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## Lecture 2. Deterministic Signal

Analysis

Fourier Transform
Energy Spectrum, Power Spectrum and Signal Bandwidth
Signal Transmission through a Linear System
Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2
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## A signal is a set of data or information, which can be

represented as a function of time: s (t )
Deterministic signal is a signal whose physical description
is known completely, either in a mathematical form or a graphical
form.

Signal Energy: Es | s (t ) |2 dt

Signal Power: 1 T /2
Ps lim | s (t ) |2 dt
T T T / 2

Signal Classification:
Continuous-time vs. Discrete-time signal
Periodic signal vs. Aperiodic signal

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## Time domain Frequency domain

s (t ) S( f ) s t e j 2 ft dt

cos(2f0t)

t f0 f

1/ f 0
Periodic signal with period 1/f0: sn f 0 0 s(t )e j 2 nf t dt 0

n
sn e j 2 nf0t
nf0 f

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Fourier Transform

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Fourier Transform

Given a time domain signal s(t), its Fourier transform is defined as follows.

Fourier transform: S( f ) s t e j 2 ft dt

The time domain signal s(t) can be expressed by S(f) using an inverse transform.

Inverse Fourier transform: s (t ) S f e j 2 ft df

## (Fourier) spectrum of s(t): S( f )

s (t ) S ( f )
Magnitude spectrum of s(t): S ( f )

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## Example 1: Spectrum of Unit Impulse (t)

1/
(t) is a unit impulse, which is zero everywhere except
at t=0, and has unit area.
t 0
(t)
(t )
0 t0
and (t )dt 1

s (t ) (t ) S( f ) (t ) e j 2 ft
dt
area =1
1

s(t) S(f)
t
1
1
0
0 t 0 f

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## Example 2: Spectrum of Constant Signal

s (t )
A
s (t ) A
0 t

S ( f ) A e j 2 ft dt

S(f)

A S (0) A e j 2 0t dt A 1dt

f
0 S ( f ) A e j 2 ft dt 0 for f 0

S ( f ) A ( f )

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## Example 3: Spectrum of Sinusoidal Signal

s(t)

s (t ) cos(2 f 0t )
t

j 2 ft
S( f ) cos 2 f 0 t e dt
S(f)

1
2 (e j 2 f0t e j 2 f0t ) e j 2 ft dt
1/2

e
j 2 ( f f 0 ) t j 2 ( f f 0 ) t
1
2 dt 12 e dt
-f0 0 f0 f

12 ( ( f f 0 ) ( f f 0 ))

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## x(t ) s(t ) cos(2 f 0t )

X(f ) s (t ) cos(2 f 0t ) e j 2 ft dt

s (t ) 12 (e j 2 f0t e j 2 f0t ) e j 2 ft dt

j 2 ( f f 0 ) t
1
2 s (t ) e dt 12 s (t ) e j 2 ( f f0 )t dt 12 [ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )]

S(f) X(f)

0 f -f0 0 f0 f

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## Example 5: Spectrum of Single Rectangular Pulse

s(t)
A
A / 2 t / 2
s (t )
-/2 0 otherwise
0 /2 t

S(f) /2
e j f e j f
dt A
j 2 ft
A S( f ) A e

/2
j 2 f
sin( f )
-2/ -1/ 0 1/ 2/ f A A sinc( f )
f

## sin( x) sinc function is an even, oscillating function with a decreasing magnitude.

sinc( x)
x It has unit peak at x=0, and zero crossing points at x= non-zero integers.
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## Properties of Fourier Transform

s1 (t ) s2 (t ) S1 ( f ) S2 ( f ) Linearity

s1 (t ) s2 (t ) S1 ( f ) S2 ( f ) Convolution

S (t ) s ( f ) Duality

s (t ) S ( f ) e j 2 f Time shift

## s (t )e j 2 f0t S ( f f0 ) Frequency shift

s (t ) cos(2 f 0t ) 1
2 [ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )] Modulation

s (at ) 1 f
S Time scale
(for any real a 0 ) a a

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## Review Examples 2 & 4

s (t ) (t ) S( f ) 1 Duality: S (t ) s ( f )

s (t ) 1 S( f ) ( f )

## x(t ) s(t ) cos(2 f 0t ) Modulation:

s1 (t ) cos(2 f 0t )

X ( f ) S ( f ) ( ( f f 0 ) ( f f 0 ))
1
2 1
2 [ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )]
12 [ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )]
Convolution:

s1 (t ) s2 (t ) S1 ( f ) S2 ( f )
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## Example 6: Spectrum of Impulse Train

se
1
s (t ) n (t nT0 )
j 2 nf 0t
n f0
n
T0

T0 2T0 t

S ( f ) n sn ( f nf 0 )

1/ f 0
dt f 0 0
1 T0
(t )e j 2 nf t dt f 0

j 2 nf 0t
sn s (t )e 0

T0 0

S(f) f 0 n ( f nf 0 )

f0

f f0 f 2f0 f
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## For periodic signal s(t) with period T0, define sT0 (t ) as

s (t ) T0 / 2 t T0 / 2
sT0 (t )
0 otherwise

## S ( f ) ST0 ( f ) f 0 n ( f nf 0 ) f 0 n ST0 (nf 0 ) ( f nf 0 )

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## Example 8: Spectrum of Sampled Signal

x(t ) s (t ) n (t nT0 )

X ( f ) S ( f ) f 0 n ( f nf 0 ) f 0 n S ( f nf 0 )

s(t) x(t)

t t

S(f) X(f)

0 f -2f0 -f0 0 f0 2f0 f
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## Energy Spectrum, Power Spectrum

and Signal Bandwidth

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## Energy-type Signal: A signal is an energy-type signal if and

only if its energy is positive and finite.

s(t) is an energy-type signal if and only if 0 Es
| s (t ) |2 dt .

