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Analysis

Fourier Transform

Energy Spectrum, Power Spectrum and Signal Bandwidth

Signal Transmission through a Linear System

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

2

represented as a function of time: s (t )

Deterministic signal is a signal whose physical description

is known completely, either in a mathematical form or a graphical

form.

Signal Energy: Es | s (t ) |2 dt

Signal Power: 1 T /2

Ps lim | s (t ) |2 dt

T T T / 2

Signal Classification:

Continuous-time vs. Discrete-time signal

Periodic signal vs. Aperiodic signal

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

3

s (t ) S( f ) s t e j 2 ft dt

cos(2f0t)

t f0 f

1/ f 0

Periodic signal with period 1/f0: sn f 0 0 s(t )e j 2 nf t dt 0

n

sn e j 2 nf0t

nf0 f

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

4

Fourier Transform

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

5

Fourier Transform

Given a time domain signal s(t), its Fourier transform is defined as follows.

Fourier transform: S( f ) s t e j 2 ft dt

The time domain signal s(t) can be expressed by S(f) using an inverse transform.

Inverse Fourier transform: s (t ) S f e j 2 ft df

s (t ) S ( f )

Magnitude spectrum of s(t): S ( f )

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

6

1/

(t) is a unit impulse, which is zero everywhere except

at t=0, and has unit area.

t 0

(t)

(t )

0 t0

and (t )dt 1

s (t ) (t ) S( f ) (t ) e j 2 ft

dt

area =1

1

s(t) S(f)

t

1

1

0

0 t 0 f

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

7

s (t )

A

s (t ) A

0 t

S ( f ) A e j 2 ft dt

S(f)

A S (0) A e j 2 0t dt A 1dt

f

0 S ( f ) A e j 2 ft dt 0 for f 0

S ( f ) A ( f )

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

8

s(t)

s (t ) cos(2 f 0t )

t

j 2 ft

S( f ) cos 2 f 0 t e dt

S(f)

1

2 (e j 2 f0t e j 2 f0t ) e j 2 ft dt

1/2

e

j 2 ( f f 0 ) t j 2 ( f f 0 ) t

1

2 dt 12 e dt

-f0 0 f0 f

12 ( ( f f 0 ) ( f f 0 ))

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

9

X(f ) s (t ) cos(2 f 0t ) e j 2 ft dt

s (t ) 12 (e j 2 f0t e j 2 f0t ) e j 2 ft dt

j 2 ( f f 0 ) t

1

2 s (t ) e dt 12 s (t ) e j 2 ( f f0 )t dt 12 [ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )]

S(f) X(f)

0 f -f0 0 f0 f

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

10

s(t)

A

A / 2 t / 2

s (t )

-/2 0 otherwise

0 /2 t

S(f) /2

e j f e j f

dt A

j 2 ft

A S( f ) A e

/2

j 2 f

sin( f )

-2/ -1/ 0 1/ 2/ f A A sinc( f )

f

sinc( x)

x It has unit peak at x=0, and zero crossing points at x= non-zero integers.

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

11

s1 (t ) s2 (t ) S1 ( f ) S2 ( f ) Linearity

s1 (t ) s2 (t ) S1 ( f ) S2 ( f ) Convolution

S (t ) s ( f ) Duality

s (t ) S ( f ) e j 2 f Time shift

s (t ) cos(2 f 0t ) 1

2 [ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )] Modulation

s (at ) 1 f

S Time scale

(for any real a 0 ) a a

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

12

s (t ) (t ) S( f ) 1 Duality: S (t ) s ( f )

s (t ) 1 S( f ) ( f )

s1 (t ) cos(2 f 0t )

X ( f ) S ( f ) ( ( f f 0 ) ( f f 0 ))

1

2 1

2 [ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )]

12 [ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )]

Convolution:

s1 (t ) s2 (t ) S1 ( f ) S2 ( f )

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

13

se

1

s (t ) n (t nT0 )

j 2 nf 0t

n f0

n

T0

T0 2T0 t

S ( f ) n sn ( f nf 0 )

1/ f 0

dt f 0 0

1 T0

(t )e j 2 nf t dt f 0

j 2 nf 0t

sn s (t )e 0

T0 0

S(f) f 0 n ( f nf 0 )

f0

f f0 f 2f0 f

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

14

s (t ) T0 / 2 t T0 / 2

sT0 (t )

0 otherwise

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

15

x(t ) s (t ) n (t nT0 )

X ( f ) S ( f ) f 0 n ( f nf 0 ) f 0 n S ( f nf 0 )

s(t) x(t)

t t

S(f) X(f)

0 f -2f0 -f0 0 f0 2f0 f

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

16

and Signal Bandwidth

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

17

only if its energy is positive and finite.

s(t) is an energy-type signal if and only if 0 Es

| s (t ) |2 dt .

its power is positive and finite.

