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D EUTSCHE NORM October 1997

Specification and approval of procedures for


welding metallic materials
Part 3: Welding procedure tests for the arc welding of steel
{
(includes Amendment A1 : 1997)
English version of DIN EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 EN 288-3
ICS 25.160.10 Supersedes April 1992
edition.
Descriptors: Welding, welding procedures approval, arc welding.

Anforderung und Anerkennung von Schweiverfahren fr


metallische Werkstoffe Teil 3: Schweiverfahrensprfungen fr
das Lichtbogenschweien von Sthlen (enthlt nderung A1 : 1997)

European Standard EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 has the status of a DIN Standard.

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

National foreword
This standard has been prepared by CEN/TC 121.
The responsible German body involved in the preparation of this standard was the Normenausschu
Schweitechnik (Welding Standards Committee).
Welding procedure approval tests are intended to verify that a fabricator is adequately qualified to perform
welding operations using a particular procedure (including weld preparation, preheating and any post-weld
heat treatment). It shall be the fabricators responsibility to establish whether this procedure suits the
particular application, and to document this.
The aim of this series of standards is to introduce uniform documented procedures throughout Europe to
facilitate quality management in welding. The standards thus provide a basis for mutual recognition of
welding procedure approval certificates by the bodies responsible for the various fields of application.

Amendments
In comparison with the April 1992 edition, the following amendments have been made:
a) The scope of the standard has been extended to cover welding processes 122 and 137 and more steel
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grades (cf. tables 2 to 5).


b) Details of sampling, test piece preparation and testing have been amended.

Previous edition
DIN EN 288-3: 1992-04.

EN comprises 26 pages.

No part of this standard may be reproduced without the prior permission of Ref. No. DIN EN 288-3 : 1997-10
DIN Deutsches Institut fr Normung e. V., Berlin. English price group 14 Sales No. 1114
Beuth Verlag GmbH, D-10772 Berlin, has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen).
05.98
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EN 288-3
February 1992
+ A1
June 1997

ICS 25.160.10 Supersedes EN 288-3 : 1992.


Descriptors: Welding, welding procedures approval, arc welding.

English version

Specification and approval of welding procedures for


metallic materials
Part 3: Welding procedure tests for the arc welding of steels
(includes Amendment A1 : 1997)

Descriptif et qualification dun mode Anforderung und Anerkennung von


opratoire de soudage pour les mat- Schweiverfahren fr metallische
riaux mtalliques Partie 3: Epreuve de Werkstoffe Teil 3: Schweiver-
qualification dun mode opratoire de fahrensprfungen fr das Lichtbogen-
soudage larc sur acier schweien von Sthlen
(amendement A1 : 1997 inclus) (enthlt nderung A1 : 1997)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1992-02-21 and Amendment


A1 on 1996-12-11.
CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations
which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a
national standard without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national stand-
ards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any
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CEN member.
The European Standards exist in three official versions (English, French, German).
A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a
CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the
same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, the Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
and the United Kingdom.


European Committee for Standardization
Comit Europen de Normalisation
Europisches Komitee fr Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels

1997. CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national members.
Page 2
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Contents
Page Page
Foreword to EN 288-3 : 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7.4 Destructive tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Foreword to EN 288-3 : 1992/A1 : 1997 . . . . . 2 7.5 Re-testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8 Range of approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2 Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8.2 Related to the manufacturer . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8.3 Related to the material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4 Preliminary welding procedure 8.4 Common to all welding procedures . . . . . 12
specification (pWPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8.5 Specific to processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5 Welding procedure test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9 Welding procedure approval
6 Test piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 record (WPAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
6.2 Shape and dimensions of test pieces . . . . 4 Annex A (informative) Welding Procedure
6.3 Welding of test pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Approval Record form (WPAR) . . . . . 16
7 Examination and testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Annex B (informative) Groups of steel
7.1 Extent of testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 according to the grouping system
7.2 Location and cutting of test specimens . . 6 given in table 3 prior to the publica-
7.3 Non-destructive examination . . . . . . . . . . 6 tion of European Standards . . . . . . . 19

Foreword to EN 288-3 : 1992


This standard has been prepared by Working Group 1 Specification and approval of welding procedures for
metallic materials of CEN/TC 121 Welding.
For this standard, document ISO/TC 44/SC 10 N 177 was considered and used as a basis. However, alterations
were necessary owing to the experience gained and updated knowledge.
In accordance with the Internal CEN/CENELEC Regulations, the following countries are bound to implement
this European Standard:
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Neth-
erlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

Foreword to EN 288-3 : 1992/A1 : 1997


This Amendment has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 121 Welding, the Secretariat of which
is held by DS.
This Amendment shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or
by endorsement and conflicting national standards withdrawn, by December 1997 at the latest.
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In accordance with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the follow-
ing countries are bound to implement this European Standard:
Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

