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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ymssp

control system

Yibin Guo a, Wanyou Li a,, Shuwen Yu b, Xiao Han c, Yunbo Yuan a, Zhipeng Wang a, Xiuzhen Ma a

a

College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China

b

Marine Design & Research Institute of China (MARIC), Shanghai, China

c

Shanghai Marine Diesel Engine Research Institute (SMDERI), Shanghai, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The coupling problems between shafting torsional vibration and speed control system of

Received 17 September 2016 diesel engine are very common. Neglecting the coupling problems sometimes lead to seri-

Received in revised form 26 November 2016 ous oscillation and vibration during the operation of engines. For example, during the

Accepted 11 January 2017

propulsion shafting operation of a diesel engine, the oscillation of engine speed and the

severe vibration of gear box occur which cause the engine is unable to operate. To find

the cause of the malfunctions, a simulation model coupling the speed control system with

Keywords:

the torsional vibration of deformable shafting is proposed and investigated. In the coupling

Coupling model

Shafting torsional vibration

model, the shafting is simplified to be a deformable one which consists of several inertias

Speed control and shaft sections and with characteristics of torsional vibration. The results of instanta-

Speed oscillation neous rotation speed from this proposed model agree with the test results very well and

are successful in reflecting the real oscillation state of the engine operation.

Furthermore, using the proposed model, the speed control parameters can be tuned up

to predict the diesel engine a stable and safe running. The results from the tests on the die-

sel engine with a set of tuned control parameters are consistent with the simulation results

very well.

2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Diesel engines are commonly used in the field of the ship, and the reliability of the diesel engine is relative to the safety of

maritime. There is a typical coupling problem which affects the operation of the diesel engine. During the operation of a die-

sel engine with 9 cylinders and power of 4500-kW, the oscillation of engine speed and the severe vibration of gear box occur.

From the start of 400 r/min, the speed of the engine is increasing gradually. When it approaches to about 450 r/min, the gov-

ernor arm starts vibrating and the fluctuation of the speed starts increasing. When it approaches to about 540 r/min, the

range of fluctuation reaches 20 r/min and the oscillation of engine speed occurs which leads the engine unable to operate

normally. This phenomenon is caused by the coupling of the dynamics of the driven shafting and the control system of

the diesel engine.

The coupling issues have gained wide attention especially in the research fields of industries where the reliability is

highly required such as in electric power industry or in helicopter industry. The self-oscillations occurring during the process

of turbo unit connected into electronic network have been successfully explained not only theoretically but also experimen-

Corresponding author at: College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China.

E-mail address: hrbeu_ripet_lwy@163.com (W. Li).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2017.01.017

0888-3270/ 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2 Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113

tally. Along with that, many mathematical coupling models were developed to solve the issue of self-oscillations, such as, the

electro-mechanical coupling model, the analysis model coupling shafting torsional vibration to electronic network and the

torsional vibration simulation model coupling gas steam combined cycle unit with electronic network, etc. [1,2]. Gao [3] pre-

sented a theoretical study and proposed an active vibration control scheme for controlling torsional vibration of a rotor shaft

in large steam turbine generator sets, and the results show that full state feedback control has significant effectiveness on

attenuation of torsional vibration energy and response of turbo-generator shaft system. Hall [4,5] established wind turbine

model including the gear and shaft model to study how the wind capture capability of a fixed-speed wind turbine can be

improved through the implementation of a variable ratio gearbox (VRG). White [6] investigated the reduction of rotor shaft

torsional vibrations through active control of the generator torque, where the drive train consists of the rotor with its mass

and inertia, and the rotor shaft with its stiffness and damping. In the helicopter research field, many simulation models were

developed to deal with the coupling issues between transmission chain and speed control system in order to solve torsional

vibration problems. Among the models, there are the model coupling torsional vibration of transmission chain system to

speed control system and the coupling model among human, helicopter and speed control system in which the human effect

is taken into coupling account [79]. Pavel [10] gave an overview on the state-of-the-art in rotorcraft pilot coupling (RPC)

problem, underlining the future challenges in this field. Zhang [11] established a helicopter/turbo-shaft engines system

which has complex coupling relationships, including four parts: open-loop model of helicopter, flight controller, open-

loop model of turbo-shaft engine and engine controller. Sun [12] focused on the aeroelasticity analysis of rotor blade and

rotor control systems, and the results show the inertia of the swashplate has significant effects on high-frequency harmonics

of the servo loads.

