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Contents

1. Country Profile ............................................................................................................................ 2


1.1 Politics ................................................................................................................................ 2
1.2 Economics .......................................................................................................................... 3
2. Market and Regulators Overview ................................................................................................ 4
2.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 4
2.2 Wireless Sector................................................................................................................... 5
2.3 Broadband Sector ............................................................................................................... 6
2.4 WiMAX Licences .............................................................................................................. 6
2.5 Wireline Sector................................................................................................................... 7
3. Location, Service Provider & Supplier ....................................................................................... 7
3.1 Orange Guinea ................................................................................................................... 9
3.2 MTN Guinea .................................................................................................................... 10
3.2 Cellcom Guinea ................................................................................................................ 12
3.3 ETI (Biasy.net) ................................................................................................................. 12
ETI was among the first operators to employ Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) cable to provide
high speed internet services. .......................................................................................................... 12
3.4 Intercel Guinea (Expresso) ............................................................................................... 13
3.5 Societe des Telecoms de Guinee (Sotelgui) ..................................................................... 13
3.6 Wireline Service ............................................................................................................... 14
3.7 DONCO Business Requirements ..................................................................................... 14
4. Recommendation - Cities and Internet Service Providers ......................................................... 15
4.1 Geographic ....................................................................................................................... 15
4.2 Conakry ............................................................................................................................ 15
4.3 Nzerekore ......................................................................................................................... 16
4.4 KanKan ............................................................................................................................ 16
4.5 Kindia ............................................................................................................................... 17
4.6 Boke ................................................................................................................................. 17
4.7 Labe .................................................................................................................................. 17
5. Security ...................................................................................................................................... 18
Sources .......................................................................................................................................... 24
1. Country Profile
1.1 Politics

Guinea gained its freedom from France in 1958. Since then, Guinea has been ruled by many

autocratic rulers. First free and fair democratic presidential elections were held in 2010. Alpha

Conde leader of opposition Rally of the Guinean People's Party emerged as the winner. President

Conde derives his support from the second largest ethnic group in Guinea, the Malinke.

Condes cabinet, of its kind in Guinea, consists only of civilians. President Conde, in April 2012,

postponed legislative elections indefinitely citing the need to ensure path towards "transparency

and democracy". Guinea's opposition party is backed by the Fula ethnic group, also known as

Peul, which accounts for about 40 percent of the population.

Guineas foreign relations, especially with its West African neighbors, have improved steadily

since 1985. For its part, Guinea has actively engaged in efforts toward regional integration and

cooperation, especially in the Organization of African Unity and the Economic Community of

West African States (ECOWAS). It has participated in diplomatic and military efforts to resolve

conflicts in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea-Bissau, as well as volunteered troops to

peacekeeping operations in all three countries as part of ECOMOG, the Military Observer Group

of ECOWAS. Since 1990, Guinea despite the economic and environmental costs involved has

offered asylum to over 700,000 Liberian, Sierra Leonean, and Bissauan refugees.

United States maintains close relations with Guinea and has adopted policies to encourage

democratic reforms, political stability, and sustainable economic and social development. The

U.S. Mission in Guinea is composed of five agencies - Department of State, U.S. Agency for

International Development (USAID), Peace Corps, the United States Treasury Department, and

the Department of Defense. In addition to providing full range of diplomatic functions, the U.S.
Mission also manages a military assistance program that has provided nearly $331,000 for

military education, professionalization, and language training programs. According to the 2012

U.S. Global Leadership Report, 89% of Guineans approve of U.S. leadership, currently the most

favorable opinion of the U.S. in the entire world.

Guineas defense forces, The Republic of Guinea Armed Forces are responsible for border

security and defense against external attack and aggression. The armed forces comprise of five

branches army, navy, air force, the paramilitary National Gendarmerie and the Republican

Guard whose chiefs report to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who is subordinate to

the Minister of Defense. In addition, regime security forces include the National Police Force.