0 Introduction
All new welding procedure approvals are to be in accordance with this standard from the date of its issue.
However, this standard does not invalidate previous welding procedure approvals made to former national
standards or specifications providing, the intent of the technical requirement is satisfied and the previous
procedure approvals are relevant to the application and production work on which they are to be employed.
Also, where additional tests have to be carried out to make the approval technically equivalent, it is only
necessary to do the additional tests on a test piece which should be made in accordance with this standard.
Consideration of previous procedure approvals to former national standards or specifications should be at the
time of the enquiry or contract stage and agreed between the contracting parties.
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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Dimensions in mm
1 Scope
This standard specifies how a welding procedure specification is approved by welding procedure tests.
It defines the conditions for the execution of welding procedure approval tests and the limits of validity of an
approved welding procedure for all practical welding operations within the range of variables listed in clause 8.
Tests shall be carried out in accordance with this standard unless more severe tests are specified by the relevant
application standard or contract when these shall apply.
This standard applies to the arc welding of steels. The principles of this standard may be applied to other fusion
welding processes subject to agreement between the contracting parties.
NOTE: Specific service, material or manufacturing conditions may require more comprehensive testing than is
specified by this standard in order to gain more information and to avoid repeating the welding procedure
test at a later date just to obtain additional test data.
Such tests may include:
longitudinal weld tensile test;
all weld metal bend test;
Charpy V-notch impact test;
yield strength or 0,2 % proof stress;
elongation;
chemical analysis;
micro examination;
delta ferrite determination in austenitic stainless steels.
Arc welding is covered by the following processes in accordance with EN 24063:
111 metal-arc welding with covered electrode;
114 flux-cored metal-arc welding without gas shield;
121 submerged arc welding with wire electrode;
122 submerged arc welding with strip electrode;
131 metal-arc inert gas (MIG) welding;
135 metal-arc active gas (MAG ) welding;
136 flux-cored wire metal-arc welding with active gas shield;
137 flux-cored wire metal-arc metal with inert gas shield;
141 tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding;
15 plasma arc welding.

2 Normative references
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This European Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications.
These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed
hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to
this European standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references, the
latest edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN 287-1 Approval testing of welders Fusion welding Part 1: Steels
EN 288-1 Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials Part 1: General rules
for fusion welding
EN 288-2 Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials Part 2: Welding pro-
cedure specification for arc welding
EN 571-1 Non-destructive testing Penetrant testing Part 1: General principles
EN 875 Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials Impact tests Test specimen location, notch
orientation and examination
EN 895 Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials Transverse tensile test
prEN 910 Destructive test on welds in metallic materials Bend test
EN 970 Non-destructive examination of fusion welds Visual examination
prEN 1043-1 Destructive test on welds in metallic materials Hardness testing Part 1: Hardness test on arc
welded joints
prEN 1290 Non-destructive examination of welds Magnetic particle testing of welds
EN 1321 Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials Macroscopic and microscopic examination of
welds
EN 1435 Non-destructive examination of welds Radiographic examination of welded joints
EN 1714 Non-destructive examination of welds Ultrasonic examination of welded joints
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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

EN ISO 6947 Welds Working positions Definitions of angles of slope and rotation (ISO 6947 : 1990)
EN 24063 Welding brazing, soldering and braze welding of metals Nomenclature of processes and
reference numbers for symbolic representation on drawings (ISO 4063 : 1990)
EN 25817 Arc-welded joints in steel Fusion welding Guidance on quality levels for imperfections
(ISO 5817 : 1992)
CEN/CR 12187 Welding Guidelines for a grouping system of materials for welding purpose

3 Definitions
For the purposes of this standard, the definitions listed in Part 1 of this standard apply.

4 Preliminary welding procedure specification (pWPS)


The preliminary welding procedure specification shall be prepared in accordance with EN 288-2. It shall specify
the tolerance for all the relevant parameters.

5 Welding procedure test


The making and testing of test pieces representing the type of welding used in production shall be in accordance
with clauses 6 and 7 of this standard.
The welder who undertakes the welding procedure test satisfactorily in accordance with this standard is
approved for the appropriate range of approval given in the relevant part of EN 287.

6 Test piece
6.1 General
The welded assembly to which the welding procedure will relate in production shall be represented by making
a standardized test piece or pieces, as specified in 6.2.