However, in the field of reciprocating machinery such as diesel engine, the problems of coupling oscillation in diesel

engine are very common but there are a few researches focusing on the coupling issues. Usually, speed control part and tor-

sional vibration part are studied separately. The classification society rules only make requirements for the two parts indi-

vidually and have no requirements for the coupling issues at all [13]. While studying the simulation of speed control system,

usually the shafting is treated as a rigid one with single inertia, neglecting that the shafting is deformable [1416]. Tao [17]

proposed an adaptive neutral network control for elastic marine shafting using dynamic surface control in order to reduce

the shafting torsional vibration due to fluid incentives of propeller, and the limitation in that study is without considering the

coupling between the torsional vibration of whole shafting system and the control system. stman [18] presented a method

for reducing the torsional vibration of the crankshaft by balancing the cylinder-wise torque contributions with the measured

angular speeds of the crankshaft system, which leads to a significant reduction of the thermal load of the flexible coupling.

Tang [19] established a novel simplified torsional vibration model to study the torsional vibration characteristics of a com-

pound planetary hybrid propulsion system, and the simplified model can be used to accurately describe the low-frequency

vibration property. This study provides a basis for the coupling simulation of vibration-control system to ensure the real-

time performance of the coupling model. By and large, among the published literatures, one can hardly find the coupling

models on shaft system vibration with control system.

In this paper, aiming at the oscillation of the propulsion system, firstly, the torsional vibration is calculated and the speed

control is simulated based on the traditional simulation method with a rigid shaft. The two parts (the torsional vibration and

the speed control) are analyzed separately to check if the results satisfy the classification society rules. Then, a coupling sim-

ulation model by combining deformable shaft torsional vibration with speed control system is proposed which has never

been studied before. The coupling model was built by substituting the deformable shafting model for the rigid one into

the speed control simulation model. The coupling model can be used to explain the cause of the malfunction as fault prob-

lems. Such problems are sometimes not simply design problems of parts but rather than coupling problems among all parts

in a system such as shafting, controller, etc.

The shafting of a diesel engine studied in this paper consists of crankshaft, gearbox gear shaft, propeller shaft and gen-

erator shaft as shown in Fig. 1, where the power of the propeller is 2800 kW, and the power of the generator is 500 kW.

Flywheel

Generator Propeller

Flange Elastic

coupling

Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113 3

According to the principle of keeping the vibration characteristics unchanged, a lumped parameter model is created by sim-

plifying the shafting as a model with 35 inertias and 34 elastic shaft segments as shown in Fig. 2, and the input parameters of

the lumped model are showed in Table 1. The torsional vibration characteristics of the simplified model will be equivalent to

the real shafting system. Later on, a test on the real engine shows that the simplification is acceptable.

Propeller

Flywheel 26 27

shaft

25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Vibration 35

damper Cylinders

19 20 21 22 23 24

Generator

shaft

Table 1

Input parameters for calculation of torsional vibration.

inertia (kgm2) (MNm/rad) inertia (kgm2) (MNm/rad)

