!-<'!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,:!


"#(''(>! -<'!! ('31('(! -$! 3$#-1#/'! -$! /0'! 1->! '*'#! -<$0'! 0$,'! $9! -<',! <+*'! #$-! ($#'! 1-!
'99'3-1*'&!!0$!9+5:!7<'!5'+0$#!%<!!1#1-1+&!'. '3-+-1$#0!<+*'!?''#!,'-!$#&!! +5-1+&&!!10!-<+-!0$,'!
$?0-+3&'0! 5'*'#-'(! ', &$!''0! 95$,! /01#)! -<10! -$$&! ,$5'! '99'3-1*'&!:! 7<'! 5'*1$/0!
+/'0-1$##+15'!<+0!?''#!*'5!!/0'9/&!-$!5'3'1*'!0 '31913!9''(?+36!$#!%<+-!-<'!!&16'(!-<'!,$0->!
%<+-!-<'!!&16'(!-<'!&'+0->!<$%!-<1#)0!3$/&(!?'!1, 5$*'(:!.!! +!1#)! +5-13/&+5!+--'#-1$#!-$!-<'!
100/'0!5+10'(!?!!', &$!''0!0$,'!$?0-+3&'0!,1)<-!?'!$*'53$,'>!-</0!,+61#)!-<'!6#$%&'()'/
0<+51#)! &+-9$5,!,$5'!'#)+)1#)!+#(!/0'9/&:!
*$5'$*'5>!1-!,+!!?'!-1,'!9$5!-<'!3$, +#!!-$! /-!0$,'! $01-1*'! 5'00/5'!$#!', &$!''0:!
=',',?'5! -<+-! -<'! -'+,! %+0! )5+#-'(! +?0$&/-'! 95''($,! +?$/-! <$%! +#(! %<'#! -$! /0'! -<'!
&+-9$5,! +#(! -<10! + 5$+3<! ,/0-! 3$#-1#/'! ?'3+/0'! $$331$#1! )/,+#3+5'! ($'0! #$-! <+*'!
%$56'502!5+-<'5>!-<'!!<+*'!6#$%&'()'!%$56'50!%<$!?!!('91#1-1$#!6#$%!%<+-!-$!($!+#(!<$%!-$!
($!1-:!)$%'*'5>!1-!10!-1,'!9$5!-<'!3$, +#!!-$!91#(!'&','#-0!$9!0-1,/&/0!0$!-<+-!', &$!''0!9/&&!!
/#('50-+#(!-<'!1, $5-+#3'!$9!0/3<!+!0-5+-')!:!
7<10!%$56!%+0!+#!+--', -!-$!0''!%<'-<'5!+!*15-/+&!(+0<?$+5(!3$/&(!?'!/0'9/&!9$5!0<+51#)!
1#9$5,+-1$#>!'. '5-10'!+#(!6#$%&'()'!%1-<1#!+!%$56!-'+,:!7<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ !10!*'5!!0'51$/0!
+?$/-! 1-:! "#(''(>! -<'! 3$, +#!! <+0! &+/#3<'(! +#$-<'5! 5$('3-! %<13<! <+0! '.+3-&!! -<'! 0+,'!
$?('3-1*'!$9!-<10!%$56!-<'010!90''!F66$%1)H!+-!-<'!'#(;:!7<'!(199'5'#3'!10!-<+-!%<1&'!-<10!%$56!10!

35G !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

&1,1-'(!-$!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!+5'+>!-<'!#'%! 5$('3-!%1&&!1#*$&*'!-<'!%<$&'!3$, +#!:!.!!+&&!,'+#0!


+! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! ?'3$,'0! ,/3<! ,$5'! /0'9/&! 19! 1-! 1#*$&*'0! </#(5'(0! $9! ', &$!''0!
5+-<'5!-<+#!65!+#(!-<'!3$, +#!!'. '3-0!-<'!#'%! 5$('3-!-$!?'!'*'#!,$5'!0/33'009/&:!
7<'5'9$5'>!-<'!1('+!?'<1#(!-<10!%$56!5',+1#0!*+&1(:!"#(''(>!+-!-<'!*'5!!?')1##1#)!$9!-<10!
5$('3->!-<'!+/-<$5!<+0!,'-!-<'!-'+,!%<$!%1&&!?'!5'0 $#01?&'!9$5!-<'!1, &','#-+-1$#!$9!-<'!
#'%! 5$('3-! +#(! -<'!! <+*'! ('31('(! -$! 3$$ '5+-':! 7<10! -<'010! %1&&! ?'! /0'(! ?!! -<'! %<$&'!
3$, +#!!-$!91)/5'!$/-!%<'-<'5!1-!,+6'0!0'#0'!-$!0 '#(!-1,'!+#(!5'0$/53'0!$#!+#!'*'#!?1))'5!
5$('3-! +#(! %1&&! ?'! 3$#01('5'(! +! 8)-47! 47$6! $9! +#! $5)+#10+-1$#! %<$! %+#-0! -$! ?'3$,'! +!
6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)!3$, +#!:!!