6.2 Shape and dimensions of test pieces


The test pieces shall be of a sufficient size to ensure a reasonable heat distribution.
In figures 1 to 5, t is the thickness of the thicker component part from t1 and t2.
If t is greater than 100 mm, test piece dimensions a and b may be reduced by agreement.
Additional test pieces, or longer test pieces than the minimum size, may be prepared in order to allow for extra
and/or for re-testing specimens (see 7.5).
If required by the application standard, the direction of plate rolling shall be marked on the test piece when
impact tests are required to be taken in the heat-affected zone.
The thickness and/or pipe outside diameter of the test pieces shall be selected in accordance with 8.3.2.1 to
8.3.2.4.
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Edge preparation and fit-up


as detailed in the pWPS

Edge preparation and fit-up


as detailed in the pWPS

a = 3 t; 150 mm minimum a = 150 mm minimum


b = 6 t; 350 mm minimum D = outside diameter

Figure 1: Test piece for a butt weld in plate Figure 2: Test piece for a butt weld in pipe
Page 5
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Table 1: Examination and testing of the test pieces

Test piece Type of test Extent of testing Cf. footnote


Butt weld Visual 100 %
(figures 1 and 2) Radiographic or ultrasonic 100 % 4
Surface crack detection 100 % 1
Transverse tensile test 2 specimens
Transverse bend test 2 root and 2 face specimens 2
Impact test 2 sets 6
Hardness test Required 3
Macroscopic examination 1 specimen
T-butt joint5) Visual 100 %
(figure 3) Surface crack detection 100 % 1
Branch connection5) Ultrasonic or radiographic 100 % 4 and 7
(figure 4) Hardness test Required 3
Macroscopic examination 2 specimens
Fillet weld in plate5) Visual 100 %
figure 5 Surface crack detection 100 % 1
Fillet weld in pipe 5) Macroscopic examination 2 specimens
figure 4 Hardness test Required 3
1
) Penetrant testing (for non-magnetic materials) or magnetic particle testing.
2
) Two root and two face bend specimens may preferably be replaced by four side bend specimens for
t 12 mm.
3
) Not required for parent metals :
ferritic steels with Rm 430 N/mm2 and R eH 275 N/mm2;
group 9 steels.
R e is defined in the relevant product standard.
4
) Ultrasonic testing is only applicable for ferritic steel and for t 8 mm.
5) Testing as detailed does not provide information on the mechanical properties of the joint. Where these

properties are relevant to the application, an additional approval shall also be held (e.g. a butt weld
approval).
6
) One set in the weld metal and one set in the heat-affected zone. Required only for t 12 mm and only for
parent metals having specified impact properties or when required by the application standard. If a test
temperature has not been specified, testing shall be performed at room temperature. See also 7.4.4.
7
) For outside diameters not exceeding 50 mm, no ultrasonic test is required.
For outside diameter greater than 50 mm and where it is not possible to carry out ultrasonic examination,
a radiographic examination shall be carried out provided that the joint configuration will yield meaningful
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results.

Unless otherwise agreed, the shape and minimum test piece dimensions shall be as follows.

6.2.1 Butt weld in plate


The test piece shall be in accordance with figure 1. Its length shall be such as to provide for the appropriate
specimens as given in table 1.

6.2.2 Butt weld in pipe


The test piece shall be comply with figure 2. When small pipe diameters are used, several test pieces may be
necessary.
NOTE: The term pipe, alone or in combination, is used to mean pipe, tube or hollow section.

6.2.3 Full penetration T-butt joint


A T-butt joint is considered as a fully penetrated joint.

6.2.4 Branch connection


The test piece shall comply with figure 4. The angle a is the minimum to be used in production.
A branch connection is considered a fully penetrated joint (set-on, set-in or set-through joint).

6.2.5 Fillet weld in plate or pipe


The test piece shall comply with figure 4 or 5.
Figures 4 and 5 may also be used for partial penetration joints (with or without edge preparation).
Page 6
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

6.3 Welding of test pieces


Preparation and welding of test pieces shall be carried out in accordance with the pWPS, and under the general
conditions of welding in production which they shall be representative of. Welding positions and limitations for
the angle of slope and rotation of the test piece shall be in accordance with EN ISO 6947.
If tack welds are to be fused into the final joint they shall be included in the test piece.
Welding and testing of the test pieces shall be witnessed by an examiner or examining body.

7 Examination and testing


7.1 Extent of testing
The testing includes both non-destructive examination (NDE) and destructive testing which shall be in accord-
ance with the requirements of table 1.

7.2 Location and cutting of test specimens


The location of the test specimens shall be in accordance with figures 6, 7, 8 and 9.
Test specimens shall be taken after NDE has shown satisfactory results. It is permitted to take the test speci-
mens from locations avoiding areas showing acceptable imperfections.

7.3 Non-destructive examination


7.3.1 Method
After any required post-weld heat treatment and prior to the cutting of test specimens, all test pieces shall be
examined visually and non-destructively in accordance with 7.1.
For test pieces that have not been post-weld heat treated, account should be taken of the materials that are
susceptible to hydrogen induced cracking and consequently, the NDE should be delayed.
Depending upon joint geometry, materials and the requirements for work, the NDE shall be carried out in
accordance with EN 970 (visual examination), EN 1435 (radiographic examination), EN 1714 (ultrasonic exami-
nation), EN 571-1 (penetrant testing) or EN 1290 (magnetic testing).

