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(2017)

APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL CONCEPTS IN THE

DETERMINATION OF WEIGHT VARIATION IN SAMPLES

D. Gevaña1

1

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman,

Quezon City 1101

Performed 25 January 2017; Submitted 01 February 2017

Results and Discussion

**In dealing with numerical results, it is essential to assess both the accuracy and precision
**

of the data at hand. In experiment one, different data sets were compared and assessed

using basic statistical concepts [2].

**Weighing by difference was used to measure the weight of every individual 25-centavo
**

coin. Weighing by difference measures the mass of an object by repetitive weighings. As

a coin is removed from the analytical balance, with the use of forceps, the total mass is

decreased. The difference in the two masses represents the mass of the coin that was

taken out of the analytical balance, hence it’s called weighing by difference [1].

**Grubbs’ test was used to confirm if a suspected value, within the data collected, is an
**

outlier or not. For both data sets, sample four (4) is the highest value while sample one

(1) is the lowest value for data set one, and sample ten (10) is the lowest value for data

set two. After assessing the suspected values, sample four (4) for both data sets had the

highest difference with the data set mean in both data sets.

**If the calculated grubbs’ test value for sample four (4) is greater than the expected
**

grubbs’ value, then sample four (4) is an outlier. The suspected outlier, X4 = 3.7709, is

rejected since Gexp, n=6 = 1.9705 > G95%, n=6 = 1.8871 for data set one [2]. The same can

be concluded for data set two.

Table 1 below shows the result of the Grubbs’ test upon using values with the highest

difference to the data set mean.

Table 1. Grubbs’ Test

Data Suspect Conclusi

Gtab Gexp

Set Values on

1.887 1.970

H:3.7709 Reject

1 1 5

L:3.5454 Retain

2.290 2.686

H:3.7709 Reject

2 0 5

L:3.5444 Retain

While table 2 below shows the results of calculated statistical values for each data set.

**Table 2. Reported Values
**

Data

Set

´x s RSD R RR CL

3.608 0.0824 0.2255 62.49 3.6085±0.08

1 22.844

5 5 0 2 65

3.596 0.0649 0.2265 62.97 3.5965±0.04

2 18.050

5 2 0 8 639

**1. Give the significance of Grubb’s test.
**

Grubbs’ test checks distributed data for outliers. The Grubbs test always checks

the value which shows the largest absolute deviated from the computed mean.

08 Oct. N. an outlier can be removed from the data set because the presence of an outlier may cause extreme deviations from the results at hand [3].Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry (7th ed. [3] Lohninger. Print. [2] Institute of Chemistry. University of the Philippines Diliman. This is the area where data collected should most likely occur and is a way to identify outlying values in the data set [2].. How do the statistics calculated from data set 1 differ from those obtained from data set 2? For both data sets..). Web. David. s. D. do not differ greatly except for the values of the standard deviation. Give the significance of the confidence interval.1: Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Manual. 30 Jan. The mean is the sum of all the values in a data set divided by total number of values in the set. Web. The standard deviation measure the precision of the data. 3. 30 Jan.p. 2017 [4] Skoog. 2. Give the importance of mean and standard deviation. . 2017. “Grubbs’ Outlier Test. the same outlier was calculated thus in their statistical values. D. 2012. H. 4. Dr. 1st ed. (1996). which are both based on the mean and standard deviation of their respective data sets. and relative standard deviation. It calculates how close the values are with respect to the calculated mean [4]. 2017. RSD.1 Page | 2 (2017) Upon certain conditions. which are summarized in table 2. Gevaña/ Chemistry 26. Weighing By Difference.” Grubbs’ Outlier Test. It provides the best estimate of the “true” value within the data set. & West. The confidence interval is an expression stating that the true mean is likely to lie within a certain distance in a specified interval of values. D. References [1] Chesney. Chem 26. Fort Worth: Saunders College Pub.

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