! 35>
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

Conclusions
Conclusions and next steps
7<'!1('+!?'<1#(!-<10!%$56!10!-<+-!-<'!?/01#'00!%$5&(!<+0!?''#!3<+#)1#)!$*'5!-<'!&+0-!C5!!'+50:!
7<'!1#(/0-51+&!%$5&(!<+0!?''#!($,1#+-'(!?!!-<'!031'#-1913!,+#+)','#-!$9! 5$(/3-1$#>!+!,$('&!
%<13<!%$56'(!%'&&!+#(!%+0!(/0-191'(!?!!-<'!0$31+&!+#(!'3$#$,13!3$#(1-1$#0!$9!-<'!&+0-!3'#-/5!:!
)$%'*'5>! 1-! #$! &$#)'5! %$560! 1#! +! %$5&(! 1#! %<13<! ', &$!''0! +5'! +06'(! -$! ?'! '#)+)'(! +#(!
3$, '-'#-:!!
7<'! $$331$#1! -5$/ ! 10! $#'! $9! -<'! ?'0-! '.+, &'0! $9! +! 6#$%&'()'/?+0'(! 3$, +#!>! +!
3$, +#!!%<13<!?+0'0!1-0!0/33'00!$#!-<'!('*'&$ ,'#-!$9!1-0!', &$!''0,!6#$%&'()':!7<'!0+,'!
10! -5/'! 9$5! $#'! $9! 1-0! !$/#)'0-! '#('+*$/501! $$331$#1! )/,+#3+5':! 7<'5'9$5'>! -<'! 1('+! %+0! -$!
,+#+)'! -<'! 6#$%&'()'! -<'! )/,+#3+5'! -'+,! ('*'&$ 0! $*'5! -1,':! %#! 1##$*+-1*'! %+!! -$!
1#35'+0'! ', &$!''0,! 6#$%&'()'! 1#! +! 3$&&+?$5+-1*'! +#(! 1#-'5+3-1*'! %+!! 10! -<'! /0'! $9! 0$31+&!
,'(1+!%1-<1#!$5)+#10+-1$#0:!7<10!10!-<'!'#-'5 510'!0$31+&!#'-%$561#)! <'#$,'#$#:!!
./01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$560! ?$55$%! 95$,! -<'15! 3$#0/,'5! 3$/01#0! 9':):! :+3'?$$6;! 1#! -<+-!
-<'!!'#+?&'!/0'50!-$!0'-!/ ! 5$91&'0>!0<+5'!1('+0>!9$5,!)5$/ 0!+#(!9$&&$%!'+3<!$-<'5U0!0-+-/0!
/ (+-'0:! 7<'! /5 $0'! 10! ?$-<! -$! '#+?&'! 0$31+&! 3$##'3-1$#! +#(! -$! 1#35'+0'! ', &$!''0,!
6#$%&'()'! +#(! 5$(/3-1*1-!! ?!! ,+61#)! 1-! '+01'5! 9$5! -<',! -$! 6#$%! %<$! ($'0! %<+-! +#(! %<$!
6#$%0!%<+-!%1-<1#!+#!$5)+#10+-1$#:!
7<10! 5$('3-! 10! +?$/-! 1#-5$(/31#)! +! ?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56! %1-<1#! $$331$#1! )/,+#3+5'!
%1-<!-<'!+1,!$9!9+31&1-+-1#)!6#$%&'()'!+#(!1#9$5,+-1$#!0<+51#)!+,$#)!3$&&'+)/'0:!?#!;/&!!6E-<>!
6536! -<'! #'%! 6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,! %+0! &+/#3<'(:! 8'$ &'! %'5'! )1*'#! -$-+&! 95''($,!
+?$/-! %<'#! +#(! <$%! -$! /0'! -<'! &+-9$5,! +0! 1-! 0<$/&(! ?'! 1#! +! 6#$%&'()'/?+0'(! 3$, +#!! 1#!
%<13<! %$56'50! 6#$%! %<+-! -$! ($! +#(! <$%! -$! ($! 1-:! 0*'5!?$(!! <+(! -$! 9''&! 95''! -$! 0<+5'!
%<+-'*'5!1#9$5,+-1$#!%+0!3$#01('5'(!-$!?'!%$5-<!0<+51#)>!0/3<!+0!)'#'5+&!/ (+-'0>! '50$#+&!
1('+0!+#(!$ 1#1$#0>!+5-13&'0>!*1('$0>! <$-$0>! 5'0'#-+-1$#0>!($3/,'#-0>!)$+&0!+3<1'*'(>!'-3:!
7<10! '. '51,'#-! <+0! ?''#! +#! 1, $5-+#-! 0-' ! -$%+5(0! -<'! 35'+-1$#! $9! +! 6#$%&'()'/
0<+51#)! 3$, +#!:! "-! %+0! &+/#3<'(! %1-<1#! +! 0-+5-// ! %<13<! ?+0'0! 1-0! 0/33'00! $#! <$%! 9+0-!
', &$!''0! +3+/15'! #'%! 6#$%&'()':! 7</0>! 1-! ?'3+,'! +! 5'+&! -$$&! %<13<! 10! 3$#-51?/-1#)! -$! -<'!
0/33'00! $9! -<10! ?/01#'00! 1#1-1+-1*':! .'01('0>! ', &$!''0! +5'! /01#)! -<'! &+-9$5,! '*'#! #$%! +#(!
-<10!10!-<'!,$0-!5'+00/51#)!5'0/&-:!
!
!

35E !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

8'5<+ 0>!-<'!-<5''!,+1#!5'0/&-0!%<13<!<+*'!?''#!5'+3<'(!+5'!-<'!9$&&$%1#)1!

7'+,! ,',?'50! <+*'! +5)/'(! -<'!! &'+5#-! 0$,'-<1#)! #'%! -<'!! (1(! #$-! 6#$%! ?'9$5'!
-<+#60!-$!-<'!#'%! 0$31+&! &+-9$5,:!"#!)'#'5+&>!'*'5!?$(!! #$%! <+0!+! ?'--'5!/#('50-+#(1#)!$9!
'+3<!$-<'5,0! +3-1*1-1'0:! 7<10!10! -<'!,$0-!5'+00/51#)!5'0/&-!01#3'! +3+/151#)!#'%!6#$%&'()'! %+0!
-<'!,+1#!$?('3-1*'!#$-!$#&!!$9!-<10!-<'0102!-<'!3$, +#!!1-0'&9!?'&1'*'0!1-0!0/33'00!10!?+0'(!$#!
-<'15!', &$!''0,!3$, '-'#3':!
*$5'$*'5>!?'9$5'!&+/#3<1#)!-<'! &+-9$5,>!0$,'! $-'#-1+&!?'#'91-0!<+(!?''#!91)/5'(!$/-:!
?#'!$9!-<'!,$0-!/0'9/&!+#(!'.31-1#)!?'#'91-!%+0!-<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!9$5,!'.-'5#+&!#'-%$560!-$!
1, 5$*'! -<'! 5'&+-1$#0<1 ! %1-<! 3/0-$,'50>! +5-#'50! +#(! +#!! 0-+6'<$&('5! 1#! )'#'5+&:! 7<10!
$001?1&1-!! %+0! 3$#01('5'(! -$! ?'! ,/3<! $%'59/&! ?/-! +&0$! (19913/&-! -$! +--+1#! 0$$#:! -&+(&!>!
', &$!''0!+&$#'!('31('(!-$!/0'!-<'!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!#$-!$#&!!9$5!1#-'5#+&! /5 $0'0!?/-!
+&0$! -$! $ '#! / ! -<',0'&*'0! -$! -<'! ,+56'-:! 7$! ($! -<+->! -<'!! 35'+-'(! +#! '.-'5#+&! #'-%$56! 1#!
%<13<!+&&!-<'!%$5&(%1('!/0'50!$9!-<'15!,+1#! 5$(/3-! +5-131 +-':!!
:1#+&&!>!-<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ ! '59$5,0!+!!'+5&!!'*+&/+-1$#!$9!1-0!', &$!''0>!,$0-&!!?+0'(!
$#! <$%! %'&&! -<'!! 91-! 1#-$! -<'! 3$, +#!! *+&/'0>! +#(! 0$! ($'0! $$331$#1! )/,+#3+5':! 7<'! 0$31+&!
&+-9$5,!<+0!)1*'#!-<'!3$, +#!!#'%!'*+&/+-1$#!-$$&0:!:$5!1#0-+#3'>!1-!10!#$%! $001?&'!9$5!-<'!
./01#'00! @#1-! *+#+)'5>! +#(! 9$5! ', &$!''0! -<',0'&*'0>! -$! /#('50-+#(! %<$! 10! 5$+3-1*'!
'#$/)<!-$! +5-131 +-'!%1-<!'#-</01+0,!1#!#'%!1#1-1+-1*'0!+#(!%<$!10!#$->!%<$!/#('50-+#(0!%<!!
0$,'!1#1-1+-1*'0!+5'!&+/#3<'(!+#(!%<$!($'0!#$->!'-3:!

.+0'(! $#! -<'! '. '51'#3'! )+1#'(! $*'5! -<'! &+0-! ,$#-<0>! 0$,'! $001?1&1-1'0! 9$5! 9/-/5'!
(15'3-1$#0!<+*'!?''#!<1)<&1)<-'(:!