The Gendarmerie, responsible for internal security, is aided by the Republican Guard, which

provides protection for government officials. In February 1969, the Guinean government moved

against the armed forces after alleging that a plot to assassinate Toure and seize power, or, failing

that, forced secession of Middle Guinea was being planned. In response to this event the

government formed a militia to protect itself from military threats.

1.2 Economics

Guinea has abundant natural resources including 25 percent or more of the world's known

bauxite reserves. Its mineral wealth also includes over 4-billion tons of high-grade iron ore,

significant diamond and gold deposits, and unknown quantities of uranium. Moreover there is

considerable potential for growth in agricultural and fishing sectors. Despite its mineral wealth,

Guinea is one of the poorest countries in Africa with 55.3% of population living in poverty.

Militarys constant interference and coup attempts have further hampered economic growth. In

2008, after a military coup attempt G8 countries, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the

World Bank significantly curtailed financial assistance to development programs in Guinea.


However, democratic presidential election in 2010 prompted Guineas reinstatement to the

ECOWAS trading bloc, following a two-year suspension. Donor assistance and foreign

investment are slowly rising. Furthermore, relations with the IMF, World Bank, and other

bilateral and multilateral donors were resumed in early 2011, but their support is contingent on

governments ability to combat corruption, reform the banking system, improve the business

environment, and expand infrastructure. Economic growth was estimated to be only 1% in 2014.

Conditions were further worsened by the outbreak of Ebola, in 2014, which killed nearly 11,300

people. Nearly 18 months after the initial outbreak, Guinea remains at high risk of further

outbreaks. [18][19]

2. Market and Regulators Overview


2.1 Overview

Since 1992, telecommunication industry in Guinea has been under a deregulation process, while

gradually developing its local market in accordance with different regulatory acts and

institutions.

Telecommunication industry in Guinea has been regulated under two organizations. First, an

autonomous regulator, the Regulatory Authority for Post and Telecommunications also known

by its local name, LAutorite de Regulation des Postes et Telecommunications (ARPT), which

was established in accordance with Article 24 of the General Law of Telecommunications

(L/2005/018/AN), passed by the government in September 2005. Second is the Ministry of

Communications & New Information Technologies, also known as Ministere et

Telecommunications et des Nouvelles Technologies de lInformation (MTNTI), is the supervisor

and policy maker as well as in charge of licensing decisions.,

Two acts, enactment of Decree D/92/141/PRG/SGG passed in 1993, and Article 24 of the
General Law of Telecommunications (L/2005/018/AN) passed in 2005, are the foundation of

Guineas current regulatory infrastructure. The former,separated the states postal and telecoms

activities, and established an autonomous telecom operator, now-bankrupt, Societe des

Telecommunications de Guinee (Sotelgui). The later established ARPT, and a universal

framework for the sector including interconnection rules, and a list of penalties and sanctions

available to a regulator in the event of operator transgressions.

Additionally, two special rules govern the telecommunication industry. First, all providers who

offer one of the following services: fixed line residential, consumer mobile and payphone (via

both fixed line and cellular) services, narrowband internet access, telecenters, connections for

schools, and emergency services, are required to contribute 1.5% of their annual revenue to a

universal service fund. Second, the government also charges operators surtax (a tax levied on top

of existing taxes and fees) on incoming international calls. In its 2014 annual report, ARPT

disclosed that it had drafted a decree on the sharing of telecommunication infrastructure based on

a procedure for the implementation of fiber-optic infrastructure.

2.2 Wireless Sector

Guineas wireless sector is an oligopoly. LAutorite de Regulation des Postes et

Telecommunications (ARPT) regulates the sector, and is also authorized to administer the

national frequency plan. As of November 24th 2015, four companies offered wireless services in

Guinea, Orange Guinea (or Orange Guinea Conakry), MTN Guinea (Areeba), Cellcom Guinea,

and Intercel. ARPT has stated that it does not intend to issue any further GSM licences in the

foreseeable future. However, the bankrupt state-owned fixed line incumbentSotelgui might be

back in action by the end of the year with 4G services added to its portfolio. According to
telecom minister, Oye Guilavogui, Sotelgui will install 61 cell sites , .