7.3.2 Acceptance levels


A welding procedure is approved if the imperfections in the test piece are within the limits specified for level B
in EN 25817 except for imperfection of the following types: excess weld metal, excess convexity, excess throat
thickness and excessive penetration, for which level C shall apply.
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Edge preparation and


fit-up as detailed in
the pWPS

Edge preparation and fit-up a = 150 mm minimum


as detailed in the pWPS D1 = outside diameter of pipe run
t1 = wall thickness of pipe run
a = 3 t; 150 mm minimum
D2 = outside diameter of branch
b = 6 t; 350 mm minimum
t2 = wall thickness of branch
Figure 3: Test piece for T-butt joint Figure 4: Test piece for a branch connection or
a fillet weld on a pipe
Page 7
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Discard 25 mm

Weld one side or


both sides and
Area 1 for:
fit-up as detailed
in the pWPS 1 tensile specimen;
bend specimens.

Welding direction
Area 2 for:
impact specimen
and any additional
specimens re-
quired.
Area 3 for:
1 tensile specimen;
bend specimens

Area 4 for:
1 macro specimen;
1 hardness speci-
men.

a = 3 t; 150 mm minimum Discard 25 mm


b = 6 t; 350 mm minimum
t1 and t2 = thicknesses of plates

Figure 5: Test piece for a fillet weld Figure 6: Location of test specimens for a butt
on plate weld in plate (not to scale)
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Top for fixed pipe

Area 1 for:
1 tensile specimen;
bend specimens.

Area 2 for:
impact specimen and any additional
test specimens required

Area 3 for:
1 tensile specimen;
bend specimens.

Area 4 for:
1 macro specimen;
1 hardness specimen.

Figure 7: Location of test specimens for a butt weld in pipe (not to scale)
Page 8
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Discard 25 mm

Macroscopic
examination

Discard 25 mm

ng
di on
el cti
W ire
d

Macroscopic examination and hardness test to


be taken in position A
Macroscopic examination only in position B
Macroscopic examination
and hardness test
Figure 8: Location of specimens in a T-butt Figure 9: Location of specimens for a branch
joint or a fillet weld in plate connection or a fillet weld in pipe
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Parent metal Weld Parent metal

heat-affected heat-affected
zone narrow zone wide
Figure 10: Typical example of hardness testing
Page 9
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

7.4 Destructive tests


7.4.1 Transverse tensile testing
Specimens and procedure for transverse tensile testing of butt joints shall be in accordance with EN 895.
For pipes greater than 50 mm outside diameter, the excess weld metal shall be removed on both faces to give
the specimen a thickness equal to the wall thickness of the pipe.
For pipes up to 50 mm outside diameter, and when full section small diameter pipes are used, the excess weld
metal may be left undressed on the inside surface of the pipe.
The tensile strength of the specimen shall normally not be less than the corresponding specified minimum value
for the parent metal.
When the value to be obtained is less than the minimum value specified for the parent metal, it shall be specified
prior to testing and included in the pWPS.

7.4.2 Bend testing


Specimens and testing for bend testing for butt joints shall be in accordance with EN 910.
For dissimilar metal joints or heterogeneous butt joints in plate, one root and one face longitudinal bend test
may be performed instead of four transverse bend tests.
The diameter of the former or the inner roller shall be equal to 4 t and the bend angle shall be a minimum of 120
unless the low ductility of the parent metal or filler metal impose other limitations.
During testing, the specimens shall not reveal any one single flaw greater than 3 mm in any direction. Flaws
appearing at the corners of a specimen during testing shall be ignored in the evaluation.

7.4.3 Macroscopic examination


The specimen shall be prepared and etched in accordance with EN 1321 on one side to clearly reveal the fusion
line, the heat-affected zone and the build up of the runs.
The macroscopic examination shall include unaffected parent metal.
The acceptance levels stated in 7.3.2 shall apply.

7.4.4 Impact testing


Specimens and procedure for impact testing of butt joints shall be in accordance with this standard as regards
position of specimens and temperature of testing, and with EN 875 as regards dimensions and testing.
For the weld metal, specimen type VWT (V: Charpy V-notch; W: notch in weld metal; T: notch through the
thickness) and for the heat-affected zone, specimen type VHT (V: Charpy V-notch; H: notch in heat-affected
zone; T: notch through the thickness) shall be used. From each specified position, each set shall comprise three
specimens.
Specimens with Charpy V-notch shall be used and sampled a maximum of 2 mm below the surface of the parent
metal and transverse to the weld.
The V-notch shall be cut perpendicular to the surface of the weld.
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In the heat-affected zone, the notch shall be at 1 mm to 2 mm from the fusion line and in the weld metal, the
notch shall be at the weld centreline.

Table 2: Permitted maximum hardness values HV 10

Single run butt and fillet welds Multi-run butt and fillet welds
Steel groups
Not heat-treated Heat treated Not heat-treated Heat treated

1
) If hardness tests are required.
2
) For steels with min R e > 885 N/mm2, special agreements are required.
3) Special agreements are required.
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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

For thicknesses greater than 50 mm, two additional sets of specimens shall be taken, one from the weld metal
and one from the heat-affected zone just below the mid thickness or in the root area of the weld.
Test temperature and absorbed energy shall be in accordance with the specified design requirements for the
complete product in question, provided the requirements laid down in the application standard are met.
For dissimilar metal joints, impact tests shall be carried out on specimens from each heat-affected zone in each
parent metal.