! "9! $$331$#1! )/,+#3+5'! %+#-0! -$! ,+6'! 9/&&! /0'! $9! -<'! $001?1&1-1'0! 5$*1('(! ?!! +!
?/01#'00! 0$31+&! #'-%$56>! 1-! ,1)<-! %'&&! ('31('! -$! ,+6'! 0$,'! 3<+#)'0! 5'+/'0-'(! ?!!
', &$!''0! -<',0'&*'0>! 0/3<! +0! -<'! $001?1&1-!! -$! 3+-')$51I'! $0-0! 9$5! +! ?'--'5! 5'/
0'+53<!$9!1#9$5,+-1$#!+9-'5!%''60!$5!,$#-<0>!$5!?'--'5!1#-')5+-1#)!-<'!0$31+&! &+-9$5,!
%1-<!-<'!3$, +#!!'.10-1#)!-$$&0>!0/3<!+0!-<'!',+1&!+#(!-<'!1#-5+#'->!$5!01, &!!<+*1#)!
', &$!''0! ,''-! $#3'! +! %''6! -$! (103/00! +?$/-! -<'! &<$-! -$ 130'! 5+10'(! -<5$/)<! -<'!
&+-9$5,2!

! 35F
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

! 2$,'! 9'+-/5'0! ', &$!''0! %$/&(! &16'! -$! /0'! +5'! #$-! +*+1&+?&'! 1#! -<'! B+,,'5,0! ?+013!
*'501$#>!?/-!-<'!!+5'!+*+1&+?&'!9$5!/0'!19!$#'!0/?0351?'!-$!1-0! 5',1/,!*'501$#0:!7<'#!
+)+1#>! -<'! 3$, +#!! ,1)<-! ('31('! -$! 1#*'0-! 5'0$/53'0! -$! '#+?&'! ', &$!''0! -$!+33'00!
0$,'!1, $5-+#-!9'+-/5'0!-<'!!%$/&(!&16'!-$!0''!1#!-<'15! &+-9$5,2!

! 2$9-%+5'! 100/'0! +5'! #$-! -<'! $#&!! $#'0! ('0'5*1#)! +--'#-1$#:! )+5(%+5'! 100/'0! +5'! +0!
,/3<! 5'&'*+#-:! :$5! 1#0-+#3'>! 0+&'0! '$ &'! %'5'! '. '3-'(! -$! /0'! -<'! 0$31+&! &+-9$5,!
,$5'! -<+#! -<'!! +3-/+&&!! (1(! ?'3+/0'! -<'!! +5'! -<'! $#'0! %<$! 0<$/&(! 3$,,/#13+-'!
,$5':!7'3<#131+#0! +5'!/0/+&&!!5'&/3-+#-!-$! 3$,,/#13+-'!+!&$->! %<1&'!9$5!0+&'0! '$ &'!
3$,,/#13+-1$#!10!-<'15!(+1&!!?5'+(:!2$,'-1,'0>!<$%'*'5>!-<'!!%'5'!/#+?&'!-$!/0'!-<'!
#'%! -$$&! %<'#! ?'1#)! $/-01('! -<'! 3$, +#!! ?'3+/0'! $9! 3$##'3-1$#! 5$?&',0! $5!
?'3+/0'!-<'!,$?1&'!+ !%+0!#$-!%$561#)!%'&&:!7<'5'9$5'>!1#!-<'!9/-/5'!-<'!3$, +#!!
,1)<-! -<1#6! $9! )1*1#)! 0$,'! $9! 1-0! ', &$!''0! 3$#35'-'! <+5(%+5'! -$$&0! %<13<! %$/&(!
,+6'!1-!'+01'5!9$5!-<',!-$!/0'!0$9-%+5'!+ &13+-1$#0:!:$5!1#0-+#3'>!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5'!
2+&'0!8'$ &'!9$5!+#!$#'!%<$!10!3$#0-+#-&!!$/-01('!-<'!3$, +#!;!3+#!?'!)1*'#!-+?&'-0!
-$!<+*'!-<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!/0'!0$31+&!,'(1+!%<'5'*'5!-<'!!+5'>!%<'#'*'5!-<'!!%+#-:!

%&&!1#!+&&>!', &$!''0!+5'!0+-1091'(!+?$/-!-<'!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)!'. '51,'#-:!"#(''(>!-<'!!


('31('(! -$! 3$#-1#/'! %1-<! 1-:! 7<'! 5'+0$#! %<!! 0$,'! ', &$!''0! <+*'! #$-! +5-131 +-'(! +0!
'. '3-'(! 10! -<+-! 0$,'! $?0-+3&'0! 5'*'#-'(! -<',! 95$,! ($1#)! 0$:! 7<'5'9$5'>! 19! -<'! 3$, +#!!
+((5'00'0!+#(!0$&*'0!-<',>!-<'!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,!,1)<-!?'3$,'!,$5'!'#)+)1#)!+#(!
/0'9/&!+#(!', &$!''0!,1)<-!+0!%'&&!0-+5-!/01#)!1-!-$!1-0!9/&&! $-'#-1+&:!

354 !
!
%#+&!010>!3$#3&/01$#0!+#(!9/-/5'!(15'3-1$#0

Key ideas
! 0, &$!''0! /0'(! -<'! 6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,! 9$5! +! =/,$#-<! '51$(! ?'1#)!
,$#1-$5'(! ?!! -<'! +/-<$5:! %9-'5! -<+->! -<'! +3-1*1-!! $#! -<'! 0$31+&! &+-9$5,! 3$#-1#/'(!
#$5,+&&!!%1-<$/-!?'1#)!/#('5!-<'!+/-<$5,0!3$#-5$&:!
! 7<10!'. '51,'#-!<+0!?''#!-<'!9150-!0-' !-$%+5(0!-<'!35'+-1$#!$9!+!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)!
$5)+#10+-1$#! +#(! -<'! #'%! &+-9$5,! <+0! ?'3$,'! +#! 1, $5-+#-! -$$&! %<13<! 10!
3$#-51?/-1#)!-$!-<'!0/33'00!$9!-<'!0-+5-// !%1-<1#!%<13<!1-!<+0!?''#!1, &','#-'(:!
! 7'+,!,',?'50!+5)/'(!-$!<+*'!&'+5#-!0$,'-<1#)!-<'!!(1(!#$-!6#$%!?'9$5'!-<+#60!-$!
-<'! #'%! 0$31+&! &+-9$5,:! 7<'!! #$%! <+*'! +! ?'--'5! /#('50-+#(1#)! $9! '+3<! $-<'5,0!
+3-1*1-!:!
! ?#'! $9! -<'! ,$0-! '.31-1#)! 5'0/&-0! 10! -<+-! ', &$!''0! <+*'! ('31('(! $#! -<'15! $%#! -$!
35'+-'!+#!'.-'5#+&!#'-%$56!-$!9$0-'5!-<'!5'&+-1$#0<1 !%1-<!+&&!-<'!%$5&(%1('!/0'50!$9!
-<'15!,+1#! 5$(/3-:!!
! 7<'!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!<+0!+&0$!)1*'#!-<'!3$, +#!!#'%!'&','#-0!-$!'*+&/+-'!1-0!
', &$!''0:!
! 0, &$!''0! +5'! 0+-1091'(! +?$/-! -<'! 6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,! +#(! ('31('(! -$!
3$#-1#/'!-$!/0'!1-:!
! 2$,'! $?0-+3&'0! 5'*'#-'(! -<',! 95$,! /01#)! -<10! -$$&! ,$5'! '99'3-1*'&!:! .!! +!1#)!
+--'#-1$#! -$! -<'! 100/'0! 5+10'(! ?!! ', &$!''0! -<'0'! $?0-+3&'0! 3+#! ?'! $*'53$,'>! -</0!
,+61#)!-<'!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)! &+-9$5,!,$5'!'#)+)1#)!+#(!/0'9/&:!