A distinct feature of Guineas Wireless Sector is, that under the General Law of 2005, the

regulator ARPT mandates interconnection among wireless operators. ARPTs 2014 annual report

stated that operators commissioned more circuits than the the number of interconnection links

recommended by the ARPT -

Areeba-Orange (4,800), Areeba-Intercel (960), Areeba-Cellcom (2,880), Intercel-Cellcom (480),

Intercel-Orange (480) and Cellcom-Orange (1,830).

2.3 Broadband Sector

ARPT, again, is in charge of the broadband sector. Since 2008, full competition has been

permitted in Guineas Internet sector, including the international gateway operating segment,

according to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). As of August 2015, there were

six Internet service providers (ISPs) in the country ETI, Mouna Group, Afinis (SkyVision),

Afribone, VDC Telecom, and A-Link. Additionally, two cellular operators, Orange

and MTN (Areeba) hold specific WiMAX operating licenses. Among those providers, Orange

Guinea has more than half of the market share. The ISPs are classified into three categories,

national, category A, and regional. Firms categorized as national must cover all the main

regional administrative centers within a year. Category A firms are subject to contributions of up

to 2% of annual revenues to the universal service fund , while regional firms need to cover one

of four regions, Lower Guinea (excluding Conakry), Forest Guinea, Upper Guinea, and Middle

Guinea.

2.4 WiMAX Licences


In July 2009, ARPT published licensing conditions and service specifications for companies that

wanted licenses. In order to receive licence to operate public WiMAX 802.16 standard wireless

broadband services, companies must pay an annual fee of GNF300 million, additional annual

licence fee of GNF1.2 billion, and 1% of their annual revenue toward research and training.

Companies holding these licenses must also cover at least 80% of the outdoor area of the service

region.

2.5 Wireline Sector

Currently, Guinea currently has no wireline service providers. Societe des Telecommunications

de Guinee (Sotelgui) was the sole wireline provider in the country, formed as fixed line operator

in May 1993 following the enactment of Decree No D/92/141/PRG/SGG, but filed bankruptcy

in 2013.

In February 2010, the Guinean government adopted a Decree (A/2010/355/MTNTI) to establish

the terms and conditions for the provision of public telecommunications services (leased lines).

3. Location, Service Provider & Supplier


Telecom market in Guinea is still nascent, but several projects to increase the reach of wireless

networks and fiber-optic coverage are underway. With investments from the World Bank, the

Chinese government, and several international telecom companies, both quality and accessibility

of Internet services are expected to improve rapidly in the coming years.

Guinea was a late entrant to the telecom market and thereby skipped the wired internet stage of

telecom industry entirely. With barely any fiber-optic infrastructure, Guinea directly skipped to

wireless Internet. It is no surprise then that wireless internet services boast over 92% population

penetration while broadband services claim a measly 0.2%.


Currently, Orange Guinea and MTN Guinea are the largest players in the market followed by a

few smaller players.

Wireless Market Share in Guinea [9]


3.1 Orange Guinea

Orange Guinea is the largest wireless and broadband services provider in Guinea. With 50.6% of

market share Orange Guinea is far ahead of its closest competitors, Areeba (MTN group),

Cellcom, and Intercel (source: Orange) [19]. Recent investments in the ACE submarine cable

and the 3G network, led to considerable growth in mobile data in 2014. Orange had a total of 4.5

million active customers at the end of 2014, almost exclusively in the prepaid segment, an

increase of 39.1% from 2013 [19]. Orange Guine has invested massively to expand its network

and now offers 2G services to all sub-prefectures in the country and 3G services to all

prefectures [20]. Orange Guinee has the most extensive network of all operators in the country

and has a direct distribution network comprising seven branches and ten reception points.

Furthermore, Orange has an indirect distribution network of over 145 stores.

In 2014, ICT market grew by 6.5%, far above the GDP growth which grew at less than one

percent.The potential of this region remains high.