7.4.5 Hardness testing


The method of hardness testing shall be in accordance with EN 1043-1. The HV 10 Vickers method shall be
used. The indentation shall be made in the weld, the heat-affected zones and the parent metal with the object
of measuring and recording the range of values in the weld joint. For material less than 5 mm thick, one row of
indentations shall be made at a depth not exceeding 2 mm below the surface. For material over 5 mm thick two
rows of indentations shall be made at a depth not exceeding 2 mm maximum below each surface. For double
sided welds, for fillet and for T-butt welds, one additional row of indentations shall be made through the root
area. Typical examples are shown in figures 1 a), b), e) and f) of EN 1043-1.
For each row of indentations, there shall be a minimum of three individual indentations in each part of the weld,
the heat-affected zone (both sides) and the parent metal (both sides). A typical example is shown in figure 10.
For the heat-affected zone, the first indentation shall be placed as close to the fusion line as possible.
The results of hardness testing shall meet the requirements given in table 2.

7.5 Re-testing
If the test piece fails to comply with any of the requirements for visual examinations or NDE specified in 7.3.2,
one further test piece shall be welded and subjected to the same examination. If this additional test piece does
not comply with the relevant requirements, the pWPS shall be regarded as not capable of complying with the
requirements of this standard without modification.
If any test specimen fails to comply with the relevant requirements specified in 7.4 only due to weld imperfec-
tions, two further specimens shall be obtained for each one that failed. These may be taken from the same test
piece if there is sufficient material available or from a new test piece, and shall be subjected to the same test.
If either of these additional test specimens does not comply with the relevant requirements, the pWPS shall be
regarded as not capable of complying with the requirements of this standard without modification.

8 Range of approval
8.1 General
All the conditions of validity stated below shall be met independently of each other.
Changes outside of the ranges specified shall require a new welding procedure test.
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8.2 Related to the manufacturer


An approval of a WPS obtained by a manufacturer is valid for welding in workshops or sites under the same
technical and quality control of that manufacturer.

8.3 Related to the material


8.3.1 Parent metal
8.3.1.1 Grouping system
In order to minimize the number of welding procedure tests, steels shall be grouped as shown in table 3.
A procedure test carried out with one of the steels of a group covers the low-alloy steels of the same group for
the intentionally added elements, but not for any existing impurities, or the steels with the same or a lower
specified yield strength of this group, as long as the welding consumables used for the test can also be used
for the other steels of this group. Group 2 includes group 1. Permanent backing material shall be considered
as a parent metal.
A separate welding procedure approval shall be obtained for each steel or steel combinations not covered by
the grouping system.
If one steel could belong to two groups then it would be classified always in the lower group.

8.3.1.2 Dissimilar metal joints


For dissimilar metal joints, the range of approval is given in table 4.
Any dissimilar metal joint not covered by table 4, shall require a specific test with no range of approval.
Page 11
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Table 3: Grouping system for steel

Group Type of steel1)


1 Steel with a minimum yield strength, R eH, up to 360 N/mm 2 and with contents, as percentages,
not exceeding the following values:
C 0,24 (0,25 for castings)
Si 0,60
Mn 1,70
Mo 0,70
S 0,045
P 0,045
Any other single element: 0,3 (0,4 for castings)
All other elements: total 0,8 (1,0 for castings)
2 Normalized or thermomechanically treated fine grain steels and cast steels with a specified
minimum yield strength, R eH, above 360 N/mm2
3 Quenched and tempered steels and precipitation hardened steels except stainless steels
4 Steels with Cr max. 0,75 %, Mo max. 0,6 % and V max. 0,3 %
5 Steels with Cr max. 10 % and Mo max. 1,2 %
6 Cr Mo V steels with Cr max. 12,2 %, Mo max. 1,2 % and V max. 0,5 %
7 Nickel alloy steels with Ni max. 10 %
8 Ferritic or martensitic stainless steels with 10,5 % Cr 30 %
9 Austenitic steels
10 Austenitic ferritic stainless steels (duplex)
11 Steels not covered by groups 1 to 10 and with 0,25 % < C 0,5 %
1
) In accordance with the definition in the material standard, R eH can be used instead of R p0,2.

8.3.2 Parent metal thickness and pipe diameter


8.3.2.1 General
Nominal thickness t shall have the following meanings:
a) For a butt joint:
the parent metal thickness, which for joints between dissimilar thicknesses is that of the thinner material.
b) For a fillet weld:
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the parent metal thickness approved for joints between different thicknesses is that of the thicker material.
For each thickness range approved as in table 5, there is also an associated range of approved fillet weld
throat thicknesses as given in 8.3.2.3.
c) For a set-on branch connection:
the thickness of the branch pipe.
d) For a set-in or set-through branch connection:
the thickness of the main pipe.
e) For a T-butt joint in plate:
the thickness of the prepared plate.