! 335
!

REFERENCES
CHAPTER 1: KNOWLEDGE-
KNOWLEDGE-BASED ENTERPRISES

2:!-?A"4>!2%0$,45)%2!75$!;1$,?)-#4>!)! '51$#>!?3-$?'5!35>!6553!

A:! ):! 8"4">! F! @5'0$! 6$/! .)%1*! @5:! G)25738-,)%$-4! @)00! G#0$! 75$! A#7#-$>! =1*'5<'+(! 75+('>!
*+53<!E>!655>!

;:=":""4>!&,!8)%$!1$0!0,?'-'>!.+&(1#1!K!#+0-$&(1>!*1&+#>!3444>! :!6F=/6FG!

::! .@70=%>! -%'/0$12$! @'-.)%2!! &,?'-' ! 0,?'-,7'-) ! 4'()$7&! 1$00,! ('%'4($%>,>! *$#(+($51!
@#1*'501-L>!*1&+#>!655F>! :C!

.:! $0D>! ;%7,%2)90$4*! .,%,2$+$%7 ! .$,4#-$+$%7 ! ,%1! G$6'-7)%2>! .5$$61#)0! "#0-1-/-1$#! 85'00>!
;/#'!6E>!6553!

%:! 8%2H@%=0$$%>! ;0! "#)%7'! )7,7'!! %??$-'! 0=)--$4)47)9)0$! ,4($4,! 1$)! .%'/0$12$! /'-.$-! %$00$!
,>)$%1$>!-/'51#1!'!%00$31+-1>!% 51&!3=>!6533!

*:! .%=7?##">! F%)+,0)6)-)74! )%! K,00$4)%,!! /%-)('! &'(()'%)! ,%1! 75$! $%7$-6-)4$! ,4! ,! 2,+$>! $/100!
@#1*'501-!!85'00>!;/#'!6533!

CHAPTER 2: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SOCIAL NETWORKS

;:)%-0$!""">!;:!2:!.=?84>!$:!A%D"2?4>!F!8$77$-!@,:!7'!.,%,2$!-%'/0$12$>!&)+5*+5(!./01#'00!
='*1'%'>!;+#/+5!!34>!6535!

-:!2:!#$%"=>!A)H!-%'/0$12$!.,%,2$+$%7O!.'?$!7'!-%'/0$12$!)$-?)($4>!;+#/+5!!655=!

":!#)%4>!8:!B:":!#)%@>!@5:!-%'/0$12$!.,%,2$+$%7!A,)04*!&$44'%4!8-'+!,!9,4$!)7#1:!9#<:!OD"1!
#+0'! 2-/(1'0! 1#! "#$%&'()'! *+#+)','#-! ?!! */55+!! 0:! ;'##'.;>! 8%! "('+! -5$/ ! 8/?&10<1#)>!
)'50<'!>!655G!

A:!-"$*?@=>!*'/!7'!A)H!-%'/0$12$!.,%,2$+$%7>!&)+5*+5(!./01#'00!='*1'%'>!?3-$?'5!655C!!

8:!2%477">!*+0-'5,0!-<'0101!P$?$0'6)%2!9'-6'-,7$!-%'/0$12$!"5-'#25!)'(),0!.$1),>!4$*',?'5!
63>!655F!

333 !
!
='9'5'#3'0

7:A%D048?=7>! /%7$-6-)4$! 3!1*! "5$! 6$/ ! 6$/! -%'/0$12$! .,%,2$+$%7O>! &)+5*+5(! ./01#'00!
='*1'%'>!:'?5/+5!!34>!655F!

%:! ;:! .=%A$0B>! *:! 8:! *3A?4%$A>! )'(),0! .$1),! ?$-4#4! -%'/0$12$! .,%,2$+$%7>! &)+5*+5(!
./01#'00!='*1'%'>!?3-$?'5!6>>!6533!

;:)%-0$!""">!;:!2:!.=?84>!$:!A%D"2?4>!F!8$77$-!@,:!7'!.,%,2$!-%'/0$12$>!&)+5*+5(!./01#'00!
='*1'%'>!;+#/+5!!34>!6535!!!

%:! ="#)%=A2?4>! -%'/0$12$! .,%,2$+$%7! 8$0'/! 75$! G,1,->! &)+5*+5(! ./01#'00! ='*1'%'>!
;+#/+5!!=>!6533!

;:):!0:%4A="02204>!"'!45,-$!'-!%'7!7'!45,-$ !75,7!)4!75$!'#$47)'%!!9'%1)7)'%4!8'-!75$!/)00)%2%$44!
7'!45,-$!.%'/0$12$>!A'&9-!@#1*'501-!!$9!7'3<#$&$)!>!:'?5/+5!!655>!

8:)04A=""2>! @5:! )5,-$! -%'/0$12$O! "5$! ;%80#$%($! '8! ;9"! '%! 75$! .'7)?,7)'%! 8'-! -%'/0$12$!
)5,-)%2>!41(,')'#!./01#'00!23<$$&>!@#1*'501-!!$9!41(,')'#>!7<'!4'-<'5&+#(0>!3444!

*:! 8:! D%4%$27B40>! 9-$,7$! 9'00$,2#$4 ! 6'7! 9'+6$7)7'-4>! &)+5*+5(! ./01#'00! ='*1'%'>!
2' -',?'5!655G!

2:=%"#0>!)'(),0!6$7/'-.)%2!*$,14!7'!75$!%88)($>!&7<'!8+&&!2-5''-!;$/5#+&'>!% 51&!6>!6536!

%:! 8%2H@%=0$$%>! ;0! "#)%7'! )7,7'!! %??$-'! 0S)--$4)47)9)0$! ,4($4,! 1$)! .%'/0$12$! /'-.$-! %$00$!
,>)$%1$>!-/'51#1!'!%00$31+-1>!% 51&!3=>!6533!

.:!"0802 !"/)77$-30).$!7''04!8'-!75$!$%7$-6-)4$>!&0#-'5 510'!6:5'>!;/#'!6G>!6554!

7:8%=A>! /+60':$$! )'(),0! 6$7/'-.)%2! +),9-$! "'/%! (,4$! 47#1:,>!


%%%: 5'031'#-(1)1-+&:3$,Q+5-13&'0Q1#-5+#'-/+5-13&'0Q', &$!''/0$31+&/#'-%$561#)/3+0'/0-/(!!
9%33'00'(!$#!;/&!!F>!6536;!

