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A2.

8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not


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QUESTIONSHEET 1
The table below compares the processes of mitosis and meiosis. If a feature is correct place a tick () in the
appropriate box and if the feature is incorrect place a cross () in the appropriate box.

FEATURE MITOSIS MEIOSIS


Involves two successive nuclear divisions
Does not occur in a haploid cell
Involves synapsis forming bivalents
Involves chiasmata formation
Leads to random assortment of chromatids
Leads to random assortment of chromosomes
Occurs during gamete formation in a mammal
Daughter nuclei have identical genetic content
DNA replicates before cell division commences
Involves two chromosomal replications

[10]

TOTAL / 10
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 2 margin

Briefly explain three ways in which meiosis gives rise to genetic variation.

1. random assortment of chromosomes in Anaphase I;


1: ........................................................................................................................................................................
produces new combinations of chromosomes and the genes/alleles they carry from each homologous pair;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
resulting nuclei thus have new combinations of the genes/alleles present; 3
...........................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[3]
2. random assortment of chromatids during Anaphase II;
2: ........................................................................................................................................................................
produces new combinations of alleles in the regrouped chromatids;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
resulting nuclei thus have new combinations of the alleles present; 3
...........................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[3]
3. chiasmata form between chromatids of different but homologous chromosomes;
3: ........................................................................................................................................................................
thus moving alleles from chromosome to chromosome into new combinations;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
thus modifying the linkage groups present;
...........................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[3]

TOTAL / 9
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 3

Diagrams A, B and C show three stages of mitosis in cells from the same flowering plant.

A B C

(a) Write down the letters in the correct sequence and name stages A, B and C.

B A C; A= anaphase, B = prophase, C = telophase; 2


...........................................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) How would the structure and arrangement of chromosomes seen in diagram A differ from those seen in the
corresponding stage of the first meiotic division?

Structure:
Structure:
chromosomes would be replicated into chromatids;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
chiasmata would be showing between chromatids of homologous chromosomes;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
[2]

Arrangement:
Arrangement:
chromosomes would be arranged into homologous pairs;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
with centromeres attached to the opposite spindles; 4
...........................................................................................................................................................................
[2]
(c) In this flowering plant how many chromosomes would be present in:

(i)(i) 2;a male nucleus of a pollen grain.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii) a nucleus of an apical meristem cell.


(ii) 4;

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[1]

(iii) a6;nucleus of the endosperm.


(iii)

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[1]

TOTAL / 9
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 4
Distinguish between each of the following pairs.

(a) Cytokinesis in animals and cytokinesis in plants.

(a) in animals consists of a furrowing/tucking in of the cell membrane;


...........................................................................................................................................................................
eventually separating two nuclei by constriction (of cytoplasm);
...........................................................................................................................................................................
in plants a cell plate/ middle lamella is synthesised between nuclei;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
calcium /magnesium pectate/cellulose secreted to form new cell wall; 4
...........................................................................................................................................................................
[4]

(b) Centromere and centriole.


(b) centromere in chromosome holds chromatids together;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
provides attachment to spindle during cell division;

centriole is made of microtubules (in animal cells);


...........................................................................................................................................................................

forms spindle during cell division; 4


...........................................................................................................................................................................
[4]

(c) Synapsis and chiasmata formation.


(c) synapsis is pairing of homologous chromosomes;

in zygotene/early prophase of meiosis;


...........................................................................................................................................................................

chiasmata formation occurs in diakinesis/late prophase of meiosis;


...........................................................................................................................................................................

is cross over of genetic material between chromatids of homologous chromosomes;


...........................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[4]

TOTAL / 12
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 5

Explain what is meant by each of the following statements.

(a) DNA replicates by semi-conservative replication.


DNA double helix unwinds to give single stranded (primer) DNA;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
upon which the complementary strand is assembled;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
from surrounding nucleotides;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
forming double stranded daughter DNA;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
thus each new DNA has one strand from parent DNA and one new strand; max 4
[4]

(b) Chiasmata disrupt linkage groups.