Inertia J1 168.0 Inertia J19 16.00

Stiffness K1 5.500 Stiffness K19 9.880

Inertia J2 38.60 Inertia J20 2.280

Stiffness K2 108.0 Stiffness K20 10,000

Inertia J3 47.30 Inertia J21 21.60

Stiffness K3 84.00 Stiffness K21 1.024

Inertia J4 47.30 Inertia J22 7.200

Stiffness K4 84.00 Stiffness K22 1.024

Inertia J5 47.30 Inertia J23 13.60

Stiffness K5 84.00 Stiffness K23 23.08

Inertia J6 47.30 Inertia J24 274.7

Stiffness K6 84.00 Stiffness K24 5.500

Inertia J7 47.30 Inertia J25 95.57

Stiffness K7 84.00 Stiffness K25 10,000

Inertia J8 47.30 Inertia J26 17.40

Stiffness K8 84.00 Stiffness K26 17.79

Inertia J9 47.30 Inertia J27 0.7513

Stiffness K9 84.00 Stiffness K27 33.65

Inertia J10 47.30 Inertia J28 4.830

Stiffness K10 84.00 Stiffness K28 10,000

Inertia J11 47.30 Inertia J29 43.10

Stiffness K11 116.0 Stiffness K29 11.39

Inertia J12 13.80 Inertia J30 1.382

Stiffness K12 101.0 Stiffness K30 10,000

Inertia J13 617.3 Inertia J31 5.233

Stiffness K13 10,000 Stiffness K31 1.011

Inertia J14 21.00 Inertia J32 7.321

Stiffness K14 0.576 Stiffness K32 0.9379

Inertia J15 30.00 Inertia J33 7.975

Stiffness K15 0.576 Stiffness K33 0.9588

Inertia J16 66.50 Inertia J34 13.50

Stiffness K16 10,000 Stiffness K34 0.9326

Inertia J17 10.50 Inertia J35 214.2

Stiffness K17 10,000

Inertia J18 50.65

Stiffness K18 10,000

4 Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113

In the equivalent shafting system shown in Fig. 2, the inertias from NO. 1 to NO. 13 represent the diesel engine crankshaft

and the inertias from NO. 3 to NO. 11 represent the nine cylinders of the diesel engine. The propeller shaft is simplified into

the inertias and the shaft sections from NO. 28 to NO. 35 and the 35th-inertia represents the propeller. The generator shaft is

simplified into the inertias and shaft sections from NO. 19 to NO. 24 and the 24th-inertia represents the rotor of generator.

The branch inertias from NO. 25 to NO. 27 present the parts of flange and shafts transferring other load.

The differential equation of free torsional vibration of the shafting system is given as follows:

Jfhg Kfhg 0 1

where [J] is the inertia matrix, [K] is the torsional stiffness matrix, fhg is the dynamic angular displacement vector of tor-

sional vibration. Assuming that the solution of Eq. (1) is given as:

Then, substitute Eq. (2) into Eq. (1), and it gives

KfAg kJfAg 3

where fAg is the static angular displacement vector of torsional vibration and k is the eigenvalue of the system matrix.

The eigenvalues can be obtained from solving above determinant equation using MATLAB. Then, the natural frequency is

given as follows:

p

x k 4

The natural frequencies of the first five orders of torsional vibration of the shafting system are given in Table 2.

The analysis results indicate that all the critical speeds of torsional vibration are outside the nearby region of the oper-

ating speed of 540 r/min. It indicates that if there are no external excitations which will cause resonance, the engine should

run stably.

The forced torsional vibration differential equation of the shafting system is shown as follows:

Jfhg Cfhg

_ Kfhg fTg 5

where J is the matrix of moment of inertia, C is the damping matrix, K is the stiffness matrix, and fTg is the exciting tor-

que vector, its components are the torques of 9-cylinder pressure and the load torques caused by propeller and generator.

fhg is the angular displacement vector of torsional vibration.

To calculate the stresses, a MATLAB program is carried out based on the calculation flowchart as shown in Fig. 3.

According to the above calculation process, the maximum stress of nine crankshaft sections is obtained as shown in

Table 3.

The levels of maximum crankshaft stress shown in Table 3 are below the allowable value of 30 MPa which can be

obtained from the diesel engine manufacturer, and the evaluation method meets the requirement in the rules of China Clas-

sification Society [13]. It indicates that the engine should run safely and smoothly.

Traditionally, in a speed control simulation model, the shafting is represented by one single inertia regardless the flexible

real structure. The simulation model consists of two main parts, the speed-controller module and the shaft module with the

rigid shaft, as shown in Fig. 4.

The electronic speed control system consists of a PID controller and an actuator. The output current decided by PID

parameters is delivered into the actuator which can regulate the rack displacement, hence, to change the fuel injection quan-

tity. The shaft bearing active torques caused by cylinder pressure and the passive torques are caused by propeller and gen-

erator, and transmits power.

Table 2

Natural frequencies of torsional vibration.

Order 1 2 3 4 5

Natural frequencies (Hz) 3.413 5.533 10.160 24.329 31.141

Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113 5

Table 3

Maximum stress of crankshaft.