8.3.2.2 Range of approval for butt welds and T-butt joints


The approval of a welding procedure test on thickness t shall include approval for thicknesses in the following
ranges given in table 5.

8.3.2.3 Range of approval for fillet welds


In addition to the requirements specified in table 5, the range of approval of the throat thickness, a, shall be
0,75 a to 1,5 a. However, a test with a throat thickness of 10 mm or more, shall give approval for all throat
thicknesses not less than 10 mm.
Where a fillet weld is approved by means of a butt weld test, the throat thickness range approved shall be based
on the thickness of the deposited weld metal of butt joint.

8.3.2.4 Range of approval for the diameter of pipes and branch connections
The approval of a welding procedure test for diameter D shall include approval for diameters in the ranges given
in table 6.
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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

8.3.3 Angle of branch connection


A procedure test carried out on a branch connection with angle a shall include approval of connections with
a 1 from a to 90.
Table 4: Range of approval for dissimilar metal joints

Existing approved welding procedure test for


Range of approval
group of steel or dissimilar metal joints
2 2 welded to 1
3 3 welded to 1
3 welded to 2
8 welded to 2 8 welded to 1
8 welded to 2
8 welded to 3 8 welded to 1
8 welded to 2
8 welded to 3
9 welded to 2 9 welded to 1
9 welded to 2
9 welded to 3 9 welded to 1
9 welded to 2
9 welded to 3
NOTE: For dissimilar metal joints, the yield or alloying element criteria given in 8.3.1.1 shall be applied to
each material group.

Table 5: Range of approval for thickness Dimensions in mm

Range of approval2)
Thickness of the Butt, T-butt and branch connections Butt, T-butt and branch connections
test piece, t1) for single run or single run for welding and all fillet welds
from both sides
t3 0,8 t to 1,1 t 0t to 2 t
3 < t 12 0,8 t to 1,1 t 3 t to 2 t
12 < t 100 0,8 t to 1,1 t 0,5 t to 2 t (max. 150)
t > 100 0,8 t to 1,1 t 0,5 t to 1,5 t
1
) For multi-run procedures, the recorded thickness contribution of each process may be used as a basis for
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the range of approval for the individual welding process.


2
) For grades where impact testing is required, when the test is carried out on a test piece of thickness less
than 12 mm, approval is for less than 12 mm without impact testing.

Table 6: Range of approval for pipe and branch connection

Diameter of test piece, D 1)2),


Range of approval
in mm
D 168,3 0,5 D to 2 D
D > 168,3 0,5 D and plate3)
1
) D is the outside diameter of the pipe or outside diameter of the branch
pipe.
2
) Approval given for plates also covers pipes when the outside diameter is
greater than 500 mm.
3
) See also 8.4.2.

8.4 Common to all welding procedures


8.4.1 Welding process
The approval is valid only for the welding process used in the welding procedure test. It is not permitted to
change a deposit into a single run (or single run on each side) or vice versa for a given process. In a multi-run
procedure test, the approval is only valid for the order used during the approval test.
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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

NOTE: For multi-run procedures, each welding process may be approved separately or in combination with
other processes. Similarly one or more processes may be deleted from an approved WPS, provided the joint
thickness is within the approved thickness range of the relevant welding process(es) to be applied.

8.4.2 Welding positions


When neither impact nor hardness requirements are specified, approval of welding in any one position (pipe or
plate) covers approval of welding in all positions (pipe or plate).
When either impact or hardness requirements are specified, welds made in the highest heat input position shall
be subjected to impact testing and welds made in the lowest heat input position shall be subjected to hardness
testing in order to approve for all positions.
To satisfy both hardness and impact requirements, two test pieces in different welding positions shall be used
unless a single position approval is required. Where approval is required for all positions, both test pieces shall
be subjected to full visual examination and non-destructive testing given in table 1.
NOTE: Other destructive tests may be carried out on either test piece. One of the test pieces may be of reduced
length.

8.4.3 Type of joint


The range of approval for the types of welded joints used in the procedure test is given in table 7. In this table,
the range of approval is indicated in the same horizontal line.

8.4.4 Filler metal designation


Where the filler metal designation is based on tensile or yield strength, the approval of one filler metal shall mean
approval of the other filler metals within the same specified group except where impact properties are required
to be verified.
Where the filler metal designation is based on chemical composition, the approval of one filler metal shall
approve within the group with the same chemical.
A change in composition or type of coating or flux (e.g. basic/rutile/cellulosic) requires reapproval of the welding
procedure.

8.4.5 Filler metal make


Where impact testing is required, the approval given is only applicable to the specific make used in the welding
procedure test. It is permissible to change the specific make of filler metal to another with the same compulsory
part of the classification when an additional test piece is welded.
This test piece shall be welded using the same welding parameters as in the original welding procedure test,
and only weld metal impact specimens shall be tested.
NOTE: This provision does not apply to solid wire and rods with the same classification and nominal chemical
composition.
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8.4.6 Type of current


The approval given relates to the type of current (AC, DC, pulsed current) and polarity used in the welding
procedure test.