Annual Revenue - Orange Telecom[7]


Strengths:

Extensive network coverage across 75% of the territory

50 base stations in Conakry and eleven other cities

2G, 3G, and 4G licenses


Special post-paid services for businesses

WIMAX services provided in six cities

Weakness:

High setup costs for broadband, and high tariff rates.

Network congestion due to high traffic volume

Threat:

Cheaper services from MTN Guinea

Large scale investment in fiber optics network from Societe des Telecoms de Guinee

(Sotelgui)

Opportunities:

Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) project to lay down 17,000 km long high-bandwidth cable

Orange Zone connectivity - ability to use sister network in neighbouring countries.

3.2 MTN Guinea

MTN is a leading emerging markets mobile operator. The company made extensive investment

in advanced communication infrastructure andconnects more than 200 million customers in 22

countries across Africa and the Middle East. MTN offers numerous innovative voice, data, and

ICT products and services. It is the market leader in 15 of the 22 countries in which it operates.

Annual capital expenditure for MTN has grown sharply since its inception, and over the past five

years alone exceeded R130 billion (including joint ventures).


Annual Revenue - MTN [8]

Strength:

Second largest Internet service provider with over 163 towns and cities

Mobile money service for financial transactions

Areeba Business - business focussed internet services to ensure good service and quality

at lower costs.

Cheap WiMax services customized for SME and large organizations in seven cities

Weakness:

Decrease in market share in last few years.

Problems with telecom authority in the past - over EUR15 million in fines

Opportunities:

Cheaper and higher bandwidth services

Growth network coverage

Threats:

Competition from Orange Guinea and Cellcom Guinea


3.2 Cellcom Guinea

Cellcom Guinea debuted in 2006, making it the newest entrant in the market. Originally started

by Britain based Emerging Capital Partners (ECF), the firm is currently owned by YCF Group

based in Virginia, USA. With 13.1% of the market shared, Cellcom comes third after Orange and

MTN. As of August 15, Cellcom Guineas 2G services were available in 111 main cities and

towns. Additionally, it provides 2.5G GPRS/EGDE platform in 51 cities and towns. 3G and 3.5G

service has over 205,000 subscribers, although 4G services are yet to take off. Cellcom offers

customized business services that include enterprise solutions, mobile money transfer,

international roaming, and conference call services. However, Cellcom does not provide

broadband services.

Strengths:

Wide wireless network coverage

Weakness:

4G services not available

Broadband services not available

Opportunities:

Customized business services

Threats:

Orange and MTN have far wider coverage and market share

3.3 ETI (Biasy.net)

Equipements & Techniques Informatiques (ETI) a private company offers internet based on

WiMax and VSAT technologies. With a focus on business customers, it offers fiber-optic
broadband, VoIP services, WiMax, and VSAT in capital city of Conakry and some other big

cities. ETI was among the first operators to employ Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) cable to

provide high speed internet services.

Strengths:

High-speed WiMax and Satellite internet services

Provides business specific services like VoIP

Weakness:

More than six times higher setup cost as compared other providers

Very expensive monthly plans

Relatively new player with only 5000 subscribers

Opportunities:

Access to high quality network infrastructure

Threats:

Bigger players with wider coverage and cheaper services

3.4 Intercel Guinea (Expresso)

Intercel Guinea was started by Expresso Telecom, a Dubai-based group, with a focus on wireless

voice and data services for business customer in the capital and few other big cities. Starting with

2G services, it introduced 3G and 4G services in 2014. Although over the years Intercel Guinea

has expanded it services to over 55 cities, the number of subscribers has been on a decline.

Currently, Intercel Guinea claims the smallest share of the telecom market.

3.5 Societe des Telecoms de Guinee (Sotelgui)


Sotelgui is a government owned company that has control over almost all of the countrys PSTN

network. The company first launched 2G services in late 1997 and 2.5G services in 2009.

Sotelgui also offered dial-up internet services over PSTN. However, in early 2013 the company

went bankrupt and suspended all its services. Currently, the company is attempting revival with

funds from the Chinese government.