1 12.74

2 18.02

3 15.30

4 17.74

5 22.39

6 18.44

7 21.50

8 19.03

9 14.50

The control system simulation model is formed to be a closed loop by getting the shaft instantaneous speed signal as a

feedback of the speed control module and the shaft module. The software Simulink is used to run the simulation model, and

make the torque as the input. The output is the instantaneous speed of engine.

With the target engine speed set to be 540 r/min and the controller parameter set to be the same as the parameters in the

actual fault condition, namely, P = 0.8, I = 0.6 and D = 0.4, the simulation results in Fig. 5 show that the fluctuation of the

instantaneous speed is small enough (about 3 r/min), which indicates the operation of the shaft is stable and secure.

6 Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113

PID Instantaneous

Target speed Actuator Rigid shaft

controller speed

700 544

543

600

542

500

Speed (r/min)

Speed (r/min)

541

400 540

539

300

538

200

537

100 536

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Time (s) Time (s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 5. Simulation result of the shafting instantaneous speed: (a) the whole result of the instantaneous speed; (b) the partial result to show the fluctuation

range of the instantaneous speed.

4. Coupling simulation model of speed control system with shaft torsional vibration

Thinking through the conventional coupling simulation model, a flexible shaft torsional vibration module is proposed to

substitute for the rigid shaft vibration module in the control system simulation model. The new coupling simulation model

consists of the shaft torsional vibration module and the speed control system module. The simulation structure of the cou-

pling model is shown in Fig. 6.

In order to run the proposed coupling simulation model in an efficient way, the flexible shaft is simplified as a model with

15 inertias and 14 elastic shaft sections shown in Fig. 7. The results in Table 4 show that comparing with the previous model

with 35 inertias and 34 elastic shaft sections, the two equivalent shaft model have almost the same natural frequencies for

the first two orders so that the new simplified shaft model can be used to substitute for the original one.

Thus, the differential torsional vibration equation of the new shaft module is given as follows:

Target speed Actuator

controller flexible shaft speed

Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113 7

14

13

11 14

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

13

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

15

Cylinder Propeller

12

Generator

Fig. 7. Simplified lumped parameter model.

Table 4

Natural frequencies of the two lumped parameter model.

15 inertias and 14 elastic shaft sections 208.7 330.9

35 inertias and 34 elastic shaft sections 204.8 332.0

Difference (%) 1.904 0.331

8

>

> J h c1 h_ 1 h1;2 h_ 1 h_ 2 k1;2 h1 h2 0

> 1 1

>

>

> _ _ _ _ _

> J 2 h2 h1;2 h2 h1 h2;3 h2 h3 c2 h2 k1;2 h2 h1 k2;3 h2 h3 T cyl1

>

>

>

> _ _ _ _ _

> J 3 h3 h2;3 h3 h2 h3;4 h3 h4 c3 h3 k2;3 h3 h2 k3;4 h3 h4 T cyl2

>

>

>

>

> J 4 h4 h3;4 h4 h3 h4;5 h4 h5 c4 h_ 4 k3;4 h4 h3 k4;5 h4 h5 T cyl3

>

>

_ _ _ _

>

>

>

> J 5 h5 h4;5 h_ 5 h_ 4 h5;6 h_ 5 h_ 6 c5 h_ 5 k4;5 h5 h4 k5;6 h5 h6 T cyl4

>

>

>

>

>

>

> J 6 h6 h5;6 h_ 6 h_ 5 h6;7 h_ 6 h_ 7 c6 h_ 6 k5;6 h6 h5 k6;7 h6 h7 T cyl5

>

>

>

> J h7 h6;7 h_ 7 h_ 6 h7;8 h_ 7 h_ 8 c7 h_ 7 k6;7 h7 h6 k7;8 h7 h8 T cyl6

>

>

> 7

>

>

> _ _ _ _ _

< J 8 h8 h7;8 h8 h7 h8;9 h8 h9 c8 h8 k7;8 h8 h7 k8;9 h8 h9 T cyl7

> J 9 h9 h8;9 h9 h8 h9;10 h9 h10 c9 h_ 9 k8;9 h9 h8 k9;10 h9 h10 T cyl8

_ _ _ _ 6

>

>

> J h h h_ h_ h

> _ _ _

> 10 10 10;11 h10 h11 c 10 h10 k9;10 h10 h9 k10;11 h10 h11 T cyl9

>

>

9;10 10 9

>

>

>

> J 11 h11 h10;11 h11 h10 h11;12 h11 h13 h12;13 h_ 11 h_ 12 c11 h_ 11 k10;11 h11 h10 k11;12 h11 h13