8.4.7 Heat input


The following requirements apply only if the control of heat input is specified.
When impact requirements apply, the upper limit of heat input approved is 25 % greater than that used in
welding the test piece.
When hardness requirements apply, the lower limit of heat input approved is 25 % lower than that used in
welding the test piece.

8.4.8 Preheat temperature


The lower limit of approval is the preheat temperature applied at the start of the welding procedure test.

8.4.9 Interpass temperature


The upper limit of approval is the nominal interpass temperature reached in the welding procedure test.

8.4.10 Post-weld heat treatment


Addition or deletion of post-weld heat treatment is not permitted.
The temperature range approved is the holding temperature used in the welding procedure test 20 C unless
otherwise specified. Where required, heating rates, cooling rates and holding time shall be related to the
production assembly.
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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

8.5 Specific to processes


8.5.1 Processes 111 and 114
Approval relates to the diameter of electrode used in the welding procedure test plus or minus one electrode
diameter size for each run, with the exception of the root run on single-sided butt welds without backing for
which no size change is permissible.

8.5.2 Process 121


8.5.2.1 Approval is restricted to the wire system used in the welding procedure test (e.g. single-wire or
multiple-wire system).

8.5.2.2 Approval for the flux is restricted to the make and classification used for the procedure welding test.

8.5.3 Processes 131, 135 and 136


8.5.3.1 Approval for the face and/or back shielding gas is restricted to the type of gas (nominal composition)
used in the welding procedure test.

8.5.3.2 Approval is restricted to the wire system used in the welding procedure test (e.g. single-wire or
multiple-wire system).

8.5.4 Process 141


Approval for the face and/or back shielding gas is restricted to the type of gas (nominal composition) used in
the welding procedure test.
A test made without back shielding gas covers welding with back shielding gas.

8.5.5 Process 15
8.5.5.1 Approval is restricted to the type of plasma gas used in the welding procedure test.

8.5.5.2 The approval given to the face and/or back shielding gas is restricted to the type of gas (nominal
composition) used in the welding procedure test.

9 Welding procedure approval record (WPAR)


The welding procedure approval record (WPAR) is a statement of the results of assessing each test piece
including re-tests. The relevant items listed for the WPS in Part 2 of this standard shall be included, together
with details of any features that would be rejectable based on the requirements specified in clause 7. If no
rejectable features or unacceptable test results are found, a WPAR detailing the welding procedure test results
is to be approved and shall be signed and dated by the examiner or examining body.
A WPAR form shall be used to take a record of the welding procedure and the test results in order to facilitate
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the uniform presentation and assessment of data.


An example of a WPAR form is shown in annex A.
Table 7: Range of approval for type of joint

Range of approval
Butt welds in plate T-butt welds in plate Fillet Butt welds in pipe Fillet
Welded from Welded from Welded Welded welds in Welded from welds in
one side both sides from one from both plate one side pipe
Type of joint in approval test piece
side sides

With No With No With No


backing backing gouging gouging backing backing

Butt weld Welded With backing


in plate from one
side
No backing
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Welded With gouging


from both
sides No gouging

Butt weld Welded With backing


in pipe from one
side
No backing

T-butt Welded
weld in from one
plate side

Welded
from both

EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997


sides

Fillet weld Plate

Pipe

Key :
indicates weld for which the WPS is approved in the approval test.

Page 15
indicates welds for which the WPS is also approved.
indicates welds for which the WPS is not approved.
Page 16
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Annex A (informative)
Welding Procedure Approval Record form (WPAR)
Welding procedure approval Test certificate
Manufacturers Welding Procedure: ______________ Examiner or examining body : _____________
Reference No.: _________________________________ Reference No.: ___________________________
Manufacturer: _______________________________________________________________________________________
Address: ____________________________________________________________________________________________
Code/Testing standard: ______________________________________________________________________________
Date of welding: _____________________________________________________________________________________
Scope of approval: __________________________________________________________________________________
Welding process: ____________________________________________________________________________________
Joint type: __________________________________________________________________________________________
Parent metal(s): ______________________________________________________________________________________
Metal thickness (mm): ________________________________________________________________________________
Outside diameter (mm): ______________________________________________________________________________
Filler metal type: _____________________________________________________________________________________
Shielding gas/flux: ___________________________________________________________________________________
Type of welding current: _____________________________________________________________________________
Welding positions: ___________________________________________________________________________________
Preheating: __________________________________________________________________________________________
Post-weld heat treatment and/or ageing: ______________________________________________________________
Other information: ___________________________________________________________________________________

Certified that test welds prepared, welded and tested satisfactorily in accordance with the requirements of the
code/testing standard indicated above.