A:A?427?4/*"$$0=>!"$%!'#$47)'%4!9$8'-$!(5''4)%2!,%!)%7$-%,0!4'(),0!%$7/'-.!60,78'-+>!&7<'!
.5+1#B+5('>!;+#/+5!!34>!6536!

A:! ::! #%==>! "$%! /%7$-6-)4$! )'(),0! 6$7/'-.)%2! %947,(0$4>! &7<'! .5+1#B+5('>! ;+#/+5!! C>! 6536

! 336
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!
!

A:!::!#%==>!E,++$-!*$064!(-'($-:!95,)%!2%)7$!8-,%14>!&7<'!.5+1#B+5('>!;+#/+5!!4>!6536!

.&$)! $0->!G,1)(,0!"-,%46,-$%(:!P-)?$4!8#4)%$44!"-,%48'-+,7)'%!,7!)2M/GKF&2>!*+!!63>!6536!!

=! &'1! #/0-$,'5! #+0'! 2-$5!>! P-)?)%2! 8#4)%$44! )#(($44! /)75! )'(),0! (',04! 3!1>!
<-- 1QQ5! &':3$,Q1,+)'0Q3/0-$,'50Q2 $-19!#+0'2-$5!: (9!9%33'00'(!$#!;/&!!3C>!6536;!

=! &'1!:+3'?$$6!#+0'!2-$5!>!<-- 1QQ5! &':3$,Q9+3'?$$6!9%33'00'(!$#!;/&!!C5>!6536;!!

=! &'1! #/0-$,'5! #+0'! 2-$5!>! G$60,()%2! 75$! =P-$,1$1! F%%#,0! G$?)$/C !


<-- 1QQ5! &':3$,Q1,+)'0Q3/0-$,'50Q-1&--5$/ #+0'2-$5!: (9!9%33'00'(!$#!;/&!!3C>!6536;!!!

7'+,$+?!.&$)>!"$,+&,9!#4$-!4#(($44!47'-:!X3*!*'/!;!8'#%1!,!=(5$,6$-C!6-'B$(7!+,%,2$+$%7!
4'0#7)'%!(0'4$!$%'#25!7'!+:!6$-8$(7)'%>!?3-$?'5!33>!6535!!

!
!
!
!
!!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!
!

Appendix
KIWI: KNOWLEDGE WORKER
WORKER INFRASTRUCTURE
=;7!7,.$4!7)+$!7'!$H(5,%2$!)%8'-+,7)'% !9#7!)7!7,.$4!7-#47!7'!45,-$!.%'/0$12$C!!
M!4$5?'5-$!8+-51)#+#1>=!

7<10!+ '#(1.!<+0!?''#!%51--'#!?'3+/0'!-<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ !<+0!5'3'#-&!!('31('(!-$!%$56!$#!+!


5$('3-!/!-;@;!/!%<13<!10!01,1&+5!-$!-<'!3/55'#-!%$56!-<'010:!.$-<!%+#-!-$!9+31&1-+-'!6#$%&'()'!
0<+51#)!+,$#)!', &$!''0>!?$-<!5'+/15'!-<'!/0'!$9!0$31+&!,'(1+!-$!($!-<+-:!)$%'*'5>!-<'!""8"!
<+0! +! ,/3<! &$#)'5! $51'#-+-1$#! +#(! %1&&! ?'! +*+1&+?&'! 9$5! -<'! /0'! $9! -<'! %<$&'! 3$, +#!! 1#! +-!
&'+0-!+!!'+5:!"#0-'+(>!-<'!3/55'#-! 5$('3-!$#&!!1#*$&*'0!$#'!?/01#'00!/#1-!9$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5';!
+#(!1-0!&+/#3<! <+0'!%+0!,/3<!+/136'5:!#$#01('5!-<+-!-<'!-%$! 5$('3-0!<+*'!<'& '(!'+3<!$-<'5!
+#(! +! 3$$ '5+-1$#! %+0! ?$5#:! "#(''(>! -<'! '$ &'! 5'0 $#01?&'! 9$5! -<'! 1, &','#-+-1$#! $9! -<'!
""8"!<+*'!<'& '(!-<'!/#('501)#'(!1#!-<'!1#1-1+&! <+0'!%1-<!,+#!!1#01)<-0!$#!-'3<#13+&!100/'0!+0!
%'&&!+0!3$$5(1#+-1$#!100/'0!-$!+&1)#!-<'!-%$! 5$('3-0!-$%+5(0!-<'!0+,'!3$, +#!!$?('3-1*':!!
?#! -<'! $-<'5! <+#(>! -<'! 5'0/&-0! $9! -<10! %$56! <+0! ?''#! /0'(! ?!! -<'! %<$&'! 3$, +#!! -$!
('-'5,1#'! %<'-<'5! $5! #$-! 1-! ,+('! 0'#0'! -$! 1#*'0-! -1,'! +#(! 5'0$/53'0! $#! +#! '*'#! ?1))'5!
5$('3-!+#(>!19!0$>!<$%!-$! 5$3''(!%1-<!1-:!7<'!9$&&$%1#)!0'3-1$#!0!#-<'01I'0!%<+-!-<'!""8"!10!+&&!
+?$/-:!!!!!

"#$%&'()'! 0<+51#)! <+0! ?'3$,'! +! 35/31+&! 100/'! +-! $$331$#1! -5$/ ! 9$5! +! #/,?'5! $9!
5'+0$#0>!+,$#)!%<13<1!

! 7<'!#/,?'5!$9!', &$!''0!<+0!$*'53$,'!-<'!=55!-<5'0<$&(2!
! 7<'!3$, +#!!<+0!9$/5!&')+&!?+0'0!91#!"-+&!>!1#!-<'!@:2:%:>!1#!-'5,+#!!+#(!1#!#<1#+;2!
! 7<'!3$, +#!!($'0!?/01#'00!1#!91*'!(199'5'#-!1#(/0-51'01!
! *$?1&1-!!
! )$,'!
! 0#'5)!!
! 0#*15$#,'#-!
! )/,+#3+5'!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
>=
4$5?'5-$!8+-51)#+#1>! 5$9'00$5!$9!#$, /-'5!0-<130!+-!-<'!8$&!-'3<#13!@#1*'501-!!$9!7/51#>!10!+#!'. '5-!
+-!-<'!0$31+&!+#(!'-<13+&!1, &13+-1$#0!$9!-<'!"#9$5,+-1$#!7'3<#$&$)!:!!!!!

! 33=
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

%&&! -<'0'! '$ &'! 3$,1#)! 95$,! (199'5'#-! '(/3+-1$#+&! ?+36)5$/#(0>! %$561#)! $#! (199'5'#-!
,+56'-0! +#(! /50/1#)! (199'5'#-! $?('3-1*'0! ,+('! 1-! $001?&'! -$! ('*'&$ ! +! *+51'-!! $9!
3$, '-'#3'0! 1#! -<'! +5'+0! $9! '&'3-5$#130>! ,'3<+#130>! 3$, /-'5! 031'#3'>! 3$,,/#13+-1$#>!
'3$#$,130! +#(! 0$! $#:! "#! -<10! 3$#-'.->! -<'! 6'!! 10! -$! +&&$%! '$ &'! -$! 0<+5'! 1#9$5,+-1$#>!
3$, '-'#3'0!+#(!'. '5-10'!%1-<!-<'!+1,!+-!?/1&(1#)!+!.%'/0$12$39,4$1!('+6,%::!
"#(''(>!0$,'!+/'0-1$#0!-<'!$$331$#1,0!3$&&+?$5+-$50!,+!!+06!-<',0'&*'0!+5'1!

