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Lecture 4 (Additional Notes)

To be able to use the concepts in algebra in solving variety of problems, we must be able to
translate phrases and sentences to algebraic expressions. Some translations are written below. The
variable represents the number being referred to.

English Phrase Algebraic Expression


ADDITION
the sum of a number and 3
a number more than 15
a number greater than 15
21 increased by a number
11 plus a number
14 exceeded by a number
SUBTRACTION
81 minus a number
8 less a number
19 less than a number
a number subtracted from 31
the difference of 5 and a number
a number decreased by 40
a number diminished by 40
MULTIPLICATION
6 times a number
the product of 28 and a number

one-half of a number

twice a number
multiply a number by
DIVISION
the quotient of a number and 3

a number divided by 7

the ratio of a number and 25

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Lecture 4 (Additional Notes)
WORD PROBLEMS
Number Relationship Problems Sample Exercises:
Sample Exercises: 1. A mother is 9 times as old as his son. In 3
1. If 15 is subtracted from three times a years she will only be 5 times as old as her
certain number the result is 27. Find the son. Find the present age of each. Ans: Son=3
number. Ans: 14 yrs. old; mother=27 yrs. old
2. The sum of three numbers is 25. The 2. A man is three times as old as his daughter.
second is twice the first, & the third exceeds Four years ago, the sum if their ages was 60
the second by 5. Find the numbers. Ans: 4, 8, years. How old is the daughter? Ans:
& 13 daughter=17yrs. old; father=51yrs. old
3. The denominator of a fraction exceeds its Consecutive Integer Problems
numerator by 6. If 2 is added to the *Remember that consecutive integers always
numerator and 2 is subtracted from the differ by 1, and consecutive odd, as well as
denominator, the resulting fraction equals . consecutive even integers, differ by 2.
*In representing consecutive integers, even or
Find the original fraction. Ans:
odd, we may follow these guidelines:
. Forty pesos less than of Tims weekly 1. If is an integer, then the consecutive
salary is P800. How much does Tim earn each integers are .
week? Ans: 1,680 pesos 2. If is an even integer, then the consecutive
Coin Problems even integers are .
* When solving problems that involve money, 3. 1. If is an odd integer, then the
we must keep in mind two ideas. One is the consecutive integers are .
number of coins of a given type, & the other is Sample Exercises:
the value of those coins. Also, we may know 1. Find three consecutive integers whose sum
certain facts about the total number of all is 42. Ans: 13, 14, & 15
coins or their total value. 2. Find three consecutive odd integers such
Sample Exercises. that three times the second minus the third is
1. A coin-sorting machine contains 50 coins in 11 more than the first. Ans: 9, 11, & 13
one-peso & two-peso coin denominations. Geometric Problems
The value of all the coins is P 91. Find the *Many geometric problems involve the
number of coins of each denomination in the perimeters & areas of geometric figures. The
machine. Ans: # of 2-peso coin=41, # of 1- following formulas will be useful in solving
peso coin=9 these problems.
2. There are 51 bills which total P1, 830 in a
Figure Perimeter Area
cash box. These bills are either P20 or P50.
Rectangle 2 + 2
How many of each denomination of bill are
there in the box? Ans: 24 twenty-peso bills, 27 Square
fifty-peso bills Triangle
Age Problems
*Problems that involve age will give you where:
practice in thinking about time relationships
in the past, present, & future.

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Lecture 4 (Additional Notes)
1. In a chemistry class, 6 liters of a 12%
Sample Exercises: alcohol must be mixed with a 20% solution to
1. A 130-meter length of fence is used to get a 14% solution. How many liters of the
enclose a rectangular parking lot. The length 20% solution are needed? Ans: 2 liters
2. A chemist has 10 mL of a solution that
of the garden is 5 meters more than its width.
contains a 30% concentration of acid. How
Find the length & width of the parking lot to many mL of pure acid must be added in order
be enclosed. Ans: W=30 m; L=35 m to increase the concentration to 50%? Ans: 4
2. The length of a rectangle is 25 cm more mL
than its width. If the perimeter is 98 cm, 3. Determine how much water is required to
determine the area of the rectangle. Ans: dilute 15 liters of a solution that is 12% dye
so that a 5% dye solution is obtained. Ans: 21
liters of water
3. The supplement of an angle measures 25
more than twice its complement. Find the
measure of the angle. Ans: 25
Work Problems
*In solving work problems note that, if a man
can do a job in 5 days, he completes in one
day in 2 days, & in days. We represent
the competed job in all work by 1. In general,
rate of work = reciprocal of the time needed
to do the entire job
work done = (rate of work)(length of time
the work is being done)

Sample Exercises:
1. If Andrew can do a job in 8 hours & Bobby
can do the same job in 12 hours, how long
would it take the two men working together?
Ans:
2. A pipe can fill a swimming pool in 10 hours.
If a second pipe is open, the two pipes
together can fill the pool in 4 hours. How long
would it take the second pipe alone to fill the
pool? Ans
3. Jack can fill a drum of water in 20 minutes
while Jill can fill it in 25 minutes. After
working for 5 minutes, Jill left & Jack finished
the job alone. How much longer did it take
Jack to fill the drum alone? Ans: 11 minutes
Mixture Problems
A mixture problem can involve mixing
solutions containing different percents of a
substance in order to obtain a solution
containing a certain percent of a substance.
Sample Exercises:

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