Name, date and signature: ___________________________________________________________________________


Examiner or examining body: _________________________________________________________________________

Date of issue: _______________________________________________________________________________________


Location: ____________________________________________________________________________________________
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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Details of weld test


Location: _______________________________________ Examiner or examining body: ___________________
Manufacturers welding procedure: ______________ Method of preparation and cleaning: ____________
Reference No.: _________________________________ Parent material specification: ___________________
WPAR No.: _____________________________________
Manufacturer: __________________________________
Welders name: _________________________________
Welding process: _______________________________
Joint type: _____________________________________ Material thickness (mm): _______________________
Weld preparation details ________________________ Outside diameter (mm): ________________________
(sketch)*): ______________________________________ Welding position: ______________________________

Joint design Welding sequence

Welding details

Size of Current Voltage Type of Wire feed Run-out length/


Run Process Heat input*)
filler metal A V current/Polarity speed Travel speed*)

Filler metal classification and trade name: ________ Other information*), e.g.:
Any special baking or drying: ____________________ Weaving (maximum width of run): ____________
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Gas/flux: _______________________________________ Oscillation: amplitude, frequency,


Shielding: ____________________________________ dwell time: _________________________________
Backing: _____________________________________
Gas flow rate: __________________________________ Pulse welding details: _______________________
Shielding: ____________________________________ Contact tube-to-workpiece distance: _________
Backing: _____________________________________ Plasma welding details: _____________________
Tungsten electrode type/size: ___________________ Torch angle: ________________________________
Details of back gouging/backing: ________________
Preheat temperature: ___________________________
Interpass temperature: __________________________
Post-weld heat treatment and/or ageing: _________
Time, temperature, method: _____________________
Heating and cooling rates*): _____________________

Manufacturer ___________________________________ Examiner or examining body

(name, date and signature) ______________________ (name, date and signature)

*) If required.
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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Test results
Manufacturers welding procedure: ______________ Examiner or examining body: ___________________
Reference No.: _________________________________ Reference No.: ________________________________
Visual examination: _____________________________ Radiography*): _________________________________
Penetrant/magnetic particle inspection*): _________ Ultrasonic examination*): _______________________
_______________________________________________ Temperature: __________________________________
Tensile tests

Re Rm A Z Fracture
Type/No. Remarks
N/mm 2 N/mm 2 % % location

Bend Tests
Type/No. Bend angle Elongation*) Result
Former diameter:
Macroscopic examination:
Microscopic examination*):

Impact test*) Type: ________ Size: _______ Requirement: ________________


Notch location/ Temp. Values
Mean Remarks
direction C 1 2 3
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Hardness tests*) _____________________________________________________ Location of measurements (sketch)*)


Type/load: __________________________________
Parent metal: ________________________________
Heat-affected zone: __________________________
Weld metal: _________________________________
Other tests: ____________________________________
Remarks: ______________________________________
Tests carried out in accordance with the requirements of: ______________________________________________
Laboratory report reference No.: ______________
Test results were acceptable/not acceptable
(delete as appropriate)
Test carried out in the presence of: Examiner or examining body: _______________________________
Name, date and signature: _________________________________

*) If required.
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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Annex B (informative)
Groups of steel according to the grouping system given in table 3 prior to the publication of
European Standards
Many of the steel groups listed in this annex refer to former national standards and are provided for information
only.
CEN/CR 12187 gives a list of current steels.

Table B.1: German grouping system of steel grades according to DIN Standards

Group Steel grades


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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Table B.2: French grouping system of steel types according to NF Standards

Group NF Steel grade NF Steel grade


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(continued)
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Group
NF
Steel grade
Table B.2 (concluded)

NF
Steel grade
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EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997
Page 22
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Table B.3: Finnish grouping system of steel types according to SFS Standards

Group Steel grades Group Steel grades

, grade , grade
, grade
, grade
, grade , grade
, grade , grade
, grade
, grade
, grade
, grade
, grade
, grade
, grade

Table B.4: British grouping system of steel types according to BSI Standards

Group Steel grades

Grades

Grades up to H 3 condition

Grades

Grades
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Grades

Grades

Grades

Grades

Grades

Grades

Grades

Grades

(continued)
Page 23
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Table B.4 (concluded)

Group Steel grades

Grades

Grades

Table B.5: Swedish grouping system of steel types according to SIS Standards

Group SS steel SS steel Group SS steel SS steel SS steel SS steel


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Page 24
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Table B.6: Italian grouping system of steel types according to UNI Standards

Group UNI Steel grade UNI Steel grade

Pipes:

(forgings)

(cast)
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(cast)

(forgings)

(pipes)

(pipes)

(forgings)

(continued)
Page 25
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Table B.6 (concluded)

Group UNI Steel grade UNI Steel grade

(pipes)

(cast)

(forgings)

(forgings)
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Page 26
EN 288-3 : 1992 + A1 : 1997

Table B.7: Austrian grouping system of steel types according


to ON Standards

Group Steel grades


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