! 8<$!6#$%0!%<$,<!
! )$%!,/3<!+#(!%<13<!1#9$5,+-1$#!($!%'!'.3<+#)'<!
! 8<$!($!%'!,''-<!8<$!($!%'!-+&6!-$<!
! )$%!,+#!!-<1#)0!($!%'!<+*'!1#!3$,,$#<!
! 8<$!3+#!%'!+06!9$5!1#9$5,+-1$#<!
! 8<$!<+0!+&5'+(!!($#'!+!01,1&+5! 5$('3-<!!!

?#!-<'!$#'!<+#(>!-<'!%1&&1#)#'00!-$!0<+5'!0<$/&(!?'!1#-51#013!-$!'+3<!', &$!''>!+0!-<'!
0'3-1$#!.'7)?,7)'%!8'-!-%'/0$12$!)5,-)%2! $1#-'(!$/-2!$#!-<'!$-<'5>!+!3$, +#!!,/0-! 5$*1('!
+('+/+-'!-$$&0!-$!'#+?&'! '$ &'!-$!0<+5'!-<'!6#$%&'()'!-<'!!('*'&$ !$*'5! -1,':!7<10!10!-<'!
1('+!?'<1#(!-;@;*!-%'/0$12$!@'-.$-!;%8-,47-#(7#-$!!""8"!10!+!%'?! $5-+&!-<5$/)<!%<13<!/0'50!
3+#!<+*'!+33'00!-$!,+#!!9'+-/5'0!?!!,'+#0!$9!+!)5+ <13+&!1#-'59+3':!!

Knowledge network

7<'!""8"!%1&&!'#+?&'!-$!35'+-'!+!.%'/0$12$!%$7/'-.!$9!-<'!'#-15'!3$, +#!!%<13<!%1&&!?'!,+('!
/ !$9!.%'74!+#(!('%%$(7)'%4:!

-%'74!
7<'! 6#$-0! +5'! -<'! ', &$!''0! $5! +#!! 0-+6'<$&('5! %<$! )5+*1-+-'! +5$/#(! -<'! 3$, +#!:! 7<'!
0!0-',!%1&&!3$#-+1#!+&&!-<'! 3$, '-'#3'0!+#(!'. '51'#3'0!-<+-!'+3<!', &$!''!$5!0-+6'<$&('5!
<+(!1#01('!+0!%'&&!+0!$/-01('!-<'!3$, +#!:!%! '50$#+&!#D!%1&&!?'!35'+-'(!+#(!/ (+-'(!?!!'+3<!
', &$!'':!7$!'#3$/5+)'!-<'!/ (+-'!$9!#D0>! -<'!0!0-',! %1&&!6'' ! -5+36! $9!-<'!&+0-!/ (+-'!$9!
+#!! #D! +#(! %1&&! #$-19!! -<'! 3$55'0 $#(1#)! /0'5! %<'#! +! 5'('91#'(! ('+(&1#'! <+0! '. 15'(! 9':):!
'*'5!!>!,$#-<0;:!!!!

33G !
!
""8"1!"#$%&'()'!8$56'5!"#95+0-5/3-/5'

%!(+-+!,+#+)','#-!,$('&!%1&&!)1*'!-<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!-+)!3$, '-'#3'0!1#!$5('5!-$!,+6'!


1-!'+01'5!-$!3+-')$51I'!-<',:!

9'%%$(7)'%4!
#$##'3-1$#0! 1#(13+-'! -<'! &'*'&! $9! 7-#47! +,$#)! -%$! 6#$-0:! 7<'! -! '! $9! 3$##'3-1$#0! 3+#! ?'!
(1*1('(!1#-$1!

! !!!!!P,7,*! '.3<+#)'! $9! 5'0'#-+-1$#0>! 3/0-$,'50! 9''(?+360>! ,+56'-! 0-/(1'0>! 0/ &1'50!


&10-0>!0+&'0!(+-+>!'-3:2!
! !!!!!;%8'-+,7)'%*!/0'50!0<+5'!1#9$5,+-1$#!$#!-<'!'.3<+#)'(!(+-+!9':):!+!5' $5-!0<$%1#)!
0+&'0!(+-+!?!!(',$)5+ <13!5')1$#;:!7<10!10!+!<1)<'5!&'*'&!$#!-<'!6#$%&'()'!#'-%$56!
3<+1#!01#3'!1-!5'+/15'0!+!5'+(1#)!$9!-<'!(+-+2!
! !!!!!-%'/0$12$*! #$-! $#&!! ($! /0'50! '.3<+#)'! (+-+! +#(! 1#9$5,+-1$#>! -<'!! 0<+5'! +3-/+&!
6#$%&'()'!9':):!+!2+&'0! *+#+)'5! /0'0!<'5! 6#$%&'()'!-$!1#-'5 5'-!+#(! /#('50-+#(!
-<'!1#9$5,+-1$#!1#3&/('(!1#!+#$-<'5!0+&'0! '50$#,0!5' $5-;!:!7<10!10!-<'!<1)<'0-!&'*'&!
$9!1#*$&*','#-!?'-%''#!-%$!6#$-0:!

8&'+0'! #$-13'! -<+-! 1-! -+6'0! -1,'! 9$5! -%$! 6#$-0! -$! '.3<+#)'! (+-+>! 1-! -+6'0! +--'#-1$#! -$!
'.3<+#)'! 1#9$5,+-1$#! +#(! 1-! -+6'0! -5/0-! -$! 0<+5'! 6#$%&'()':! %0! 2-''#! $+50'#! $#3'! 0+1(1!
&;%8'-+,7)'%!(,%!9$!7-,%4+)77$1!9#7!.%'/0$12$!+#47!9$!)%1#($1!C!
"#! 5+3-13'>! 3$##'3-1$#0! +,$#)! ', &$!''0! 1#! -<'! 6#$%&'()'! #'-%$56! +5'! $9-'#! -<'!
5'0/&-!$9!+!3$$ '5+-1$#!(/51#)!+! 5$('3-:!7</0>!3$##'3-1$#0!0<$/&(!?'!3$#01('5'(!1#!-<'!3$#-'.-!
$9!+#!+3-/+&! 5$('3-!?'1#)!3+551'(!$/-:!

Key Performance Indicators

"'!!8'59$5,+#3'!"#(13+-$50!9"8";!%1&&!?'!/0'(!-$!,'+0/5'!-<'!'99'3-1*'#'00!$9!-<'!0!0-',:!:$5!
1#0-+#3'>!0$,'!"8"!,+!!?'1!