1 T /2

s(t) is a power-type signal if and only if 0 Ps lim | s (t ) |2 dt .

T T T /2

a power-type signal from the frequency domain?

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

18

df dt

s (t ) s (t )dt

j 2 ft

Es | s (t ) | dt 2 *

s (t )

S *

( f ) e

dt df S ( f ) S ( f )df

S ( f ) s (t )e

j 2 ft * 2

*

S ( f ) df

U s ( f )df

Parsevals Theorem: Es | s (t ) | dt

2

2

S ( f ) df

Energy spectrum: U s ( f ) | S ( f ) |2

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

19

Pulse

s(t)

A

A / 2 t / 2

s (t )

-/2 0 otherwise

0 /2 t

S(f)

Fourier spectrum: A

Us(f)

Energy spectrum:

A2

U s ( f ) | S ( f ) |2 A2 2sinc 2 ( f )

-2/ -1/ 0 1/ 2/ f

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

20

sT (t )

0 otherwise

1 T /2 1 T /2

Ps lim | s (t ) |2 dt lim T /2 | sT (t ) |2 dt

T T T / 2 T T

1 1

lim | ST ( f ) | df lim | ST ( f ) | df Gs ( f )df

2 2

T T T T

Power spectrum:

1

Gs ( f ) lim | ST ( f ) |2

T T

1 T /2

Gs ( f ) lim s (t ) s* (t )dt

T T T / 2

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

21

f 0 1/ T0

s

s1 0 s1

S ( f ) n sn ( f nf 0 )

s2 s2

-f0 0 f0 f

Power spectrum:

s (t ) s (t )dt n sn e

1 T /2 1 T0 / 2 j 2 nf 0

Gs ( f ) lim s (t ) s* (t )dt

2

*

T T T / 2 T0 T0 / 2

Gs ( f )

Gs ( f ) n sn ( f nf 0 )

2

| s0 |2

| s1 |2 | s1 |2

| s2 |2 | s2 |2

-f0 0 f0 f

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

22

Signal Bandwidth

spectrum that signal s(t) occupies. S(f)

0 Bs f

included.

Gs(f)

0 Bs _ 90% Bs _ 95% f

90% power

95% power

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

23

Linear System

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

24

terms of its impulse response (the response of the system to a

unit impulse (t)).

response is the same no matter when the unit impulse (t) is

applied to the system.

s(t)

Impulse Response y (t ) s (t ) h(t ) s ( )h(t )d

h(t)

Y ( f ) S( f ) H ( f )

H(f)

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

25

H(f)

-Bh 0 Bh f

Bandwidth

Bh

S(f) Y(f)

H(f) if Bh Bs

x 1 =

-Bs 0 Bs f -Bh 0 Bh f -Bs 0 Bs f

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

26

H(f)

1

0 f c 12 Bh fc f c 12 Bh f

Bandwidth

Bh

For a baseband input signal with bandwidth Bs:

If: 1) the center

frequency of S(f)

S(f) S(f) Y(f)

H(f) is shifted to fc

1 2) Bh 2Bs

x =

-Bs 0 Bs f fc-Bs fc fc+Bs f 0 f c 12 Bh fc f c 12 Bh f fc-Bs fc fc+Bs f

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

27

A baseband channel A bandpass channel efficiently

efficiently passes frequency passes frequency components

components from dc (zero) within a certain band, say,

to the cutoff frequency Bh Hz. between f c 12 Bh and f c 12 Bh Hz.

ideal low-pass LTI system and an ideal bandpass LTI system, respectively.

H(f) H(f)

1 1

-Bh 0 Bh f 0 f c 12 Bh fc f c 12 Bh f

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong) EE3008 Principles of Communications Lecture 2

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