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I. Rules of Statutory Construction 9.

EXPRESSIO/INCLUSIO UNIUS EST EXCLUSIO ALTERIUS --the


1. VERBA LEGIS NON EST RECEDENDUM literal interpretation/plain expression/inclusion of one is the exclusion of another or others (Centeno vs
meaning rule; from the clear language of the law there should be no departure. Villalon-Pornillos GR# 113092 September 1, 1994)
(Colgate Palmolive Phil vs Gimenez GR# 14787 January 28,
1961) 10. EXPRESSIUM FACIT CESSARE TACITURN --what is expressed puts an end
to what is implied (Canet vs Decena GR# 155344 January 20, 2004)
2. ABSOLUTA SENTENTIA EXPOSITORE NON INDIGET --when you have
plain words capable of only one interpretation, no explanation of them is 11. CASUS OMISUS PRO OMISUS HABENDUS EST doctrine of intentional
required (Gan vs Reyes GR# 145527 May 28, 2002) omission; a person, object or thing omitted from an enumeration must be held to
have been omitted intentionally (People vs Manantan GR# 14120 July 31, 1962)
3. RATIO LEGIS EST ANIMA interpretation by considering the spirit and
reason of the law; the reason of the law is the soul of the law (Comendador vs 12. UBI LEX NON DISTINGUIT NEC NOS DISTINGUERE DEBEMOS when
De Villa GR# 93177 August 2, 1991) the law does not distinguish, neither should we (Llamas vs Orbos GR# 99031
October 15, 1991)
4. QUI HARET IN LITERA HAERET IN CORTICE --he who considers merely
the letter of an instrument goes but skin deep into its meaning (People vs Puno 13. AD PROXIMUM ANTECEDENS FIAT RELATIO NISI IMPEDIATUR
GR# 97471 February 17, 1993) SENTENCIA doctrine of last antecedent; relative words refer to the nearest
antecedent unless it be prevented by the context (Mapa vs Arroyo GR# 78585
5. IN PARI DELICTO POTIOR EST CONDITIO DEFENDENTIS doctrine of July 5, 1989
unclean hands; when both parties are in the wrong, a defence is set up (Spouses
Angel vs Aledo GR# 145031 January 22, 2004) 14. REDENDO SINGULA SINGULIS --antecedents should be read distributively
to the effect that each word is to be applied to the subject to which it appears
6. EX DOLO MALO NON ORITUR ACTIO --out of fraud no action arises by context most properly related and to which it is most applicable (People vs
(People vs Manansala GR# L-38948 November 18, 1933) Tamani GR# 22160 January 21, 1974)

7. EJUSDEM GENERIS --a word takes its meaning from those around it; of 15. IN EO PLUS SIT, SIMPER INEST ET MINUS doctrine of necessary
the same kind (Mutuc vs COMELEC GR # 32717 November 26, 1970) implication; the greater includes the lesser (Atienza vs Villarosa GR# 161081
May 10, 2005)
8. NOSCITUR A SOCIIS doctrine of associated words; a word should
be interpreted within context (Caltex Phil vs Palomar GR# 19650 September 16. IN PARI MATERIA --when a statute is ambiguous, its meaning may be
29, 1966) determined in light of other statutes on the same subject; upon the same
matter or subject (Co vs Civil Register of Manila GR# 138496 February 23,
2004)
17. INTERPRETARE ET CONCORDARE LEGIBUS EST OPTIMUS
INTERPRETENDI --every statute must be so interpreted and brought into 5. IGNORANTIA FACTI EXCUSAT --ignorance of facts excuses (People vs
accord with other laws as to form a uniform system of jurisprudence (Hagad vs Oanis GR# G.R. No. L47722 July 27, 1943)
Gozo-Dadole GR # 108072 December 12, 1995)
6. PAR IN PAREM NON HABET IMPERIUM --an equal has no power over an
18. LEGES POSTERIORES PRIORES CONTRARIAS ABROGANT doctrine of equal (Wylie vs Rarang GR # 74135 May 28, 1992)
implied repeals; subsequent laws repeal those earlier laws which are contrary to
it (Manila Trading & Supply Company vs Phil Labor Union GR# L-47796 April 22, --used in international law to mean that one country may not impose
1941) its authority over another; mentioned in state immunity cases