! !!!!!A+-'!$9!&+0-!+33'001!-$!1('#-19!!/0'50!%<$!($!#$-!&$)!1#!9$5!%''60!$5!,$#-<02!
! !!!!!A+-'!$9!&+0-!#D!/ (+-'1!-$!-5+36!<$%!&$#)!/0'50!($!#$-!/ (+-'!-<'15!#D!9$5!+#(!-$!
#$-19!!-<',!1#!3+0'!$9!+! 5$-5+3-'(!,100'(!/ (+-'2!
! !!!!!A'-+1&0!$9!$#',0!$%#!'. '51'#3'01!-<'!,$5'!-<'!('-+1&0>!-<'!<1)<'5!-<'!+/+&1-!!$9!-<'!
#D2!

! 33>
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

! !!!!!4/,?'5!$9!-$-+&!3$##'3-1$#0!+#(!#/,?'5!$9!3$##'3-1$#0! '5!/0'52!
! !!!!!4/,?'5! $9! 3$#-51?/-1$#0! $*'5! -1,'! '5! /0'5! 9%161>! 9$5/,>! ?&$))1#);1! -$! ('-'5,1#'!
-<'! +5-131 +-1$#! $9! /0'50! 1#! -<'! 35'+-1$#! $9! 3$#-'#-! +#(! -$! 3&+0019!! -<'! -$ 130!
+33$5(1#)!-$!-<'!3$$ '5+-1$#!5+-':>G!

"8"! +5'! +&0$! /0'(! 1#! -<'! 3$#-'.-! $9! A+-+>! "#9$5,+-1$#! +#(! "#$%&'()':! .+0'(! $#! <$%!
,+#!!(+-+! '$ &'!'.3<+#)'>!<$%!,/3<!1#9$5,+-1$#!+#(!6#$%&'()'!-<'!!0<+5'>!+!3<+5-!&16'!-<'!
9$&&$%1#)!3+#!?'!35'+-'(!9$5!'+3<!/0'5:!

!
)'5'!+5'!-<'!9'+-/5'0!-<'!""8"!%1&&! 5$*1('1!

! (+(74*!-<'!0!0-',!%1&&! 5$*1('!+!9$5/,!-$!'#3$/5+)'!-<'!35'+-1$#!$9!+!#$,,/#1-!!$9!
85+3-13'>>!%<'5'!/0'50!3+#!'.3<+#)'!6#$%&'()'!155'0 '3-1*'!$9!%<'5'!-<'!!+5'!1#!-<'!
$5)+#10+-1$#!3<+5-2!
! ./1/*! -<'! 0!0-',! %1&&! ,+#+)'! +! 3$&&'3-1$#! $9! ($3/,'#-0! %<13<! %1&&! ?'! 35'+-'(! +#(!
/ (+-'(!?!!/0'50!-<',0'&*'0:!#$#-'#-!3+#!?'!3<+#)'(!?!!+#!!/0'5!?!!+((1#)>!/ (+-1#)!
$5! '5+01#)! %<+-! <+0! ?''#! 5'*1$/0&!! %51--'#! ?!! $-<'50:! ??*1$/0&!>! +#!! 3<+#)'! 10!
5')10-'5'(! 0$! -<+-! +! -'.-! 3+#! +&%+!0! ?'! ?5$/)<-! ?+36! -$! -<'! 5'*1$/0! *'501$#! 19!
#'3'00+5!:! 7<'! +1,! 10! -$! 0<+5'>! '.3<+#)'>! 0-$5'! +#(! $ -1,10'! 6#$%&'()'! 1#! +!
3$$ '5+-1*'!%+!2!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
>G
!)$%'*'5>!-<'!#/,?'5!$9!3$#-51?/-1$#0!+&$#'!3+##$-!?'!3$#01('5'(!+0!+#!1#(13+-$5!$9!-<'!'99'3-1*'#'00!
$9!-<'!-$$&:!"#(''(>!%<+-!5'+&&!!,+--'50!10!%<13<!3$#-51?/-1$#0! 5$(/3'!5'&'*+#-!5'0/&-0!9$5!-<'!3$, +#!:!
>>
!%!#$,,/#1-!!$9!85+3-13'!10!+!)5$/ !$9! '$ &'!0<+51#)!+! 5$9'001$#!$5!01, &!!+#!1#-'5'0-:!"-!3+#!?'!
35'+-'(!0 '31913+&&!!%1-<!-<'!)$+&!$9!)+1#1#)!6#$%&'()'!5'&+-'(!-$!-<'15!91'&(:!

33E !
!
""8"1!"#$%&'()'!8$56'5!"#95+0-5/3-/5'

! 4-+.*!+#!! /0'5! %1&&! ?'!+?&'!-$!35'+-'!+! '50$#+&! ?&$)!%<13<! %1&&!?'! 3&+00191'(!-<5$/)<!


5'('91#'(! 3+-')$51'0! 97,24;! +#(! $-<'5! /0'50! %1&&! ?'! +?&'! -$! 3$,,'#-! $#! /?&10<'(!
3$#-'#-02!
! =/0(+3;-+../,.*!,135$/?&$))1#)!10!01,1&+5!-$!?&$)0:!"-!+&&$%0! '$ &'!-$!3$#0-+#-&!! $0-!
0<$5-!,'00+)'0!1#!+!3$,,$#!+5'+!$5!1#!+#!+5'+!-<+-!$#&!!+!&1,1-'(!3$,,/#1-!!$9!/0'50!
3+#! <+*'! +33'00! -$:! %#!! $0-! 3+#! ?'! 3$,,'#-'(>! 3+-')$51I'(! +#(! '*'#! )5+('(! ?!!
$-<'5!/0'50!-$!('91#'!1-0!&*+&/''2!
! :,*&$,&!4'**$./,.!?"#$&@*! '$ &'!%1&&!?'!+?&'!-$!3$,,/#13+-'!1#!5'+&!-1,'!-<5$/)<!+!
3<+-:! 7<10! 10! '0 '31+&&!! /0'9/&! %<'#! $#'! #''(0! -$! 3$,,/#13+-'! %1-<! +! 3$&&'+)/'! $9!
+#$-<'5!(' +5-,'#-!$5!'*'#!$9!+#$-<'5!3$, +#!!?+0'2!
! "$-',9$(*! /?&13! +#(! 51*+-'! '*'#-0! %1&&! ?'! +?&'! -$! ?'! 35'+-'(! +#(! *10/+&10'(! $#! +!
3+&'#(+5:!0+3<!'*'#-!3+#!?'!+00$31+-'(!%1-<!+!5',+1#('5!?'1#)!0'#-!-$!+!0 '31913!/0'5!
$5!-$!+!#/,?'5!$9!/0'502!
! 9(+A'0&!=$,$.'4',&*!-<'!0!0-',!%1&&!'#+?&'!-$!35'+-'!+#(!-5+36!#'%! 5$('3-0:!7'+,!
,',?'50! 3+#! ?'! +001)#'(! -$! 0 '31913! 5$('3-0! +#(! (199'5'#-! 5$&'0! 3+#! ?'! +001)#'(! -$!
(199'5'#-! ,',?'50:! %! ,',?'5! 3+#! ?'! 1#*$&*'(! 1#! (199'5'#-! 5$('3-0! %1-<! (199'5'#-!
-'+,0!+#(!(199'5'#-!5$&'0:!0+3<! 5$('3-!10!3<+5+3-'51I'(!?!!+!0'51'0!$9!-+060:!.+0'(!$#!
'+3<! 5$('3->!+!%$569&$%!3+#!?'!35'+-'(!('0351?1#)!-<'!(199'5'#-! <+0'0!+#(>!9$5!'+3<!
$9! -<$0'>! &10-0! -<'! -+060! -<+-! #''(0! -$! ?'! 3$, &'-'(:! @0'50! 3+#! +00$31+-'! -$! '+3<!
5$('3-!+!('(13+-'(! $5-+&!9$5!%1610>!9$5/,0>!3+&'#(+5!$9!'*'#-0!+#(!+!0 '31913!?&$)2!
! /'$(,/,.!&++-*!*?$$60>!#'%0 + '50>! /?&13+-1$#0>!&'+5#1#)!($3/,'#-0!+*+1&+?&'!1#!-<'!
3$, +#!!1#!+!(1)1-+&!9$5,+-!%1&&!?'!+?&'!-$!?'!5'+(!+#(!($%#&$+('(!95$,!-<'!$#&1#'!
&1?5+5!!$9!-<'!""8"2!
! "7*&+4/6$&/+,*!/0'50!%1&&!<+*'!-<'! $001?1&1-!!-$!35'+-'!+! '50$#+&! +)'!1#!%<13<!-<'!!
3+#!0'&'3-!3$#-'#-0!-$!?'!(10 &+!'(!+#(!<+*'!+!5+ 1(!+33'00!-$!-<'!,$0-!/0'(!9'+-/5'0:!
:$5! 1#0-+#3'>! -<'! '50$#+&! +)'! ,+!! <+*'! %1()'-0! %<13<! %1&&! ,+6'! 1-! $001?&'! 9$5!
'$ &'!-$!)'-!1#9$5,+-1$#!$#1!
! 85$('3-0!-<'!!+5'!1#*$&*'(!1#!
! $+0-!3$#-51?/-1$#0!$#!%1610>!?&$)0>!3$,,'#-0!
! %3-1*1-1'0!%<13<!+5'!)$1#)!-$!'. 15'!0$$#!
! #+&'#(+5!$9!'*'#-0!