_ _ _ _

>

>

>

> k12;13 h11 h12 0

>

>

>

>

>

>

> J h12 h12;13 h_ 12 h_ 11 c12 h_ 12 k12;13 h12 h11 T generator

> 12

>

>

> J 13 h13 h11;12 h_ 13 h_ 11 h13;14 h_ 13 h_ 14 h14;15 h_ 13 h_ 15 c13 h_ 13 k11;12 h13 h11 k13;14 h13 h14

>

>

>

>

>

> k14;15 h13 h15 0

>

>

>

> _ _ _

>

> J 14 h14 h13;14 h14 h13 c 14 h14 k13;14 h14 h13 0

>

:

J 15 h15 h14;15 h15 h13 c15 h_ 15 k14;15 h15 h13 T propeller

_ _

where T cyl j (j = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 9) is the jth cylinder excitation torque, T generator ; T propeller are the excitation torques of generator and

propeller, respectively.

In order to run the simulation, the variables of angular displacement amplitude will be replaced by the variables of shaft

speed according to the following equations:

Z

p

hi nsi dt 7

30

8 Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113

p

h_ i nsi 8

30

hi p dnsi

9

30 dt

Hence, the differential equation with the variable of shaft speed can be described by Simulink software to build the flex-

ible shaft module. The input signals are the excitation torques including torques of the cylinders (the sum of the tangential

torque of each cylinder and torque of reciprocating mass), the load torques of propeller and generator. The shaft parameters

of inertia, stiffness and damping are constant. Furthermore, the output signals are the responses of shaft torsional vibration,

namely, the instantaneous speeds of inertias.

The premise of the coupling simulation process is that torsional vibration and rotational speed control form a closed-loop

control system. That is, the signals which are collected by the sensors and passed to the speed controller are actually the

derivatives of the angle responses of the elastic shafting torsional vibration. After receiving the rotational speed signal,

the speed controllers regulation performance is reflected as an excitation torque applied upon the shafting. In turn, the tor-

que affects the response of the shafting torsional vibration. The closed-loop of coupling process is shown in Fig. 8.

With the target engine speed set to be 540 r/min and the controller parameters set to be the same as the parameters actu-

ally used in the fault condition, namely, P = 0.8, I = 0.6, D = 0.4, The simulation results are given in Fig. 9. The results show

that the instantaneous speed roughly fluctuates within a range of plus or minus 21 r/min. It indicates that this group of

PID parameters couldnt match the shaft torsional vibration, hence, it might cause malfunction including shaft oscillation,

severe vibration of gear box, and so on.

To sum up, under the control of the same group of controller parameters, the simulation results of shaft instantaneous

speed in the two kinds of simulation model reflect different characteristics. The former model with rigid shaft vibration mod-

ule shows that the fluctuation of speed is so small that the engine should run stably. On the contract, the latter model with

1000 565

560

500 555

550

Speed (r/min)

Speed (r/min)

0 545

540

-500 535

530

-1000 525

520

-1500 515

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Time (s) Time (s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 9. Simulation result of the shaft instantaneous speed: (a) the whole result of the instantaneous speed; (b) the partial result to show the fluctuation

range of the instantaneous speed.

Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113 9

deformable shaft vibration module shows the large fluctuation of the speed will make the engine oscillate severely. The

speed control system based on the conventional method simplifying the shaft to be a rigid one is unreasonable and cannot

reflect the actual problems. Later on, an experimental test is carried out to verify these two models.