19. CONTEMPORANEO EXPOSITIO EST OPTIMA ET FORTISSIMA IN 7. SEMPER PRAESUMTIUR PRO MATRIMONIO --always presume marriage
LEGE doctrine of contemporaneous construction; contemporaneous (Corpus vs Corpus GR# L-22469 October 23, 1978)
construction is the best and strongest in law (People vs Puno GR# 97471
February 17, 1993) 8. ACTIO PERSONALIS MORITUR CUM PERSONA --a personal action is
extinguished by the death of the person (De Castro vs COMELEC GR# 12549
20. GENERALIA SPECIALIBUS NON DEROGANT --general things do not February 7, 1997)
detract from specific things (National Power Corporation vs Presiding Judge, 9. ACTUS ME INVITO FACTUS NON EST MEUS ACTUS --an act done
RTC BR XXV GR # 72477 October 16, 1990) against my will is not my act (People vs Del Rosario GR# 127755 April 14, 1999)
10. ALLEGATIO CONTRA FACTUM NON EST ADMITTENDA --allegations
II. Other Legal Maxims contrary to facts shall not be admitted (Co Kim Cham vs Valdez Tan Keh GR# L-
5 September 17, 1945)
1. FAVORABILIA SUNT AMPLIANDA ADIOSA RESTRIGENDA --penal laws 11. STARE DECISIS ET NON QUIETA MOVERE --stand by your decision and do
which are favorable to accused are given retroactive effect (Ortega vs People not disturb the calm/ what is settled (Ting vs Velez-Ting GR# 166562 March 31,
GR # 151085 August 20, 2008) 2009)
12. RES JUDICATA --barred by prior judgment; estoppel by judgment
2. LEX PROSPICIT, NON RESPICIT the law looks forward, never backward (Taganas vs Meliton GR# 146980 September 2, 2003)
(Laceste vs Santos GR# L-36886 February 1, 1932)
Elements of Res Judicata:
3. NULLUM CRIMEN, NULLA POENA SINE LEGE there is no crime when the former judgment or order must be final
there is no law punishing it (People vs Cabural GR# L-34105 February 4, 1983) the judgment or order must be on the merits
it must have been rendered by a court having jurisdiction over the
4. IGNORANTIA LEGIS NON EXCUSAT --ignorance of the law does not subject matter and the parties
excuse (Tanada vs Tuvera GR#. L-63915 April 24, 1985)
there must be, between the first and the second action, identity of --#17, #18, & #19 are primarily used in cases involving the police power of the
parties, of subject matter and cause of action state to regulate private rights & activities for the public welfare.

13. LEGIS INTERPRETATIO LEGIS VIM OBTINET --interpretations made upon 22. NEMO POTEST PRECISE COGI AD FACTUM --no one may be forced to do
the law by competent courts forms part of the law of the land (People vs Jabinal the deed (Tenchavez vs Escano GR# L-19671 July 26, 1966) --used primarily to
GR# L-30061 February 27, 1974) describe acts or deeds that courts cannot compel people to do by an order of
specific performance, e.g. purely personal rights such as right to consortium
14. DURA LEX SED LEX --the law may be harsh but it is the law (In Re Petition (cohabiting w/ ones spouse) in Tenchavez vs Escano.
for Adoption of Michelle Lim GR# 168992 May 21, 2009)
23. NEMO POTEST FACERE PER OBLIQUUM QUOD NON POTEST FACERE
15. RATIONE CESSAT LEX, ET CESSAT LEX --when the reason for the law PER DIRECTUM -no one can do indirectly that which he cannot do directly
ceases, the law ceases (Griffith vs CA GR# 129764 March 12, 2002) (Central Bank Employees Assoc vs BSP GR# 148208
December 15, 2004)
16. DELEGATUS NON POTEST DELEGARE --a delegate may not delegate
(People vs Rosenthal GR# L-46076 June 12, 1939) --used primarily in the OTHER LATIN MAXIMS
principle of non-delegation of legislative powers
1 EX NECESSITATE LEGIS -- from the necessity of law (Commission on Audit
17. UBI JUS IBI REMEDIUM --where there is a right there is a remedy vs Province of CebuGR# 141386 November 29, 2001)
(Primicias vs Ocampo GR# L6120 June 30, 1953) 2 EX NECESSITATE REI --from the necessity of the thing (Cabang vs
Delfinado GR# L-8954 March 21, 1916)
18. FIAT JUSTICIA RUAT COELUM --do justice, let the sky fall (People vs
3 DILIGENTISSIMI BONUS PATRIS FAMILIAS --diligence of a good father
Romualdez GR# 31012 September 10, 1932)
of a family (Bagumbayan Corp vs IAC and Sena GR# L-66274 September 30,
1984)
19. SALUS POPULI EST SUPREMA LEX --the welfare of the people is the
4 OBEDENTIA LEGIS ESSENTIA --obedience is the essence of the law
supreme law (US vs Salaveria GR# L-13678 November 12, 1918)
(citation missing; one of the crim cases)
5 CORRUPTISIMA REPUBLICA PLURIMAE LEGES --the more corrupt the
20. SIC UTERE TUO UT ALIENUM NON LAEDAS --do not use your property so
republic, the more laws it has (citation missing; maybe one of the consti cases)
as to injure others (Santos vs De Alvarez GR# L-332 June 18, 1947)
-Joshua Raymundo | a2013
21. RES INTER ALIOS ACTA NOBIS NEC NOCET, NEC PRODEST --a --an example of this is collaterally attacking the legitimacy of a child in an action
transaction between two parties ought not to operate to the prejudice of a not specifically instituted for such a reason and where the petitioner may not
third person (Tinitigan vs Tinitigan GR# L-45418 October 30, 1980) even impugn the legitimacy of the child in a direct action anyway e.g. Sayson vs
CA in persons.