! 33F
2?#"%$!*0A"%!:?=!"4?8$0A-0!2)%="4-!"4!%!27%=7/@8!.@2"40221!%!#%20!27@AB!

! %##$/#3','#-0!
! #$#-+3-0!

%0!1-!3+#!?'!#$-13'(>!-<'!""8"!<+0!+!,/3<!&+5)'5!03$ '!-<+#!-<'!3/55'#-!%$56!-<'010:!:150-!
$9!+&&>!1-!10!)$1#)!-$!1#*$&*'!-<'!%<$&'!3$, +#!!+#(!#$-!(/0-!$#'!(' +5-,'#-:!2'3$#(>!1-!10!?'1#)!
('*'&$ '(! 1#-'5#+&&!! ?!! $$331$#1,0! 3$&&+?$5+-$50! %<$! <+*'! -<'! 3$, '-'#3'! -$! 35'+-'! -$$&0!
%<13<!0<$/&(!9/&&!!0+-109!!', &$!''0,!#''(0:!"#(''(>!-<'!!%1&&!#$-!3<$$0'!+#!+&5'+(!!'.10-1#)!
-$$&2! 5+-<'5>! -<'!! %1&&! ?/1&(! -<'15! $%#! ?+0'(! $#! %<+-! -<'!! 5'+&&!! #''(:! 7<10! %+!>! -%$! )5'+-!
3<+&&'#)'0!-<'!3/55'#-! %$56! <+(!-$!9+3'!3+#!?'!$*'53$,'1!93;!-<'!9+3-! -<+-! +!?/01#'00!0$31+&!
#'-%$56! ?'3$,'0! ,$5'! /0'9/&! -<'! ,$5'! '$ &'! /0'! 1-! +#(! 96;! -<'! 9+3-! -<+-! 0$,'! -'3<#13+&!
+0 '3-0!$9!-<'!*15-/+&! &+-9$5,!1-0'&9!3+#! 5'*'#-!/0'50!95$,! +5-131 +-1#)!-$!-<'! 5$('3-:!@#('5!
-<'! 3/55'#-! 3$#(1-1$#0>! -<'! ""8"! <+0! -<'! $-'#-1+&! -$! ,+6'! -<'! $$331$#1! -5$/ ! +! 5'+&!
6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)!3$, +#!:!!

Key ideas
! "#$%&'()'!0<+51#)!<+0!?'3$,'!+!35/31+&!100/'!9$5!-<'!$$331$#1!-5$/ !?'3+/0'!$*'5!-<'!
&+0-!!'+50!-<'!#/,?'5!$9!', &$!''0!<+0!?''#!)5$%1#)!01)#1913+#-&!>!-<'!3$, +#!!<+0!
&+/#3<'(! -<5''! #'%! &')+&! ?+0'0! +?5$+(! +#(! $ '5+-'0! 1#! 0'*'5+&! 1#(/0-51'0! 5'+/151#)!
(199'5'#-!061&&0!+#(!6#$%/<$%:!
! %!6#$%&'()'/?+0'(!3$, +#!!,/0-! 5$*1('!+('+/+-'!-$$&0!-$!'#+?&'! '$ &'!-$!0<+5'!
-<'! 6#$%&'()'! -<'!! ('*'&$ ! $*'5! -1,':! 7<+-! 10! %<!! $$331$#1! 10! %$561#)! $#! +! #'%!
5$('3-1!-;@;!3!-%'/0$12$!@'-.$-!;%8-,47-#(7#-$!!!
! 7<'! ""8"! 10! +! %'?! $5-+&! -<5$/)<! %<13<! /0'50! 3+#! <+*'! +33'00! -$! ,+#!! 9'+-/5'0! ?!!
,'+#0!$9!+!)5+ <13+&!1#-'59+3':!!
! 7<'! 9'+-/5'0! -<'! ""8"! %1&&! 5$*1('! +5'1! 9$5/,>! %161>! ?&$)>! ,135$/?&$))1#)>! 3<+->!
3+&'#(+5>! 5$('3-!,+#+)','#->!&'+5#1#)!-$$&0!+#(!3/0-$,1I+-1$#!3+ +?1&1-1'0:!!
! 7<'!1('+!?'<1#(!-<'!""8"!10!'.+3-&!!-<'!0+,'!1('+!?'<1#(!-<'!?/01#'00!0$31+&!#'-%$56!
9$5!$$331$#1!)/,+#3+5':!7<'!(199'5'#3'!10!-<+-!-<'!""8"!%1&&!?'!+*+1&+?&'!9$5!-<'!/0'!$9!
-<'!'#-15'!3$, +#!>!#$-!$#&!!$#'!(1*101$#:!
! 7<'!-'0-! '51$(!%1-<1#!-<'!)/,+#3+5'!+5'+!%1&&!9/#3-1$#!+0!+!-51+&!9$5!-<'!""8"!-'+,!-$!
0''!-<'!9150-!5'+3-1$#!$9! '$ &'!-$!6#$%&'()'/0<+51#)!+ &13+-1$#0!%1-<1#!+!3$, +#!:!

334 !
!

! 365