3.6 Wireline Service

Owing to lower costs and wide availability of wireless services, the customer base for wireline

services shrunk to zero. Since early 2013, wireline services have been discontinued. Societe des

Telecoms de Guinee (Sotelgui) was the lone provider of wireline services. However, in 2014 the

government announced new investments to revive the industry. With USD350 million loan from

Chinese government, plans to lay 4000 km fiber-optic backbone in collaboration with Huawei

Technologies are underway.

3.7 DONCO Business Requirements

Given the economic and infrastructure status of Guinea, DONCO is mostly likely to engage in

business related to locally manufactured items like furniture, footwear or handicrafts. For

smooth functioning of business transactions, DONCO should be able to maintain uninterrupted

contact with the outsourcing firm. The communication requirements would include text emails,

images of products, receipts, and expense sheets. Given this, bandwidth of about 46kbps would

suffice.
Frequency
Type Size Total Turnaround time
(on average)

Emails: text 10 kb 10/day 100 kb 1 hour

Emails: Images 2 mb 10/day 20 mb 1 hour

Other Attachments - excel


100 kb 5/day 500 kb 1 hour
sheets, word docs

Required speed 46 kbps

4. Recommendation - Cities and Internet Service Providers


4.1 Geographic

Guinea is divided into four main regions: Maritime Guinea/ Middle Guinea/ Upper Guinea/

Forested Guinea. Administratively, it consists of 8 administrative regions, which are further

divided into 33 prefectures. We have assessed Guineas largest cities - Conakry, Nzerekore,

KanKan, Kindia, Boke, Labe, Faranah, and Mamou, that have a population of more than 1

million.

4.2 Conakry

Conakry is the capital as well as the largest port city of Guinea. Conakry has a population of

around 1.6 million (2009). It was founded in 1895, and its the political, economic, and cultural

center of Guinea.

Conakry port is one of the largest port in West Africa. Its an important channel for

Guinea to import and export with an annual throughput over 600 million tons. The port contains

bauxite, alumina, iron sands, bananas, groceries, and other professional terminals, and sated with

modern handling and storage equipment. Conakrys industries include textiles, canned food,
matches, cigarettes, aluminum products, vehicle assembly, plastics, food processing, and

construction materials and so on.

Conakry has good transportation services. A railway line directly connects Conakry to

KanKan, Fria, and the other domestic main town roads. A national highway also connects it to

neighboring countries of Mali, Senegal and Cote dIvoire. The port is just 15 kilometers from the

international airport, which has regular flights to North America and Europe.

Suggested Providers: MTN Guinea (Wi-Max), Orange Guinea (Wi-Max), Afinis-Guinea

(Satellite)

4.3 Nzerekore

Nzerekore is located in the southern part of Guinea and is the capital of Forested Guinea.

Nzerekore has the second largest population in Guinea. There is an artificial lake in the

downtown, which is a feature of the city. In the last few years, Nzerekore has grown to become

the trade center of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Liberia, as well as a distribution center for

agricultural and forestry products in Forested Guinea region. The industries here mainly deal in

timber and oiling extraction.

Providers: MTN Guinea (Wi-Max), Orange Guinea (Wi-Max)

4.4 KanKan

KanKan is the second largest city in Guinea, located in the eastern region of Niger upstream.

Historically, KanKan is one of the earliest developed cities in Guinea, much before the capital of

Conakry. Owing to its convenient location, KanKan has developed into an important commercial

city, which contributes significantly to Guineas economy. Improvement in roads, bridges, and
other infrastructures, that followed Guineas independence, have made KanKan even more

important in Guinea and the entire West African region. Today KanKans population is over 30

million, and has become the transport hub for Guinea and West Africa. Whats more, KanKan is

also the center of Guineas Islamic culture.

Suggested Providers: MTN Guinea (Wi-Max), Orange Guinea (Wi-Max)

4.5 Kindia

Kindia is famous for its fruits and vegetables. Unlike Islamic Cultural, Catholic Church is

everywhere in Kindia. Kindia is sated up in 20th century by French colonists. Firstly its a

railway station. With the increment of residents, it becomes a commercial city afterwards. Kindia

is now the coastal and inland trade distribution center of Guinea, and also the highway

transportation hub. Whats more, Kindia is an important agricultural area in Guinea.