To verify two models above discussed, tests on the shafting torsional vibration are carried out on the real ship. The sche-

matic diagram of testing system is given in Fig. 10. Pointing at the tooth of flywheel ring gear, the speed sensor collects the

pulse signals due to the distance change between the sensor and the tooth surface. The pulse signals then are transformed

through data lines into the multichannel data acquisition. After that, the responses of torsional vibration and the shafting

speed signals can be obtained using LMS.TEST.LAB.

The test includes two parts, the free torsional vibration part and the shafting instantaneous speed part. The free torsional

vibration signals are collected from two processes, one is increasing the engine speed continuously from 450 r/min up to

600 r/min and the other is decreasing the engine speed continuously from 600 r/min down to 450 r/min. The shafting instan-

taneous speed signals are collected during the engine is running at the speed of 540 r/min as stable as possible.

For the two test processes, the natural frequencies can be analyzed. The comparison of natural frequencies between the

test and the calculation is shown in Table 5. The test frequencies of the first order and the third order have little difference

from the calculation values, while the second order shows bigger difference. It may be due to while simplifying the shafting

into inertias and elastic shaft sections, the nonlinear structures, such as gear mesh, couplings and clutch, etc., are treated as

linear one or even a rigid one. By and large, from the point view of the free torsional vibration, the test results and the sim-

ulation results are in good agreement.

With the engine speed keeping at about 540 r/min and the control parameters of P = 0.8, I = 0.6 and D = 0.4, the testing

result of engine instantaneous speed is given in Fig. 11. The results show that the instantaneous speed roughly fluctuates

within a range of plus or minus 20 r/min as shown in Fig. 9. It agrees with the results of the coupling simulation model very

well. It also indicates that the drive system runs unsteadily.

As the use of the PID algorithm does not guarantee optimal control of the system or even its stability, the PID parameters

used in the studied engine do not match with the response of the shaft torsional vibration, hence, under this set of PID, either

the test or the proposed control simulation model shows the large fluctuation and oscillation of the rotation speed, that is a

Flywheel

Data analysis

Multichannel software

data acquisition

Speed

sensor

Table 5

Comparison of natural frequencies between test and calculation.

1 3.44 3.41 0.9

2 6.69 5.53 17.5

3 10.13 10.16 0.2

10 Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113

580

575

570

565

555

550

545

540

535

530

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time (s)

Fig. 11. The testing result of the instantaneous speed with the engine speed 540 r/min.

unstable engine running. Later, a simulation study will show that using the proposed control simulation model, the three PID

parameters can be tuned up to ensure the engine stable running. Further, a test carried out shows that a stable and safe

engine running is really achieved under a new set of tuned PID parameters.

It is not too hard that after running the proposed coupling simulation model several times, a new set of control param-

eters of P = 0.28, I = 0.18 and D = 0.4 is tuned up. Choosing the new control PID, the instantaneous speed fluctuates within a

small range of about plus or minus 3 r/min. The results under the target engine speed 540 r/min are given in Fig. 12. The

results under the target engine speed of 750 r/min are given in Fig. 13. All the results show that using this proposed simu-

lation model and choosing the new tuned PID control parameters, the engine can run stably and safely either at the working

speed of 540 r/min or at the rated speed of 750 r/min.

700 544

600 543

500 542

400 541

Speed (r/min)

Speed (r/min)

300 540

200 539

100 538

0 537

-100 536

-200 535

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Time (s) Time (s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 12. Instantaneous speed under tuned PID at engine speed 540 r/min: (a) the whole result of the instantaneous speed; (b) the partial result to show the

fluctuation range of the instantaneous speed.

Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113 11

900 755

754

800

753

700 752

Speed (r/min)

Speed (r/min)

751

600

750

500

749

400 748

747

300

746

200 745

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

Time (s) Time (s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 13. Instantaneous speed under tuned PID with rated engine speed 750 r/min: (a) the whole result of the instantaneous speed; (b) the partial result to

show the fluctuation range of the instantaneous speed.

The new tuned PID controller parameters are chosen to be used in the new tests of the engine. The test results at the

working speed of 540 r/min and at the rated speed of 750 r/min are shown in Fig. 14 and 15, respectively. The speeds fluc-

tuate within a small range of about plus or minus 2 r/min and 4 r/min. The results are consistent with the simulation result.

They indicate the stable operation of the engine. Hence, using the proposed coupling simulation model, the speed control

parameters can be tuned up and predicted reasonably to ensure the diesel engine stable and safe running.