## Power-type Signal: A signal is a power-type signal if and only if

its power is positive and finite.
1 T /2
s(t) is a power-type signal if and only if 0 Ps lim | s (t ) |2 dt .
T T T /2

## How to determine if a signal is an energy-type signal or

a power-type signal from the frequency domain?
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## Energy of energy-type signal s(t):

df dt
s (t ) s (t )dt
j 2 ft
Es | s (t ) | dt 2 *
s (t )

S *
( f ) e

dt df S ( f ) S ( f )df
S ( f ) s (t )e
j 2 ft * 2

*
S ( f ) df

U s ( f )df

Parsevals Theorem: Es | s (t ) | dt
2
2
S ( f ) df

Energy spectrum: U s ( f ) | S ( f ) |2

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## Example 9: Energy Spectrum of Single Rectangular

Pulse
s(t)
A
A / 2 t / 2
s (t )
-/2 0 otherwise
0 /2 t

S(f)
Fourier spectrum: A

## S ( f ) A sinc( f ) -2/ -1/ 0 1/ 2/ f

Us(f)
Energy spectrum:
A2
U s ( f ) | S ( f ) |2 A2 2sinc 2 ( f )
-2/ -1/ 0 1/ 2/ f
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## Power of power-type signal s(t): s(t ) T / 2 t T / 2

sT (t )
0 otherwise
1 T /2 1 T /2
Ps lim | s (t ) |2 dt lim T /2 | sT (t ) |2 dt
T T T / 2 T T

1 1
lim | ST ( f ) | df lim | ST ( f ) | df Gs ( f )df
2 2

T T T T

Power spectrum:

1
Gs ( f ) lim | ST ( f ) |2
T T

1 T /2
Gs ( f ) lim s (t ) s* (t )dt
T T T / 2

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f 0 1/ T0

## Fourier spectrum: S(f)

s
s1 0 s1
S ( f ) n sn ( f nf 0 )

s2 s2
-f0 0 f0 f
Power spectrum:

s (t ) s (t )dt n sn e
1 T /2 1 T0 / 2 j 2 nf 0
Gs ( f ) lim s (t ) s* (t )dt
2

*
T T T / 2 T0 T0 / 2

Gs ( f )
Gs ( f ) n sn ( f nf 0 )
2

| s0 |2
| s1 |2 | s1 |2
| s2 |2 | s2 |2

-f0 0 f0 f
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Signal Bandwidth

## Bandwidth of signal s(t): the amount of positive frequency

spectrum that signal s(t) occupies. S(f)

0 Bs f

## Effective Bandwidth: x% of the signals power (energy) are

included.
Gs(f)

0 Bs _ 90% Bs _ 95% f

90% power
95% power
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## Signal Transmission through a

Linear System

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## Linear system: in the time domain, a linear system is described in

terms of its impulse response (the response of the system to a
unit impulse (t)).

## Linear Time Invariant (LTI) system: the shape of the impulse

response is the same no matter when the unit impulse (t) is
applied to the system.

s(t)
Impulse Response y (t ) s (t ) h(t ) s ( )h(t )d

h(t)

## S(f) Transfer Function

Y ( f ) S( f ) H ( f )
H(f)

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H(f)

-Bh 0 Bh f
Bandwidth
Bh

## For a baseband input signal with bandwidth Bs:

S(f) Y(f)
H(f) if Bh Bs
x 1 =
-Bs 0 Bs f -Bh 0 Bh f -Bs 0 Bs f

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## Transfer Function H(f) of an ideal bandpass system:

H(f)
1

0 f c 12 Bh fc f c 12 Bh f
Bandwidth
Bh
For a baseband input signal with bandwidth Bs:
If: 1) the center
frequency of S(f)
S(f) S(f) Y(f)
H(f) is shifted to fc
1 2) Bh 2Bs
x =
-Bs 0 Bs f fc-Bs fc fc+Bs f 0 f c 12 Bh fc f c 12 Bh f fc-Bs fc fc+Bs f

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## Baseband channel Bandpass channel

A baseband channel A bandpass channel efficiently
efficiently passes frequency passes frequency components
components from dc (zero) within a certain band, say,
to the cutoff frequency Bh Hz. between f c 12 Bh and f c 12 Bh Hz.

## In this course, a baseband channel and a bandpass channel are modeled as an

ideal low-pass LTI system and an ideal bandpass LTI system, respectively.
H(f) H(f)

1 1

-Bh 0 Bh f 0 f c 12 Bh fc f c 12 Bh f
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