Suggested Providers: MTN Guinea (Wi-Max), Orange Guinea (Wi-Max)

4.6 Boke

Boke is the capital city of Boke Prefecture within the Bok Region of Lower Guinea near the

border with Guinea-Bissau. It is also a sub-prefecture of Guinea, very closed to Atlantic Ocean.

Boke is famous for its museum for slave fort. This city has a airport.

Suggested Providers: Orange Guinea (Wi-Max)

4.7 Labe

Labe is the capital city and the administrative center of Fouta Djallon region. It is the second

largest city in Guinea in terms of economic importance. The location of the Labe is closed to

several other countries. Traders from Mali, Senegal, Gambia and Sierra Leone gather in Labe.

Trade and commerce is the main activity in the city. The manufacturing industry there includes
shoe making, textile, carpentry and blacksmithing. There are also many Diasporas in Labe

helping in infrastructural development. The town is served by Tata Airport, but is remain unused

because of the bed airline traffic. Generally speaking, Labe is a comprehensive city.

Providers: MTN Guinea (Wi-Max), Orange Guinea (Wi-Max)

As we go over all the main cities in Guinea. There are two cities standing out of the others,

Conakry and Labe. Here we do a detailed analysis for these two cities.

5. Security
Network Security is the process of taking physical and software preventative measures to protect

the underlying networking infrastructure from unauthorized access, misuse, malfunction,

modification, destruction, or improper disclosure, thereby creating a secure platform for

computers, users and programs to perform their permitted critical functions within a secure

environment.

Criminal Threats:

Although Guinea is relatively pro-American and pro-West in general, expatriates and members

of the diplomatic community are exposed to the realities of the criminal threat without

consideration of nationality or affiliation.

Several diplomats and expatriates have been victimized by residential burglaries and vehicle

break-ins this year. These crimes are not uncommon and the risks are assumed across the

spectrum of those perceived to have some level of wealth.

Computer scams are also on the rise, usually by email solicitation or fax. These scams target

private business personnel and non-governmental organization employees. In general, if an offer

sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Commercial scams and disputes with local business
partners have occasionally created legal difficulties for U.S. citizens. Many business personnel

have lost large quantities of money and have put themselves in danger by engaging in such deals.

Employee (local and international) need substantial training for optimal performance.

Political violence Almost negligible at present:

Guinea has experienced over three years of relative political calm. After enduring a tumultuous

political past, Guinea has taken steps in furtherance of a stable democracy. In 2013, Guinea held

legislative elections. Although the electoral process was flawed and the election was delayed by

several weeks, the Electoral Commission carried out an election with results that were acceptable

to both the government and opposition groups. In late 2013, the new legislative assembly was

seated without incident. President Conde wasted no time in announcing Guinea was [re]opened

for business and encouraged mining sector and other international investment.

Embassy Contact Numbers:

U.S. Embassy Conakry: 224 65 10 40 00

American Citizen Services Officer: 224 65 10 43 34

After Hours American Citizens Services Officer: 224 67 10 43 11

All Americans should register with American Citizen Services when they arrive in Guinea. The

U.S. Embassy maintains a liaison with local law enforcement officials and is available to assist

American citizens during their stay in Guinea. U.S citizens can check with American Citizen

Services at the U.S. Embassy prior to departing for up-to date information.

Banking:

On 1 March 1960, Guinea withdrew from the franc zone. The Guinean branch of the BCEAO

was abolished, and the Central Bank of Guinea was established. Later that year, four of the five

private banks were closed down, and the fifth was nationalized in 1961. All banking activities
were taken over by the Central Bank, but by 1962 its functions were decentralized and three new

state-owned banks were added.

There are six commercial banks in Guinea, and all involve US or French participation.

Local currency may not be exported or imported. There are no securities exchanges in Guinea.