(b) genes consist of alleles at corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
all alleles on a particular chromosome/chromatid must be carried together during inheritance;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
chiasmata will swap some of these alleles with those on the sister chromosome;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
thus the allelic make up of the linkage groups is modified; 4

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[4]

(c) Meiosis compensates for fertilisation.


(c) meiosis reduces two sets of chromosomes to one set/diploid state to haploid state;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
fertilisation joins two haploid nuclei together restoring the diploid state;
...........................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[2]

TOTAL / 10
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 6
The diagrams below show two cells from the same animal in the process of cell division.

A
B

Cell 1 Cell 2
(a) Name the structures labelled A to E.

A: ........................................................................ B: ...............................................................................

C: ........................................................................ D: ...............................................................................

E: ........................................................................ [5]
A = chromatid; B = spindle fibre; C = centriole; D = centromere; E = chiasma;
(b) (i) What type of cell division is occurring in cell1?

mitosis;
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) What phase of cell division is occurring in cell 1?


(ii) metaphase;
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) What type of cell division is occurring in cell 2?


(iii) meiosis;
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iv) What phase of cell division is occurring in cell 2?


(iv) early anaphase I;
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) In which of the above cells is random assortment occurring and what is its significance?
cell 2;
Cell: ....................................................................................................................................................................
it is purely random which chromosomes of the homologous pairs go to a particular pole;
Significance: .......................................................................................................................................................
thus groups of alleles/linkage groups are mixed up in random fashion;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
giving continuous variation; 3
...........................................................................................................................................................................
[3]
(d) What is the significance of structure E?
(d) will mix up alleles between linkage groups into new combinations;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
giving (more) variation;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
[2]
TOTAL / 14
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 7

The diagram below shows a bivalent from the process of cell division.

B
D

} C

(a) (i) What is a bivalent?

two homologous chromosomes that have paired closely together; 1


...........................................................................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii) In what type of cell division do bivalents form and at what stage?
(ii) meiosis; early prophase I/zygotene; 2
Type: ..........................................................................................................................................................

Stage: .........................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(iii) What is the process of bivalent formation called?


(iii) synapsis; 1
...........................................................................................................................................................................
[1]

(b) Name structures A to D.


A = centromere; B = chromatid; C = chromosome; D = chiasma; 4
A: ................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

B: ................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

C: ................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

D: ................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) At what stage of cell division is the bivalent shown above? Give your reasons.
(early) anaphase;
Stage: .................................................................................................................................................................
centromeres have moved apart;
but chiasma is still intact/not yet completed;
Reasons:.............................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[3]

TOTAL / 11
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 8 margin

Variation between living organisms of a species may be shown in either discontinuous or continuous form. The
phenotypes or characteristics of organisms are a result of the interactions of genetic factors and environmental
factors.

(a) (i) Explain the meaning of the term discontinuous variation and give two examples to illustrate your answer.
where there are clear-cut alternatives of a given trait;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
with no intermediate forms;
tall and short peas/round and wrinkled peas/pigmentation and albinoism/any other valid examples
...........................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................

Examples: ...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[4]

(ii) Explain the meaning of the term continuous variation and give two examples to illustrate your answer.
(ii) where a given trait has many variations;
with only minor differences between them;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
height in humans/intelligence/yield in crop plants/any other valid examples;;(any two examples) 4
...........................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................

Examples: ...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[4]

(b) Explain the genetic origin of these two types of variation.


genes contain two or more different forms called alleles;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
at corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes;

thus any individual will have two alleles of the gene;


...........................................................................................................................................................................

if the gene only has two alleles the number of characters available for expression will only be two (thus giving
...........................................................................................................................................................................
discontinuous variation);
...........................................................................................................................................................................
if a gene has many alleles (polygene) then many variations of the character can occur;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
individual can inherit any two of the variety of alleles (thus continual variation occurs);
...........................................................................................................................................................................
[5]

TOTAL / 13
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 9

Variation within a species arises largely from the processes of meiosis and fertilisation. The amount of variation
arising from fertilisation is enhanced by outbreeding.