From the simulated and tested results, it is found that the speed fluctuation of the diesel engine under oscillatory condi-

tion is larger than that under stable condition. Because the input signal of the control system of the diesel engine is from the

instantaneous speed of crankshaft and the torsional angle of the shafting can be transformed into instantaneous speed by

differentiation, the torsional vibration of the shafting and the control system compose a closed-loop coupling system. When

the parameters of control system are not suitable, the coupling oscillation will appear in this closed-loop system. In this

study, the coupling oscillation affected the stability of the system, so the fuel injection quantity was adjusted frequently,

which leads to the torque fluctuation increasing obviously. Hence, the speed is not stable under oscillatory condition driven

by the increased torque fluctuation.

559

558.5

558

557.5

Speed (r/min)

557

556.5

556

555.5

555

554.5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time (s)

Fig. 14. Test instantaneous speed at the engine speed of 540 r/min.

12 Y. Guo et al. / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 94 (2017) 113

769

768

767

766

Speed (r/min)

765

764

763

762

761

760

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time (s)

Fig. 15. Test instantaneous speed at the engine speed of 750 r/min.

7. Conclusion

In this paper, to solve the oscillation of the engine speed and severe vibration of the engine of a diesel engine with 9 cylin-

ders and power of 4500-kilowatt, firstly, the shafting torsional vibration and the speed control based on the traditional sim-

ulation model with shafting simplified to be rigid are analyzed separately. The results show that the propulsion system

meets the design standard and should run safely and stably.

Hence, a coupling simulation model is proposed and investigated. The results from the proposed model agree with the

test results very well. It indicates that the fault problems are the coupling problems among the parts in the system of shaft-

ing and controller. The PID parameters used in the engine investigated in this paper are not appropriated to the shaft tor-

sional vibration. They need to be tuned to deal with the engine safe and stable running issue of the engine. Using the

proposed control simulation model, a new set of control parameters is obtained. All the results show that with this new

tuned PID control parameters, the engine can run stably and safely both at the working speed and the rated speed.

The proposed coupling model can be easily used to predict the speed control parameters for the stable and safe running of

the diesel engine. It can help not only to avoid the coupling oscillation phenomenon due to mismatch between parts but also

to reduce the cost to maintain each part as oscillation malfunction in the practical engineering as well.

Acknowledgement

The research work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51375104), Heilongjiang

Province Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists (Grant No. JC 201405), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.

2015M581433) and Postdoctoral Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (Grant No. LBH-Z15038).

References

[1] Yanhui Xu, The Mechanism Study of Torsional Modes Instability Resulting from Electromechanical Coupling under Large Disturbance (PhD Thesis),

North China Electric Power University, 2003.

[2] Qiuheng Deng, Study on Torsional Interaction of the Lager Combined Cycle Unit with Power Systems (PhD Thesis), Shanghai Jiaotong University, 2007.

[3] Wenzhi Gao, Zhiyong Hao, Active control and simulation test study on torsional vibration of large turbo-generator rotor shaft, Mech. Mach. Theory 45

(2010) 13261336.

[4] John F. Hall, Dongmei Chen, Dynamic optimization of drivetrain gear ratio to maximize wind turbine power generation part 1: system model and

control framework, J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Contr. 135 (2013), 011016-1-10.

[5] John F. Hall, Dongmei Chen, Dynamic optimization of drivetrain gear ratio to maximize wind turbine power generation part 2: control design, J. Dyn.

Syst. Meas. Contr. 135 (2013), 011017-1-10.

[6] Warren N. White, Zhichao Yu, Ruth Douglas Miller, David Ochs, Active control of wind turbine rotor torsional vibration, in: Proceedings of the ASME

2013 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Palo Alto, USA, 2013, DSCC2013-3957.

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[8] Haowei Pan, Control and Mechanism of Torsional Oscillation in New Unmanned Helicopter (PhD Thesis), Nanjing University of Aeronautics and

Astronautics, 2009.

[9] Ming Yuan, Fang Zhang, Jinhui Jiang, Coupled stability analysis of the helicopters engine control system and mechanical vibration system based on

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