Insurance

All insurance companies were nationalized in January 1962. There is a national insurance

company, the National Society of Insurance

Foreign Trade

Technically, the government no longer permits countertrade or barter in international trade.

Guinea retains its postcolonial ties with France, importing the large portion of goods from that

country (following Cte d'Ivoire as leading provider), and exports the majority of its minerals to

France, other European countries, and the United States.

Threats to Business Continuity:

Disruption: Loss or reduction in network service. Could be minor or temporary (a circuit failure).

Destruction of data: Viruses destroying files, crash of hard disk.

Disaster (Natural or manmade disasters): May destroy host computers or sections of network.

Preventing Theft:

Software and Information Theft

Equipment theft

Theft Protection:

Mitigated using physical security and training

Security plan must include: An evaluation of ways to prevent equipment theft.

Have proper employment and termination strategies Security checks on employees.


Terminations should include taking entry keys, terminating access rights so that terminated

employees are minimal threats.

Natural disasters:

Preparation - Redundancy

Avoidance Avoid areas prone to natural disasters.

Control:

Decentralize network resources

Store critical data in at least two separate locations.

Virus and malware protection:

Threat mitigated using antivirus software and training

Should include protection against - Viruses, worms, and Trojan horses, malware, spyware,

adware, and rootkits

Denial of Service Protection Techniques:

Traffic filtering: Verify all incoming traffic source addresses for validity (requires a lot of

processing).

Traffic limiting: When a flood of packets are entering the network, limit incoming access

regardless of source (some may be legitimate)

Traffic analysis: Use traffic anomaly analyzer to perform analysis of traffic to see what normal

traffic looks like, then block abnormal patterns.

DDoS attacks:

DDoS attacks are often performed using a network of compromised devices (called agents, bots,

or zombies). DDoS agents on multiple machines are controlled by a DDoS handler.

Difficult to prevent DoS and DDoS attacks:


Set up many redundant servers around the world

Use Intrusion Detection Systems

Require ISPs to verify that all incoming messages have valid IP addresses

Device Failure Protection Using Redundant Hardware:

Redundancy

Backup systems and power

Failover server clusters

Disaster Recovery:

Organizations should have a clear disaster recovery plan (DRP).

Some organizations outsource to disaster recovery firms.

Provide for partial or complete recovery of data, application software, network components, and

physical facilities

Includes backup and recovery controls

Make backup copies of all data and software routinely

Encrypt them and store them offsite

Some use CDP, or Continuous Data Protection with copies of all data and transactions by time

stamp for ease of restoration

Should include a documented and tested approach to recovery, with formal testing

Preventing Intrusion:

Security policy should define clearly -

Important assets to be safeguarded and Controls needed

What employers should do:

Plan for routinely training employees and testing security controls in place
Physical Security:

Requires a proactive approach that includes routinely testing the security systems.

Employee and contractor/vendor training

Computer Room security.

Best rule for high security:

Do not keep extremely sensitive data online

Store them in computers isolated from the network

Firewall:

Could be a router, gateway, or special purpose computer

Examines packets flowing into and out of the organizations network

Controls access to network. Must be placed on every connection that network has to Internet.

Small business firewall software and hardware solutions are both designed to block unauthorized

access to computers. Firewalls help prevent hackers from intercepting private data or planting

Trojan horses or other Internet threats on your networked computers.

A small business firewall software program is installed on each individual PC it's meant to

protect. To safeguard all your company's computers, however, each one must have a software

firewall installed. This can become expensive and difficult to maintain and support.

Encryption:

DES (Data Encryption Standard) Crack-able now. 3DES - 3 times DES. Better encryption.

AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) Replaced DES.

Email encryption using services like - HP SecureMail, DataMotion, ProofPoint, EdgeWave,

Trend Micro, Cryptzone, Symantec, Sophos, LuxSci.


Sources
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ki/Guinea - Regions_and_prefectures

3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Guineahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy

_of_Guinea

4. http://www.export.gov/guinea/http://www.export.gov/guinea/

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gyjny/t1148178.htm

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4894_180732847.html

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3/file/2014+Registration+document.pdf

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