(a) How does variation arise from the process of meiosis?

random assortment of chromosomes (at anaphase I);


...........................................................................................................................................................................
random assortment of chromatids (at anaphase II);
...........................................................................................................................................................................
chiasmata formation (in late prophase I/diakinesis); 3
...........................................................................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) How does variation arise from the process of fertilisation?


(b) alleles mixed together from two individuals;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
these alleles may be different forms of the gene thus causing different effects; 2
...........................................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(c) How does outbreeding increase variation?


(c) most genes are polygenes/contain hundreds of different alleles;
...........................................................................................................................................................................
these have arisen by continued mutation (over millions of years);
...........................................................................................................................................................................
alleles from different parts of the gene pool/population are likely to have different effects (in the phenotype); max 2

...........................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(d) The drawings show five shells, A to E, that belong to a particular species of periwinkle. The shells are all
from adult, full grown animals.

A B C D E

(i)(d) State
(i) shell size/height/width;
a shell 1 continuous variation.
feature that shows

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) D;
(ii) Which shell shows discontinuous variation?

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
lines/ridges on the shell;
(iii) What is the discontinuous feature?

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

TOTAL / 10
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 10 margin
The diagram below shows the metaphase 1 stage of meiosis in a cell where the diploid number is six (2n = 6).

(a) In the space below, draw a diagram to show the appearance of the same cell in metaphase of mitosis.

6 chromosomes in a row on equator;


same morphology of chromosomes as in metaphase 1 of meiosis diagram;
quality and clarity of diagram;
(chromosomes can be in any order but must not be paired or show chiasmata)

[3]

(b) In the space below draw a diagram to show the appearance of the same cell in anaphase 1 of meiosis.
Label two structures which are visible only when a cell is undergoing meiosis and mitosis.

Any two of the labels (reject chiasmata) - 2 marks;;


chromosomes correctly segregating to poles (in correct order and shape);
spindle and completed chiasmata correctly shown;
quality and clarity of diagram; (clean, well drawn, joined up lines/
no shading /reasonable size)

[5]

TOTAL / 8
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 11 margin

(a) State two differences between the process of mitosis and the process of meiosis.

(a) mitosis maintains the same chromosome number (reject diploid state since mitosis can
l. .........................................................................................................................................................................
take place as haploid to haploid)
.......................................................................................................................................................................
whereas meiosis halves the chromosome number/reduces the diploid state to the haploid state; [1]

mitosis maintains the same genotype whereas meiosis introduces genetic variation; 2
2. ........................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) State three ways in which meiosis gives rise to genetic variation.
(b) random assortment of chromosomes at Anaphase 1;
1. .................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
random assortment of chromatids at Anaphase 2 ;
2. .................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
formation of chiasmata;
3. .................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Explain why if two organisms heterozygous for one pair of alleles are crossed, the probable ratio of offspring
phenotypes is 3:1.

...........................................................................................................................................................................

best answered by a genetic diagram, eg.


...........................................................................................................................................................................
P Aa Aa alleles A and a in each parent; (any letters acceptable)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
gametes A a A a equal proportions of each gamete;

F1 AA Aa Aa aa A is dominant so 3 dominants to 1 recessive;


...........................................................................................................................................................................
[3]

TOTAL / 8
A2.8 MEIOSIS AND VARIATION Do not
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QUESTIONSHEET 12 margin

The following table refers to the processes of mitosis and meiosis. If a feature is correct put a tick () in the
appropriate box and if the feature is incorrect put a cross () in the appropriate box.

Feature Mitosis Meiosis 1 Meiosis 2

Occurs during gametogenesis

DNA replicates before prophase

Bivalents form during prophase

Chiasmata are formed

Chromatids randomly assort during anaphase

TOTAL / 5